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0-* r\ 



If^^. ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 



C^ 




I 



BULLETIN 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 



1920. 





/ 



» ■* 



LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 



To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from 
H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE afc the t'ollowing addresses:' 

Imperiax House, Ktngsway, Loxdom, W.C. 2, and 28, Abixodon Stukst, 

London, S.W, 1; 37, Petek Street, MAXCPiEsxEa : 
1, St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff; 23, Forth Street, E 
or from E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116, Grafton Stre 



1920. 

Price 10s. Net 




',' 



THE SEPAEATE NUMBERS OF THIS VOLUME WERE 



PUBLISHED ON THE FOLLOWING DATES ^ 



No. 1 



• * 



No. 2 



No. 3 



No. 4 



No. 5 



« A 4 



No. 6 



No. 7 



• ■ 



xVo. 8 



* < 



■ • 



t * 



• > 



March 9. 



* # « 



April 10. 



4. 4 



... May 13. 



June 11. 



July 17. 



p B » 



August 17. 



* t 



September 14 



. .. October 13. 



No. 9 



November 18 




No. 10 



» « 



• ^ 



* * 



December 20. 



T 



CONTENTS. 



V 

^ 



No 



1 



J 

i 99 



?5 



tM 



2 

99 



3 



55 



9f 



4 



99 



99 

?5 



5 



99 
5? 



6 



7 

J* 






Article 



I. 

II. 

III. 



IV. 
V. 



YI. 



711. 
VIII. 

IX. 
X. 



XI. 



XII. 



XIII. 
XIV. 

^xv. 

XAa. 



XVII. 
XVllI 







XXIII. 
XXIV. 




XXVI. 
XXVII. 

XXVIII 





XXXIV. 
XXXV. 

XXXVI. 
XXXVII. 



Subject. 



Page 



The Indian Species of Mimosa (with figs.) ... 

Moniordica cochinohinensis 

Clematopsis, a Primitive Genus of Clema- 

tideae (with fif?s.) 
Diagnoses Africanae : LXXIII. 

The Eev, H. F. Tozer and Plants collected by 

him in the Nearer East 

Miscellaneous Notes 



1 

6 

12 



» ■ * 



fl 4 « 



23 

29 

31 



The Flora of Madras : III 

Botanical Exploration in Chile and Ar^jentina 

Decades Kewenses : XOV. ... 

Miscellaneous Notes 






Tropical Agricultural College in the West 

Indies 
ThelluuMia, a IS'ew Genus of Gramineae 

(with ficjs.) 
Quercus Aegilops 
The Genus Rosmarinus (with figs.) ... 

Decades Keweiises : XCYI, ... 

Miscellaneous Note 



« « i 



4 » « 



V t 



• * • 



« * 4 



# ^ t 



On the Selection of Hevea brasiliensis 
Garden Notes on New or Rare Trees 

Shrubs 
Setaria or Chaetochloa ? 
New Orchids : XLVII. ... 

Decades Keweuses: XOVII. ... 
Miscellaneous Notes 



« * 4 



and 



t « « 



« * 



* t t 



« * « 



* * « 



* 4 



A Revision of Isopyrum 

Allies (with fi^s.) 
Tresco Abbey Gardens ... 
Miscellaneous Notes 



and Its Nearer 



« * 



^ « t 



f « » 



Contributions to the Flora of Macedonia: III 
Macrozanonia macrocarpa 

The West African Oil Palm 

Decades Kewenses : XCVIII 

A dditions to Wild Fauna and Flora : 
Flowering of Phyllostachys aurea 
Miscellaneous Note:^ 



• ■ * 




» ■ * 



* ft « 



« * V 



• « ■ 



■ ■ * 



t • • 



A Trip to the Knysna 

Phellodendron ... 

On Two Species of Ovulariopsis from 

West Indies (with figs.) 
Amoora spectabilis and A. Wallichii... 
Jeffersonia and Plagiorhegma (with figs.) 



k * » 



the 



t ^ * 



* i t 



49 
67 
66 
71 



81 



96 



]00 

105 
108 
112 



113 
119 



124 

•128 

132 

136 



145 



170 
175 



177 

199 
205 
212 

217 
218 



225 
231 
235 

238 
242 



IV 




7 



99 



8 



39 



f1 



9 



JJ 



99 



5» 



39 



10 






Appendix I. 



XXXVIII 



• J 



II 




XL. 




XLII. 
XLIII. 
XLIV. 
XLV. 
XL VI. 



XLVIL 



xLviir. 




L. 
LI. 



LIL 



LIll 

LIV 

LV. 
LYI, 



Decades Kewenses : XCIX. 
Miscellaneous Notes 



• • t 



■ 4 



■ • • 



• • 



■ • • 



Abraham's Oak (with plate) 

The Botanical History of the * Smdiau * and 

the Age of jLbraham's Oak 
Arceuthobium Oxycedri and its Distribution 
The Arboretum and Pinetum at Bicton 
Bocconia and Macleaya (with figs.) ... 
Bamboos and Boring Beetles ... 
Miscellaneous Notes 



* ■ t 



Fungi Exotici : XXV. Notes on Uganda 

Fungi 
Contributions to the Flora of Siam : Addita- 

mentum XT. 
Di^jeases of the West African Oil Palm (with 

plate) 
Stellaria or Alsine 
Miscellaneous Notes 



t • 



t 4 



# • 



» 4 



A Wilt of Carnafcions, Nigella, Delphinium 
and Cosmos, with a Note on Sclerotium 
Rolfsii (with figs.) 

Diagnoses Africanae : LXXIV. . 

Decades Kewenses : C.-CI. 

Notes on the Balsams of Chitral (with figs.) 

Miscellaneous Notes 



• « V 



« » 



List of seeds of luxi'dy herbaceous plants and 
of trees and shrubs 



Botanical Departments at home and in India 
and tlie Colonies 






245 

250 



257 
258 



264 
268 
275 

282 

285 



289 



300 



306 



308 
319 



321 



329 
335 
345 
367 



27 



Errata. 

Page 68, line 14 from top, /or didi-vel read di- vel 
Page 217, delete lines 5 and 6 from top. 



[Grown Copyright Reserved. 



ROYAL BOTANIO GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



Of 



MISCELL AN EOUS INFORMATION. 



:no. 1] 



^ 
^ 



[1020 



I. 



THE INDIAN SPECIES OF MIMOSA. 

J. S. Gamble. 



4 

In the ' Flora of British India ' only three species of Mimosa 
are recognized (vol. ii. p. 291). Th6 FiRST of these is the 
introduced M. pudica, Linn.,* the 'Sensitive Plant/ now so well 
established in the hotter and damper regions of India that it has 

become a verj troublesome weed, most difficult to 
eradicate. One noticeable point about it is that 
while it has been admitted to a place in several 
Floras, it is only in Dr. Cooke's ' Flora of Bombay ' 
that the curious stiff pectinate bracteoles are 
mentioned. 

The Segoxd species is AI. riihicaulis^ Lamk., 
which is given as found tbroughout practically the 
whole of India under a- level of 5000 ft., and in 
which are included J/, octandra^ Eoxb., M. 
mutabilis^'Roxb.y and J/, Rottleri, Spreng., as well 




as the undescribed M. spinosisiligiia, Eottler. 



I 



1, Mimosa 
pitdica. 



have been permitted to examine carefully the whole 
of the collections in the Herbaria of Kew, Edin- 
burgh, Calcutta and Madras, and I have come to 
the conclusion that they contain at least four 
different species, as I proj^ose to show. 

xV. rtihicmilis, the ' Acacie a tiges de ronce,' 
described by Lamarck (Encyc. Meth. Bot. 

1783 from specimens received 



was 



1. 



20) 



m 



specimens 



bj 



him from M. Sonnerat, very likely from Pondicherry or its 
neifi-hbourhood. I have not seen the specimens, hut M. Gagnepain 



been 



* The sketcbea which accoiDpany this give -what I consider to be 
average form of the leaflets of the 7 species. They have 
the middle of the pinna because the uppermost and lowest ones usually 
differ a little from the middle ones which ^ive the average. They have also 
been selected so as to show, as nearly as possible, the average sha:": 

(742.) Wt. I5a-S29. 1,125. 2/20. J. T. & S.. Ltd. G. 14. Scll. 18. 



2 



of tlie 'Museum d'Histoire Naturelle ' in Paris tells me that 

there are two sheets of it in their Herbarium, one of 




m bearinsr ijamai 



ecimens 



I sent him for comparison, a comparison which he 

The description says that the 



ma 



rom 



leaves have five pairs of pinnae and 12-15 pairs of 
leaflets, which are large for the genus. Th 
specimens which belong to true ruhicauUs are easily- 
separated and among them are those from which 
Wight prepared the excellent figure published in 
Hooker's Icones t. 156. The plant occurs only in 

South India and I 

north of the Godavari. It is represented in the 
Wallich Collection by nos. 5289 C (Herb. Eussell) 
2. M. ruU- and D, (Herb. Wight) and the specimens in the 
caulis. Edinburgh Herbarium show that it is the 

Mimosa Intsia described by Eoxburgh in Fl. Ind. ii. 565. Mr. 
W. G. Craib, in his paper on the climbing Acacias entitled 
'Mimosa caesia and M. Intsia ' (Kew Bull. 1915, p. 407) showed 
that Mimosa Intsia, Linn. Sp. P,l. 522 instead of being a climbing 
Acaci-a as commonly supposed, is, partly at any rate, Mimosa 
ruhicauUs, Lamk. The confusion described so fully by Mr. Craib 
seems to exclude the possibility of taking M. Intsia, Linn, as the 
earliest name for the plant. 

There is now the question of M. octondra, Roxb. Cor. Pi. t. 200 
and Fl. Ind. ii. 564. Both Roxburgh's figure and descriptions 
seem to me to represent M. ruhicauUs, Lamk., but Roxburgh's 
own specimens, named in his own handwriting, in the Kew 
Herbarium and Wallich Collection do not agree. They have 
8-10 pinnae instead of 3-6, 14 pairs of leaflets instead of 8, and 
the leaflets are quite small. 1S,0 locality for the specimens is 



may 



om 



given on tne laneis so tnax possiuiy mey 

plants grown in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens. I cannot assume 

that they come from South India. 

Of M. mutahilis, Roxb. I'l. Ind. ii. 564 with only four pinnae, 
there seems to be no specimen preserved. It was collected ' on 
the banks of the Gauges near Benares,' and this may have been 
the northern limit of M. ruhicauUs. 

w 

Mimosa Rottleri, Spreng. Syst. ii. 206 appears to be merely 
a new name invented to associate Rottler witli the plant ^vhicli 
he called M. spinosisiliquaj admitted to agree witli M. ruhicauUs^ 
Lam., l)y Sprengel. The description fits M. ruhicauUs well 

enough. 

Thus I conclude that the common species of the Southern part 

of the Madras Presidency is Mimosa ruhicauUs^ Lamk., including 
/)/. ocfandra of the ^ Coromandel Plants.' 

It now remains to identify the North Indian species of which 
a fine series exists in the Herbaria I have examined. The speci- 
mens come from the whole range of the Himalaya, from 
Afghanistan on the "West to the Mishmi hills on the East, and 
extend to the Assam Valley, the Khasia Hills and Silhet- South- 
wards, it seems to come down to the Ganges, and further 



3 



Soutli, but is apparently scarce. Specimens of my own collected 
in Hazaribagh. and Palamow, and one recently sent by Mr. H. II. 
Haines from Singbiim sbow tliat it extends to tlie forests of 
Cliota 



Nagpnr 



The chief character which distinguishes this 



plant is that of long leaves with eight to 12 pairs of pinnae each 

Math 16 to 20 pairs of leaflets, most commonly 19. 
The pod is also narrow and has usually an acuminate 
apeXj though sometimes even the same specimen 
shows it more or less rounded. The series of speci- 
mens shows a good deal of variation in pubesceure, 
for Afghan and Punjab specimens are sometimes 
almost w^ooUy while the pubescence seems to 
decrease as it proceeds eastwards. I 
■ to call it M 




propo:-;e 
cannot 

collector or writer has done 



hiinalayana as I 



find that any 

otherwise than identify it with M, 

Wallicli Collection at Kew there is 



TU 



I 



n 



the 



3, M. liima- 

layana. 

at Bogdwar 



a specimen with very narrow pod and small 
pubescent leaflets, collected by Buchanan-Hamilton 



m 



anuary 



1809. 



I have quite failed to find 
Bogdwar on any map, but think it must have been in Bengal, for 

he spent most of 1809 in Rangpur and Purneah. The 
plant seems to me distinct from M. hivialayaiia and to 
agree with one collected by Dr. C. A. Barber on the 

'~ ' ~ I propose to call 




Madr 



D 



*7P 



4 M. 

BarherL 




, The Third species is M. hamata, Willd., a very 
well-marked one, well described by Willdenow to 
whom specimens had been sent by Klein, and having 
very small leaflets and a very prickly pod. Bottler 
called it i)/. armata, unaware, presumably, that it had 
already been described. 

Among the specimens which I collected myself in 
South India in the years 1882 to 1890 were several 
sheets which puzzled me much, and in 1902^ I 
wrote to ]^Iajor D. Prain, now Sir David Prain, 



then in 

H 



of the Calcutta Gardens and 
about them. . He very kindly went 



charge 



5, M. 

hamata, 

Willd., 



into the matter fully, and indicated to me that 

the specimens identified as J/, hawata, 

^ o n*r^nf -mn-mr wbinh wero cei'tainlv distinct 



among 



erre 



so well described by Willdenow, and called M. armata by Bottler. 



recojmize 



(1) tliat wbicli, in his remarks under M. hamata, Mr. Bentham, 
^ ' . . ' ^ ^oi identified with the American 



Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 421, 



U. 



M polyancistra, and (2) one which I hare described as 
rrainiana. As regards M. polyancistra 1 fullj agree with Mr. 
Bentham I have not seen Paron's specimens of the American 
plant but the Lane (not McLane) specimens from a garden m 
Cuba'are at Kew and agree with the Indian ones except that the 
«alyx and corolla are more hairy. Mjr M. Pramiana difFers 

A 2 



4 





from M. polyancistray as also from 
3/. ham at a, in 



having' 



and 



pods with 6-8 



several respects^ 



larger 



leaflets 
being 



6. 7. 

6. M, polyancistra, 

7. Jf. Py^ainiana. 



especially by 

seeds and more and 

closely approximate instead of 

far apart, I append to this paper the 

description of this new species as well 

as those of M. himalayana and M.Bar- 

heri already referred to. 

If my views are correct, the number 
of distinct species of Mimosa in India 
will thus be raised from three to seven 
including the introduced but univer- 
sally run- wild M. pudica. 



The following is a brief Key to the species : 

Pinnae of the leaves 1-2 pairs digitately arranged 1. ^iidica. 
Pinnae of the leaves more than 2 pairs, pinnate : 
Leaves under 1 in. long with 3-5 pinnae; pods 



grey- pu berulous 
Leaves much over 1 in. long : 

Leaflets semi-cordate at base ; sutures of pod 

with strong recurved prickles : 
Pinnae 3-5 pairs about 75 in. apart ; leaflets 

4-5 pairs, distant; pods usually acute 
at tip, -Gin. broad 
Pinnae 5-7 pairs about -Sin. apart; leaflets 

7-8 pairs, touching ; pods obtuse at tip, 



2. hamata 



3. ^olyancisira 



4--5 in. broad 



• • • 



« • « 



4. Prainiana, 



Leaflets semi-rectangular at base; sutures of 

pod with few small or no prickles : 
Pinnae 4-6 pairs, pinnules 10-15 pairs, 

■4-7 in. long ; pods little curved, broad 



) 

Pmnae C-8 pairs, pinnules 12-18 



5. rahicaulis. 



3--4 in. 



( 



long ; 



pods much 



pairs, 
curved, 



Pinnae 8-12 pairs, pinnules 16-20 pairs 



6. Barheri. 



2-" 



•o in. long ; pods little curved, 



( 



# • » 



7. himalayana. 



Mimosa himalayana, Gamble [Leguminosae-Mimosoideae] ; 

M. ruhicauli, Lamk., affiuis, legumine angustiore acuminato, et 
foliis lougioribus circiter 10-12-jugis nee 4-6-jugis dift'ert. 

Frutex ereetus, ramis striatis puberulis vel interdum Mvo- 
pubescentibus aculeis validis ornatis. Folia bipinnata 12-20 cm 
longa, rbachi puberula aculeata, juniora pubescentia ; pinnae 
12-jugae, 3-4 cm. longae; foliola 16-20-paria, 5-8 mm. longa, 
-J_ mm. lata, oblonga, apice obtusa vel paullo acuta, mucronata, 
basi semi-rectangularia, birsuta vel aliquando fulvo-pubescentia, 
costa margiui supenori propinqua, nervis ad costae latus inferius 
1-6 arcuatimjunctis; stipulae subulatae; stipellae minutae. 
ilores rosei, m ca-pitulis axillaribus ramulorum apices versus 
pedunculatis, circiter 1 cm. diametro cum staminibus; bracteolae 



O 



5 



minutae, clavatae, pubesceiites. Calyx campanulatus, 1 mm, 
longus, glaber. Corolla infimdibularis, 2'5 mm. longa, glabra, 
lobis 4 oblongis tubo aequilongis. Stamina 8, longa, exserta. 
Ovarium glabrum. Legumen suturis decurrentibiis e basi^acuto 
stipitatum, apice longe acuminatum et mucronatnm, circiter 
8 cm. longum, 1 cm. latum, glabrum, rectum vel paullo curvatum, 
aculeis perpaucis vel nullis ad suturas ornatum, Semina 4-10, 

North Inma. Along tlie wbole of the outer Himalayan Range 
from Afghanistan to Assam at low elevations and in tlie forests 
of the Terai and Bliabar tracts, in the East up to about 1500 m. 
Southwards to the Ganges and Chota iSagpore. 

Central Iis-mA. At Gwalior {Maries). 

Mimosa Barberi, Gamble [Leguminosae-Mimosoideae] ; M. 
himalayanae, Gamble, affinis leg-umine angustiore et foliorum 
pinnis paucioribus pinnulis minoribus differt. 

Frutex erectus, ramis striatis an^ulosis puberiilis parce aciilea- 
tis. Folia bipinnata, 10-12 cm. longa, rbaclii puberula parce 
aculeata; pinnae 6-8-jugae, 2-4 cm. longae; foliola 16-20-pana, 
4-7 mm. longa, 2-3 mm. lata, oblouga, .-apice. mucronata, basi 
semi-rectangularia, liirsuta, costa liiteri superiori propinqna, 
n.ervis ad costae latus inferius 1-3 arcuatim junctis; stipiilae 
lineares; stipellae minntae. Floves rosei, in capitulis axillari- 
bus peduncnlatis circiter 7 mm. diametro ramulorum apices 
versus. Calyx campanulatuss, 1 mm. longus, glaber, dentibus 4 
brevibus. Corolla infimdibularis, 2b mm. longa, glabra, lobis 
4 brevibus. Stamina 8, longe exserta. Ovarium pubemlum. 
Legumen longe- (5-7 mm.) stipitatum, curvatum, basi acutum, 
aiJlce acutum et mucronatum, 8-10 cm. longum, 8-10 mm latum, 
glabrum, suturis baud sinuatis aculeis perpaucis vel nullis 
ornatis. Semina 8-10. \ \^r n- i r^ j. roon \o 

NoETH India. At Bogdwar, Assam? Wallich Cat. o^oy A^ 

(ex Herb. Ham.). 
Central India. 
Barher 5282. 



Dec 



This species was, inadvertently, given^ in the ' Flora of tlie 



Madras 



V, 



rould seem to be inadmissible. 

Mimosa Prainiana, Gavihle [Leguminosae-Mimosoideae]; 
M. hamatae, Willd., et M. polyancistrae, Benth., affinis, ab ilia 
foliis multo longioribus et leguminibus glabris, ab bac pinms 
regiilaribus 5-7-jugis et foliolis majoribus approximatis subtus 

minute glandulosis differt. , i . ^ i t 

Stiffriitex erectus, in ramulis et foliorum rbacbi et pedunculis 
aculeis multis recurvis ornatus, fere glaber et glaucescens. t oka 
bipinnata, 5-9 cm. longa ; pinnae 5-7-3Ugae 2 cm. longae, 
1-^ cm distantes, rbaclii pubescenti; foliola 7-11-juga, oblonga, 
basi semicordata, 5-7 mm. longa, 2-3 mm lata subtus mmute 



spicuis, superioriDus ooscuiis, ft^^i'u.u^ .x^.^.x.., ...^.^.^^ -- 

%oresTOsei, in capitulis P^dunculatis axillarib^^^^^ 

latiq ramulorum apices versus pamculatis; pedunculi 1 o-^ 5 cm. 

longi,f?reimper aculeis recurvis ornati, pubescentes; bracteae 



6 



rniniitae, caducae; bracteolae sub calyce clavatae. Calyx per- 
brevis, ciliatus, vix 1 mm. loBgnS^ dentibus minutis acutis. 
Corolla infiindibularis, 2 mm. longa, ad apices loborum acutonim 
minute puberula. Stamina 8, longe exserta. Ovarium minute 
pubescens vel gtlabrum. Leguinen curvatum^ glabrum, obttisn^ji 
vel paiiUo acntiim, ad 10 cm. longtini, 10-12 mm. latum, suturis 
sinuatis acnleis reflexis conspicne ornatis. ^ Seviina 6-8 alburai- 
nosa, cotyledonibns planis orbieiilaribiis 4 mm. latis, 

Centual India. Central Provinces, at Nagpore and Cbanda, 
H. n. Haines 3251, 3249. " 

South India. Kistna District, at Masnlipatam and Bezwada, 
Gamble 12603, 21757 ; Anantapur District, at Penekaclierla, 
3G0 m., Gamble 20832; Hyderabad, Meehold 1512; Knrnool 
District, at Atniakur, Bourne 4701 (leaflets rather larger and more 
distant, peduncles longer and less prickly). 

West India. At Poena, Jacquemont 459. • 



n.— MOMORDICA COCHINCHINENSIS. 

During tbe work connected witk the preparation of the Mono- 
raph on '' The Genus Strychnos in India and the East,'' by 
apt. A, "W. Hiii, K,B., Nos. 4-5, 1917, information was 
received from Mr. "W. J. Tutcher, Director of the Botanical and 
Forestry Department, Hongkong, that seeds of Momordica 




cochhicliinensis, Spreng., received from Szechiien, were some- 
times sold in Hong-kong as Strychnos seeds, and on sending for 
seeds of Strychnos Nux-vomica^ L, he had received seeds of tte 
Momordica. Ha added ''I am informed by the Imports and 
Exports^ Office, Hongkong, that seeds of Momordica cochin- 
chinensis are imported as Strychnos Nu.x-voviica seeds nnder the 
name of ' Muk Pit Tsze ' from Annam and Haipong / . . . 
In u note I have received from Mr. A, N". Pullen, Government 
Apothecary, Hongkong, he says Mowordica cochinchincnsis 
seeds are certainly poisonous and appear to contain alkaloids 
similar, if not identical, with those contained in Strychnos Nux- 
vomica.'' In order to test the validity of this suggestion, seeds 
of the Momordica were submitted for examination to Professor 
H. G. Greenish, Director of the Pharmacy Eesearch Laboratory 
of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, and under his 
supervision an investigation was conducted by Mr. E. R, Baines 
which resulted in the following report : 



EE 



RECEIVED FROM THE RoYAL BoTANTC GARDENS KeW. 

"The average weight of each seed was 3-13 grammes, the 
seed-coats constituting 36-7 per cent, of the total weight and the 
kernels 633 per cent. 

From part of the specimen received the seed-coats were 
separated and powdered. The moisture and ash were then 
determined and the powder exhausted with petroleum spirit 
ether, chloroform and alcohol successively in a Soxhlet extractor 



i 



The sohitions obtained ^vere evaporated lo dryness and tlie 
residue dried at 100^ C. and weiglited. Eacli residue was tlien 
tested for alkaloids. The results may be tabulated qs follows : 



• •• ••• • • m JLX^V ■•• 



Per cent, of Per cent, of 

seed-coat. seed. 

11-20 



• •• ••• 9 • • «■• X*«\/ ••• 



1-20 



Moisture 
Ash 

Petroleum spirit extract ... 0'33 ... 0'12 

Ether extract 0'16 ... 006 

Chloroform extract 0"44 ... 0*16 

Alcohol extract 1-62 ... 0*59 



No alkaloid was found in any of the residues. 
The residue from the chloroformic solution was slightly green 
in colour and contained long needle-shaped crystals insoluble (or 
very sparingly soluble) in absolute alcohol. The quantity was 
too small to allow of their further examination. 

The kernels were submitted to similar treatment. During the 
drying the colour changed from whitish to brownish, indicating 
that some change had taken place. The determination of the 
moisture is therefore unreliable and the figure obtained (1-66 per 
cent.) is not included in the table. 

Per cent, of Per cent, of 

kernels. seed. 

Petroleum spirit extract ... 47'U6 ... 28-90 

Ether extract 1"03 ... 0*65 

Chloroform extract ... ... 0'17 ... 0*1 1 

Alcohol extract 3-44 ... 2-18 

w I 

No alkaloid was found in anj of tlie residues. 
The petroleum spirit extract was a pale brown, viscous oil. 
On exposure to tlie air it rapidly formed a film on the surface, 
and on further exposure in a flat-bottoined dish it was convftrted 
into a whitish, solid mass, easily reducible to a, white powder. 
This powder was now insoluble in petroleum sjjirit and the usual 
solvents for fixed oils. This behaviour is similar to that of 
Chinese Tung Oil (from Aleiirites cordata) which this oil also 
resembles in certain other of its characters. 

The chloroformic extract contained needle-shaped ciystals, in- 
soluble in ebsolute alcohol, similar to those observed in the corre- 
sponding- extract from the seed-coats. 

The peculiar properties of Chinese Tung^ Oil render it valuable 
for certain technical purposes. In 1911 Hankow exported to 
foreign countries 6,143 tons, and to other Chinese ports 3t,8ol 
tons. In 1912 Germany imported 6,796 tons. 

It is possible that the oil of Mowordica cochinchinensis could 
be utilised in a similar way and it might prove a valuable oil if 
it could be obtained in sufficient quantity and at a suitable price. 
It is well worthy of further investigation for which purpose larger 
quantities of the seeds would be necessary." , .. q^ 

In a letter accompanying the report Prof. Greenish wrote bo 
far no alkaloid has been found. The seeds contain a quantity of 



8 



fixed oil of remarkable cliaracter : it ivS described by Dymock and 
Hooper in Pharmocografliia Indica. It rapidly dries (? by 
oxidation) to a solid wbicli is easily powdered and then is insol- 
uble in tbe usual fat solvents. We are examining tbis a little 
further. We have also found a crystalline substance, but in 
quantity so small that I fear we cannot do anything further with 
it unless we coukl get a much larger quantity of seed." 

Ten pounds of seeds were subsequently obtained from Hong- 
kong, and a further study of the oil was made under the direction 
of Prof. Greenish, by Messrs. C. E. CorfLeld, F.I.C. and E, Caird, 
B.Sc, A. I.e., in the Research Laboratory of the Pharmaceutical 
Society. The manner and the results of the research were com- 
municated in the following report: — 

The Fat of Momohdica Seeds.* 

At the request of the Assistant Director of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, an examination of the fat contained in the seeds 
of Momordica cochinchinensis , Spreng. was undertaken with the 
view of ascertaining whether it might prove of commercial value, 

Momordica cochincJiinensis is a cucurbitaceous plant indige- 
nous to Bengal, Tenasserim, the Deccan Peninsula, Formosa, 
and the Philippine Islands. The seeds are described by Hooker 
(Flora of British India, II. p. 618), as ''| by f by | in. thick, 
many, horizontal, irregular, ovate, compressed, black, corru- 
gated on the margins, sculptured on the faces." 

Very little information has been published concerning the fat 
of these seeds. In the Pharmacographia Indicaf the statement 
is made that the seeds jdeld to light petroleum ether 43*74 per 
cent, of a slightly greenish oil which, smeared on a glass plate 
and exposed to a temperature of 100° C- could be scraped off the 
glass as a white powder which, when boiled with petroleum ether, 
yielded only a trace of oil. 

A general examination of the seed-coats and kernels has been 
made by Greenish and Baines, with the following results : 

The average weight of each seed was 3-13 grammes, of which 
the seed coat weighed 36-7 per cent., and the kernels 63'3 per 
cent- 



A. — Seed-coats, 



The powdered seed-coats were extracted successively with dif- 
ferent solvents; the solvent evaporated, and the residue dried at 

lOQo C. 

Per cent, of Per cent, of 

. seed-coat. seed, 

1. Petroleum spirit extract .., 0-33 ... 0'12 

2. Ether extract 0*16 ... 0'06 

3. Chloroform extract * 0-44 ... 0'16 

4. Alcohol extract ... ... 1-62 ... 0-59 

Ko alkaloid was found in any of the residues. 



t Pharmacographia Indica, ii, p. 77. 



44. 



9 



5. — Kernels. 
These were submitted to a process of exliaustion similar to 



tliat applied to the seed-coats. 



Per cent, of Per cent, of 

kernel. seed. 



1. Petroleum spirit extract ... 47*06 ... 28-UO 

2. 'Ether extract ... ... 1-03 ... 065 



3. Chloroform extract... ... 0*17 * ... O'll 

4. Alcohol extract 3'44 .., 2'IS 



»* 



Again, it is int-eresting to note that no alkaloid was present in 
the residue. The residue from the petroleum spirit extract v:vls 
a pale brown, viscous oil* On exposure to air, it rapidly filmed 
on the surface, and on continued exposure it was converted into 
a w^hitish solid mass, easily reducible to a pow^der. 

The result of these experiments led to the present examination 
of the seeds, with a view to ascertainii _ 
"would be of commercial value as a drying oil. 

Since, as will be shown later, the heating of the oil to a 
temperature approaching lOC^ 0. had the effect of altering the 
composition of the oil, a method, other than that of extraction 
by means of a solvent and subsequent evaporation, was employed. 
Cold compression yielded little, since the fat was fairly solid. 
With the application, however, of slight heat the fat was readily 
yielded, and a method of extraction based upon this result v. as 
adopted. After removal of the seed-coats the kernels were 
coarsely powdered and submitted to pressure, the necessary I eat 
being obtained by means of a steam coil round the press, 
adjusted to produce in the mass, a temperature of about 40° C. 
The fat, of which a good yield was obtained, was greenish-brown 
in colour ; had an unpleasant and penetrating odour ; on 
cooling solidified to a pale green granular mass; when worked 
at atmospheric temperature it became fluid. The green colour 
was most probably due to traces of chlorophyll from the coating 

of the cotyledons. 

On examination the fat gave the following constants : 

Saponification value ... ... 185 '2 

«^. ^ m M Xv 



Acid value ... 
Iodine value 



« • • • * 



23-4 



Eefractive index (40° C.) 1*496 

Ester value ... ... ••• 183-3 

28°C.-32°0. 



« f # * t 



Melting point 

Unsaponifiable matter a trace 

After saponification of the fat the alcohols were separated, 
and were found to consist principally of glycerol, the residue 
ffiyinff no evidence of the presence of wax-alcohols. The fatty 
acids, on separation, were found to be yellowish-hrown in colour 
and solid. The following constants were observed: 



46°-51° 0. 

-42° a 



Melting point 

Solidifying point ... ... 

Acid value ... ••• ••• 188'3 

Iodine value ... a^^^* 



10 



Since some considerable difficulty was encountered in deter- 
mining the iodine value, the figure is not taken as final. Ap- 
parently the absorption is accompanied by the formation o£ some 
unstable compound, which is decomposed by sodium thio- 
sulphate. From these constants, it appears that the fat consists 
chiefly of the glyceryl esters of fatty acids, the larger portion of 
which are saturated, but no attempt has been made to determine 

the composition of the fat. 

On exposing the fat to the atmosphere, a change in colour and 
in form was noticed. The fat gradually lost its green colour and 
assumed a pale yellow shade ; a marked tendency for films ia 
agglomerate was noticed, and finally it became granular in 
appearance. A systematic examination of these films was con- 
ducted with a view to determining the cause of the changes. 
The following tables will show the course of the experiments ; — 

A, — 3'9536 grammes y composed to air and light, 

T ■ 

Time of exposure Gain per gramme 

in days. Actual Rain. per day. 

1 ... 0-0024 gm. ... 000061 gm. 

2 ... 0-0070 „ ... 0-00177 „ 

3 ■ ... 0-0216 „ ... 0-00546 „ 

4 ... 0-0312 „ ... 0-0078 

0-0504 „ ... 0-00425 „ 

These figures are no measure of complete change, since, owing 
to agglomeration, the lower layers were not sufficiently exposed. 



B. — 3*5913 graviweSj ea^posed to air, ivithotft access of lights 

V 

T 

Time of exposure Gain per gramme 

in. days. Actual gain. per day. 



I ... 0-0003 gm. 

2 ... 0-0011 „ 

3 ... 0-0025 „ 
4. ... 0074 
7 ... 0-0082 „ 



73 



0-0000835 gm 

0-0003063 

00006961 

0-002060 
0-000761 



>> 



5 J 



»J 



In tliis experiment, there was no agglomeration, and the only 
change in form was the appearance of small white points in the 
green exposed surface. 



C. — 3-9894 grammes, exposed to light in nitrogen. 

Tor a period extending over seven days no change in weight 
took place. • 

Prom the above figures,^ it is evident that the change observed 
IS one of oxidation, which is immensely accelerated by the 
presence of light, since in that experiment in which the fat was 
excluded from light the change was extremely small, and only 
affected the most exposed portions. The effect that this oxidation 
has upon the solubility of the fat in the ordinary solvents was 
next ascertained. The data are tabulated below, and will an-ain 



11 



show tliat there was practically no change when the fat was kept 



in the dark : 



Petroleum 



spirit. 

Original fat Soluble 



« « « 



Ether. 
Soluble 



Alcohol 
97 




• # t 



« ■ • 



Carbon tetra- 
chloride. 

Soluble . . . Insol uble, 
Insoluble ,,. Insoluble 



Exposed in Insoluble ... Insoluble 

light 
Exposed in Faintly opal- Faintly opal- Faintly opal- Insoluble. 



dark 



escent 
sol ution 



escent 
solution 



escent 
solution 



Lastly, the effect of heat upon the appearance and properties 
of the fat was observed : — 

A. — 3-5712 grammes y ex'posed to air and light at 100° C, 



Time of exposure 
in days. 

1 

2 

3 



Actual gain 

0-1912 gra. 
0-0614 

0-0140 

nil. 



jj 



j> 



• • • 



< • ■ 



I > • 



Gain per gramme 
per day. 

0-05352 gni. 

0-03714 
0-00392 
nil. 



>» 



J J 



At this point tlie weight of the film had hecome constant, 

that complete oxidation, and other change, if any 



indicating 



had occurred during the period of three days. The appearance 
of the heated film was markedly difiercnt from that of the film 
exposed at atmospheric temperature. The green colour was 
lost and the fat assumed a granular, gelatinous form, of a pale 
brown colour, finally becoming stiff, and easily disintegrated 
The effect of heating during oxidation was, as m the case of 
oxidation at ordinary temperatures, to render the product ^m- 

solubl 



e m the fat-solvents petroleum spirit, ether, and carbon 

tetrachloride, while it remained insoluble in alcohdl. 

The following is a record of observations made on heating the 
fat slowly frouT 15° C. to 240° C. : — 

° C- 50° C. — The fat became less granular, finally 



15 



assuming 



homogenous 



appearance, 
was of a" dark brown colour. 



and 



50 



100° 
120° 
130^ 



C.-100° C. I!^o change observed, except that the colour 

assumed a redder tint. 
C.-110° C. — More transparent. 
C'_130° C. — ^Colour still lighter. 
C -180° C. Appearance of small bubbles, probably due 

to the escape of a small quantity of volatile 



200° C.-240° C. 



naatter. 

A o-reenish-brown mobile liquid. 



On cooling, the fat remained as^a brown, viscous liquid of the 
conSstency °of castor oil, and the solubility remained ;a^ that of 
+f f nr S fat On exposure in thin layers this liquid did not 
the .f .^^^"^^Xracter previously recorded of the fat. During two 

portions formed a transparent skin of the nature of varni.h . 



12 



In "conclusion, the evidence is tliat tlie fat allows clertain 
characteristics of drying oils, such as Tnng Oil, without the pro- 
perty of producing a varnish as in the case "with drying oils, such 
as linseed oil, whereas, after heating, it behaves as a semi-drying 
oil, and it would seem that, in this condition, admixed with 
drj'ing oils, it might be used in the production of paints and 

varnishes. 

A consignment of seeds of Momovdica cocliinchinensis 
received through the kind offices of Mr. W.J. Tutcher, Hongkong, 
was sent to the Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture, West 
Indies [see Agric, News, Feb. 22, 1919). Some of these were 
entrusted to Mr. J. Jones, Curator of the Botanic Gardens, 
Dominica, and in the Agric. News of November 1, 1919 (vol. 



sviii, No. 45T), on p, 34T, it is reported a fruit has matured on 
one of the plants raised irovn the seed received in February. 
The fruit weighed 3f lbs. and contaiiied 42 seeds, weighing 6 ozs, 
Agric. News, Dec. 13, 1919. p. 393. 

It is hoped that the plant may be grown successfully in the 

West Indies and the oil from the seeds may be found to be of 
commercial value. 

Momordica cochinchinensis has been fignired in the Botanical 
Magazine (Ser. Ill, vol, xv), Tab, 5145, and there is a descrip- 
tion of the plant with a figure in Catalogue des Produits de Tlndo- 
Chine. Tome i. n. 180. where it is stated that a well-clarified oil 



ma 



III.— CLEHATOPSIS, A PRIMITIVE GENUS 

OF CLEMATIDEAE. 

J.. HUTCHI]S"S0>^, 

The genera Clematis and Naravelia^ comprising the tribe 
Clematideae of Ranuiicnlaceae , have generally been regarded as 
sharply differentiated from the remainder of the family by their 
usually shrubby habit, opposite leaves, and induplicate-valvate 
sepals.* And the Tribe Cleviatideae is so described in the 



majority of local floras and in textbooks. While looking: over the 



genus Clematis recently, however, I was impressed by the 



several 

from Madagascar and South Tropical and Subtropical Africa. 
This aestivation appeared superficially to be of the ordinary 
imbricate type, but on dissection of the buds of several species, 
the types of aestivation shown in diagrams 1-4 were found to 
occur. These examples are remarkable in that they show almost 
every degree of aestivation linking up the imbricate with the 
induplicate-valvate type. In diagram 1 

flower of Clematofsis scaUosifolia, the aestivation is simply im- 
bricate; in no. 2, that of C. speciosa, it is partly imbricate and 

^ ■ , m-_t MM — l-^MM ''^ 

* In the addenda to vol. i. of Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. Plant, tlie following 
note occurs :— Clematis, m charactere, post Sepala ... .. valvata 

^j^^^^^^r /^ 'i V-o'''^''\"^I\" speciebus paucis Africae tropicae) imbricata."' 
Prantl. (Eno.1. & Prantl. Pflanzenf. iii. 2) has a section of Clematis with 
imbricate aestiTation which he named Fseiidanemone. 



om 



13 



partly induplicate-valyate; in no. 3, C. Stanleyi, we see a 
gradation which links up with no. 4, C. KirJcii, where the 
aestivation approaches most nearly that of typical Clematis, i.e., 
induplicate-valyate, except that the overlapped margins are not 
inflexed. 







Diagrams showing different types of aestivation in Glematopsis, 

In the early part of last century the MSS. name Cfetnatopsis 
appears to have been given by Bojer to a few Mascarene species 
showing this feature, the name first appearing as a nomen nudum 
in Hooker's Icones Plantarum, vol. i. t. x. (1837), wherein 
several of the species are described as Clematis. At tab. 10 of 
that work, which depicts Clematis Bojeri, Hook. [-^Clematopsis 
villosa, Hutchinson], Sir William Hooker makes the foiUowing 
observation: — ''This is one of sieveral species of Clematis sent 
me from the island of Madagascar by the late Dr. Lyall, differing 
strikingly from any described species, and of which has been 



Mr 



am 



Clematopsis. But I 

such a separation. All have singularly large flowers and most 

of them very long peduncles." 

As a valvate aestivation has no doubt been derived from an 
imbricate one, at any rate in the RanaJes, the phyletic signifi- 
cance of this remarkable transition should not be lost sight of, 
linking up, as it clearly does, the tribes Anemoneae (through 
Anemone § PulsatiUa) and Clematideae. It seems desirable, 
therefore, that Bojer's views as to its generic imjiortance, though 
expressed only by the MSS. name, should be maintained. If we 
take into account the somewhat slender means by which several 
other genera of Ranunculaceae are separated, then Clematopsis 
has n-ood claims to recognition. It is true, as remarked upon by 
Bailton * that in some of the larger-flowered species of Clematis, 



fi 



ricate aft 



have opened, but in the bud sta^e they are valvate. ^ 

In reo-ard to the opposite leaves, there is an occasional occur- 
rence which seems to strengthen the view as to the intermediate 



position 
Clematis 



leaves) 



This 



IS 



that when the nature of 



rTarZ.vr(q V is disturbed by cultivation, it sometim^ pro- 
LfHtfni?. liaves, thereby becoming to all -ten^s af pnr- 
p^^es a species of Anemone. Another - An.777.ne feature is 
Se involucrate leaves of three Angolan species (see key). 



* Histoire des Plantes, i, 87 (1867). 



14 



The species of Clematopsis found in tlie elevated regions of 
Angola would appear in some places to form almost a dominant 
feature of tlie vegetation. According to tlie Welwitsch Catalogue 
of Angolan plants, tlie Ranuncidaceae produce a striking effect 
upon tlie pliysiognomy of tlie forest landscape by tlie presence of 
immense masses of two erect species [of Clematopsis'], so that 
large tracts of pasture ground, situated amidst tlie forests, during 
the flowering season, look at a distance as if covered with snow. 
Whilst on an excursion towards the confluence of the LopoUo and 
Ferao streams, Welwitsch " enjoyed ample opportunity to 
admire the scarcely imaginable magnificence of the two erect 
species each with whitish-red flowers 2-2i in. in diameter, and 
with stems 3-4 ft. high."^ 

Whether, in connection with the theory here advanced that 
Clemutis has probably arisen through Clevmtopsis from the genus 
Anemone, the southern Plateau of Africa, part of the ancient 



Gondwana Land " of Suess, which still connected the African 
continent with Madagascar and India as late as the Cretaceous, 
and Africa and Madagascar well into the Tertiaiy period,* has 
been the breeding ground for the evolution of Clematis, whence 
they have spread throughout the northern hemisphere, may be . 
left to conjecture. In the absence of some such explanation, it 



Malaj 



Madagascar. If 



a detailed examination of the distribution and structural pecu- 
liarities of the Ranunculaceae from the Southern Hemisphere 
were undertaken, probably some other interesting facts would be 
brought to light regarding the phylogeny of those from the 
Xorthern Hemisphere. It has already been shown in the case 
ti Calthaf that the southern species differ markedly from their 
boreal relatives. The solitary Anemone of Tasmania, A. crassi- 
foha, Hk. f., is of a very peculiar habit, and it seems a significant 
fact that the 20 or so species of Clematis endemic to New Zealand 



be 



e 



genus DelpJiinivm remarks on the peculiar structure and isolated 
position of the only two species, D. macrocentrum, Oliv (Ic PI 
t. 1501) and Z). Leroyi, Franch., which occur south of the Equator' 
m jhe Masai district of East Africa and Kilimanjaro respectively! 

„ ,, . Baker, of the Natural History 

for allc^wing me to examine the sketches of Clematopsis 



am muc 



lie made in tlie Berlin Herbarium 
assistance in preparing the plate. 



Miss D. M 



* cf. Arldt, Die Entwickl 
19-21 (1907). 



..tifTaS St " "' '""*"" Hemisphere. A, W. Hill ia Ann. Bo. 



15 




Explanation of plate ;— 1, Glematopsis Stanley i (after Bot. Mag.) ; 2, C trifida ; 
3, C, oligophylla; 4, 0. anethifolia (after Hook. Ic. PL); 5, flower of 
(7. s^eciosa (orig.) ; all slightly more than ^ nat, size. 



IG 



Key* to the species of Clematopsis. 

Jppermost pairs (or 4) of leaves (of at least 
the terminal flower) green like the other 
leaves and not brightly coloured, nearly 
always remote from the perianth : 

Flowers mostly about 3 at the apex of each 



shoot 



* ■ • * • < 



••■ *•• ••• 



1. G. Kir kit. 



Flowers solitary at the apex of each shoot or 



stem: 



tJ^ 



or sub-entire : 



j:Stems more or less solitary, erect; 

African epecies ; 
Four of the upper leaves whorled and 

forming an involucre ; Angolan 
species. 

Involucral leaves simple, toothed : 

Sepals 6 2, 0. Tencziu 

Sepals 4 3. G. speciosa. 

Involucral leaves trifoliate, with 

narrow leaflets ... ... 4. G. chrysocarpa. 

Upper leaves in distant pairs, not 

forming an involucre : ' 

-Densely tomentose all over; lateral 

leaflets narrow, entire or uni- 

dentate; Angolan species ... 5. G. argentea. 
Laxly pilose or shortly pubescent ; 

lateral leaflets broad, usually 
with more than one tooth: 
Leaves up to 18 cm. long ; sepals 

- strongly ribbed on the back 6. G. hatang 
Leaves not more than 10 cm- 
long ; sepals not ribbed : 
Achenes not longer than 

broad, more or less 
rhomboid, with long and 
very slender tails sparsely 

pilose towards the tips.,. 7. (7. Oliveru 
Acbenes much longer than • 
^ broad, narrowly turbinate, 

with comparatively short 
tails densely pilose to the 

P ••• ••• ... 8. C Shihlmannii. 

tJStems several from a decumbent 

rhizome ; pedicels elongated ; Mas- 
carene species 9. G. trifida. 



'TISIS 



ttLower leaves more or less bipinnate, 

rather roughly and permanently 



hairy 



» » • 



10. G, scahiosifoli 



* This key is as good as can be put togeth 
which in some cases is rather scanty. 



1 



i 

i 



## 



ttfLower leaves more than bipinnate, 

much divided with rather narrow 

segments : 
Leaves rather coarse, more or less 

densely hairy ; African species ... 11. C. Stanleys 

Leaves usually finely cut, glabrous or 

nearly so ; Mascarene species : 
Leaves about 3 cm. long ; segments 

short about lb mm. broad ... 12, G, oligophylla. 
Leaves over 5 cm. long, segments 

long and narrowly linear, scarcely ^ 
1 mm. broad 13. C. anethifoUa 

Uppermost pair of leaves coloured and bract- 
like, entire or sub-entire, fairly close up 
to the perianth, sharply differentiated 
from the foliage leaves : 

Leaves finely divided, segments about 2-5 



mm* broad 



» * • 4 9 # 



Leaves simply pinnate, leaflets l'5-2 cm. 



broad 



• % 



14. G. pimpinellifolia 

15, G. villosa. 



1 Clematopsis Kirkii, Hutchinson, comh. nov. 

Clematis Kirkii, Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 5 (1868); Eyles in 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. v. 352 (191G). Clematis villosa, var. 
normalis, 0. Kuntze, Monogr. Clemat. 173 (1885). Clematis 
Busseana, Engl. Bot. Jalirb. xlv. 269 (1910). 



Tropical Afkica. 



gan 



yika Plateau, 1050-1200 m., July, 1896, A. Whyte; Kambole, 
south-west of Lake Tanganyika, 1500 m., W. H. Nutt (1896); 
Fwanibo, A. Carson 46, 65. Kear Mumbwa, 15° S., 28° E., 
Mrs. Macaulay 601; Katinia Hills, under bushes, T.Kdssner 
2160, 2191. Soutliern Ehodesia ^ Odzani Eiver Valley, XJmtali 

1100 m,, Swynnerton 

17637 "Sliire Highlands, J. Bncltanan 80, 428; without definite 
locality, /. Buchanan 638, 763. Portuguese East Africa : Man- 
ganja Hills, 900 m., fr. 4 Mar. 1862, J. KirTc (type). East 



near 



mea 



African Protectorate : Ussagara Mountains, 
about 1700 m., fls. Sept. 1900, W. Busse 295. Nyasa Highlands; 
Kyimbila, 25 Nov. 1907, G. Stolz 146. Kaviionda, 1200-1500 m., 
Scott Elliot 7022, 7154. Belgian Congo : Sekanju, open plain, 
12 Jan. 1909, T. Kassner 2988; Kipaila, T. Kdssner 2543- 
2. Clematopsis Teuczii, Hutchinson, sp. nov. _ 

Clematis villosa, var. Teuczii, 0. Kuntze, Monogr. aemat. 

174(1885). .■,.,,. y, 

Rhizoma polycephalum ; caulis erectus, simplex, lonnitudinaliter 
sulcatus, medio 4-5 mm. diametro, pilis longis debilibus reflexis 
laxe instructus. Folia alterna, superiora 4 subverticillata, sim- 
plicia, anguste obtriangularia, basi longe cuneata, 12-14 

"5 cm. lata, superne lobulato-dentata, e basi pro- 
minenter 5-nervia, utrinque pilis longis debilibus pubescentia; 
petioli circiter 1 cm. longi, suloati. Pedunculus monocephalua, 
robustus, circiter 18^20 cm. longus, laxe pubescens. Sepala (ex 

Bakeriano) 6, ovato vel ovato-lanceolata. Infructescentia 



4-5 



icon. 



B 



18 



subglobosa, cinereo-brunnea [Gossweiler), circiter 10 cm. dia- 
metro. Achaenia turbinata, fere 1 em. longa, pilosa, stylo cir- 
citer 5 cm. longo dense serioeo-piloso coronata. 

TiioricAL Apeica. Angola: Malange, Mechow 305 (only a 
sketch of type seen at the Natural History Museum, S. Kensing- 
ton). Malange, on high ground near Sansala Catombe, fr. IGth 
June, 1908, J. Gossweiler 1469. 

_Mr. Gossweiler described the plant as follows:—" A perennial 
with many-headed caespitose rootstock; stem strictly ascendino-, 
not branched, all parts softly hairy; infructescence globula?,' 
silvery brown I " 

3. Clematopsis speciosa, Hutchinson, sp. nor. 

Caulis erectus, fruticosus, verosimiliter simplex, profunde sul- 
catus, longe rufo-pilosus. Folia superiora involucrata tantum 
visa simplicia, obovata, acuta, basi longe attenuata, circiter 12 
cm. longa et 5 cm. lata, dimidio parte serrata, inferne integra, 
chartacea, utrinque pilis curvatis laxe pilosa; nervi laterales e 
basi asoendentes, infra prominuli. Flos soliiarius, speciosis- 
simus usque ad 15 cm. expansus, longe pedicellatus. Sepala 4, 
ovato-lanceolata, acuta, tenuiter chartacea, ad 7 cm. longa et 
d cm. lata, extra striata et laxe pilosa, intra breviter pubescentia 
l^ilamenta pilosa, circiter 1 cm. longa; antherae O'S cm. longae. 
Achaema numerosa, dense villosa, matura non visa. 

Tropical Africa. Angola: 15° 05' E. Lon^. 12° 44' S Lat 
alt. 13G0 m., Dr. F. C. Wellman 1792. ^ ' ' 

This is a magnificent plant and should be Introduced to 
cultivation. 

r 
L 

4. Clematopsis chrysocarna, Hutchinson, comb. nov. 

Clematis chrysocarpa, Welw. ex Oliv. Fl. Trop \fr i 5 

partim (1808); Hiern in Cat, Afr. PI. Welw. i. 2 (1896)! 
I74I1885) ^ chrysocarpa, 0. Kuntze, Monogr. Clemat. 

Descr. emend.— Caules erecti, usque ad 0-75 m. alti, profunde 
su cati, naedio circiter 5 mm. crassi, patule pilosi, nodiis sub- 
Tillosis, in'ternodiis plenimque circiter 6 cm. longis. Folia 
opposita, trifoliolata vel rare integra, fere sessilia, superiora ver- 

Jw^ ir'?'''/^•^^•'^'^1• ^°^^^' Prominenter nervosa, parce 

f.fnl'R ""l ??^o''^^''^?^--°^^^^^«^^to breviter petiolu- 

la o 5-6 cm. longo 1-5-2 cm. lato apicem versus parce lentato 

vel submtegro. lateralibus linearibus vel oblongis 4^5 cm lonr^is 

superne parce dentatis; petioli 1-1-5 cm. iSngi, complanal 

fbd/± rf' 1^^?^. (^^l^^^^d 14 cm.J pedicellatus, pldicello 
subdense et longe piloso. Sepala 4, elliptica, dorso ecostata 
apiculata, 3 cm longa, 2 cm. lata, extra pilosa intraTlabra 
Ftlamenfa complanata, lata nilosi f^r^ 1 .r^ i gi<it>ra. 

7 mm lA«fro^ A t • * P ,°?^' ieie 1 cm. longa; antherae 
7 mm. longae. Achaenia turbinata, 8 mm. lon^a appresse 
pilosa, superne fere villosa, stylo elongato 6 cm loi JK! 



€oronato 



^J^^T^ tl^^''-^ /''^^^^ '■ ^^^^"^ ; i^ slioitly bushy, rocky 
rather dry stations between Lopollo and IS^ene, a[ a plac.; c^lle^d 



19 



Ferra de Sola, not abundant, fl. Feb, Apr. I860, WeU 
witsch 1222. Kubango; apparently widely caespitose, stems 
erect, 1-2 ft. high, leaves flesliy, deep g-reenj flower terminal, 
resembling a large tulip in sbape, all parts lurid white, on a 
decayed and overgrown anthill in moist meadow near the fort 
Colui, 14r-10-05, Gossweiler 2153, 3642. 

Hiern (I.e.) points out that Grant's specimen from Usui 
district, tlganda, is probably the same a3 the plant named C 
StuJilmannit, Hieron. In the present paper it is described as 
Cleynatopsis Oliverij a near ally of (7. Stuhlviannii^ 

C. chrysocarpa is another very fine species, remarkable for the 
w^horled upper leaves forming an involucre after the manner of 
an Anemone. Its lower leaves are, however, strictly opj^osite 
and in pairs, as in Clematis. 



5. Clematopsis argentea, Hutchinson, sp. nov. 

Clematts argentea^ Welw. ined. Clematis villosa^ subsp. 
argenteay 0- Kuntze, Monogr. Clemat. 174 (1885); Hiern in Cat. 
Afr. PI, Welw. i. 2 (quoad forma acutiloha). 

Catties e rhizomate lignoso numerosi, ei'ecti, usque ad 1 m. 
alti, laxe foliati,- superne ramosi, ubique dense tomentosi, inter- 
nodiis superioribus circiter 8 cm. longis. Folia inferiora non 
visa, superiora pinnata, usque ad 12 cm. longa, angusta, utrlnque 
dense appresse villosa, foliolis bijugis, terminali profunda 
trilobate basi cuneato 4-5 cm. Ibngo 3'5 cm. lato, lateralibus 
oblanceolatis parce lobulatis apice mucronatis glabrescentibua. 
Alahastra tantum visa, ovoidea, breviter acuminata, externe 
dense tomentosa. Infructescentia circiter 9 cm. diametro; pedi- 
celli circiter 7 cm. longi, tomentosi; Achaenia turbinata, 
sericeo, stylo plumoso circiter 6 cm, longo coronata. 

Tropical Africa. Angola: Pungo Andongo; frequent in 
bushy stations about Quifinda, near Quisonda, fr. Mar. 1857, 
Welwitsch 1220. 



r 

6. Clematopsis kafangensis, Hvtchinson, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex erectus, usque ad 1 m. altus; caulis prominenter 
sulcatus, breviter pubescens, medio circiter 6 mm. crassus, 
superne subtomentosus. Folia pinnata, usque ad 18 cm. longa, 
foliolis bijugis, terminali elliptico-oblanceolato parce dentato, 
lateralibus paullo minoribus lobulato-dentatis utrinque brevissime 
pubescentibus demum fere glabris, nervis infra prominentibus, 
venis laxis; rhachis sulcata, breviter pubescens. Flores solitarii, 
terminales, circiter 7 cm. jexpansi; j^edicelli fcirciter 6'5 cm, 
longi, apicem versus moUiter tomentosi. Sepala 4, valde crassa, 
acuta, circiter 3-5 longa et 2'5-3 cm. lata, dorso prominenter 
5-costata, breviter appresise serlceo-villosi, 2 interioribus mar- 
ginibus planis molliter tomentellis. Filamenta pilosa; antherae 
8 mm. longae. Carpella et stylus sericeo-villosa. Fructus non 
visus. 

r 

Trofical Africa. Belgian Congo: Katanga; Loooi River, 

Nov. 1910, T, Kdssner 3347 (Type in Nat. Hisl. Mus.). 

B 2 



20 



7. Clematopsis Oliver!, Hutchinson, sp. nov. 

Clematis chrysocarpa, Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 5 (1868), partiin, 
non Welw. C. villo.sa, subsp. chrysocarpa, forma stipuJata, 
0. Kuntze, Monogr. Cleniat. 174 (188o) partim. 

Caules e rliizoiuate polyceplialo erecti, sulcati, medio circiter 
4 mm. crassi, breviter pubescenteSj interuodiis 6-8 cm. longia. 
Folia subsessilia, trifoliata vel pinnata, usque ad 10 cm. long-a et 
6 cm. lata, cliartacea, utrinque breviter pubescentia, demiim 
subscabrida, foliolis obovatis paree lobulato-deutatis. Flares 
solitarii, circiter 5 Im. diametro, nutaiites? breviter vel longe 
(ad 12 cm.) pedicellati, pedicello molliter tomentoso. Sepala 
4 vel 6, oblongo-eiliptica, circiter 2-5 cm. longa et 1"2 cm. lata, 
utrinque molliter tomentella, Filamenta complanata, inferne 
pilosa, superne glabra, 1 cm. loiiga; antlierae 5 mm. longae. 
Carpella ellipsoideo-turbinata, sericed-pilosa, stylo laxe plumoso 
5-6 cm. loiigo gracili coronata. 

TRoncAL AniicA. * White Nile,' Petherick (1862). Uganda: 
common on ^^-aste grounds of Ususi, Nov. 1861, Speke 4' Grant 
190. Xoki, 1200 m., M. T. Dawe 391. Elgon District, Sir Evan 
James; between Mumias and Lubwas, 1200-1350 m., .4. Whyte. 
British East Africa : Nyanza basin. 1200^1350 m.,^. Battiscomhe 
681; without definite locality, //. Poicell 90. East African Pro- 
tectorate: XJhehe Mts., Goetze 673. North Nyasaland : Kondowe 
to Karonga, 600-1800 m., July 1890, A. Whyte. 

8. Clematopsis Stuhlmannii, Hutchinson, comb. nov. 
Clematis Stuhlmannii, Hieron in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr., C. 180 

(1895). Clematis Goefzei, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xxviii 388 (lOOO) ? 
Tropical Africa. Uganda : Hunga, herb with white flowers, 
fr. Nov. 18, 1903, A. G. Bagshawe 381. East African Protecto- 
rate : Kagehi, Stuhhnann 3491; Kihuni, Kaiagwe, 1500 m., 
Stvhlwann 1658; Kassesse, Karagwe, 1500-1600 m., Stuhlmann 
1070; Karagwe and Urundi, 1200-1500 m., Scott Elliot 8197. 



9. 



H 



trifida, llook. Ic. PI. t. 79 (1837). 



Madagascar. Grassy hills between Imbositra and Itsimator- 
hcdolana, 19 Dec. 1894, Dr. Forsyth Major 714. East Imerina; 
Andrangoloaka, on hills, flowers milky white, Nov. 1880' 
/. M. Hildebrandt 3687. Central Madagascar, Rev. R Baron 
690, 1817. . Without definite locality, Dr^ Lyall (type). 



10. 



H 



Clematis scahiosifolm, DC. Syst. i. 154 (1818). Clematis 
ffosa, jav. scahiosifoha, 0. Kuntze, Monogi-. Clemat. 174 
(188o) ; Hiern m Cat. Afr. PI. Welw. i. 2 (1896) 

Tropical Africa. Angola: HuiUa; veiy abundant and vari- 
able near Lopollo m hot wooded stations, especially in ornamental 
rj^n TT?'^^^'^^, ""^ -Siri/cAr^o^ and Proteaceae, fls. Jan., fr. Apr 
1860, Welwusch 1221. South Angola; in thickets near meaSI; 

flnn' '''' J t^'"'' fnon S^^P^*^» °^ tl^e way from Limekiln, 
1600 m., 4 May, 1909, sepals white, H. H. W. Pearsn.. 2fi9Q' 



21 



near Limekiln, common along edges of meallie field, ISOO m., 
young fr, 4 May 1909, H. U, IF, Pearson 2G2-1. Cnnene passage, 
5 ft. liigli, in open thickets, fl. 12-2-OT. Gossweiler 2881.. 



11. Clematopsis Stanley!, Hutclilnson, comb. nov. 

Clcviatis Stanlexji, Hook. Ic. PI. t. 589 (1843); Harv. in Harv. 
& Sond. Fl. Cap. i. 3 (1859); Watson in Gard, Cliron. 1890, ii. 
326; Garden & Forest, ii, 513, fig. 65 (1890); Hook. f. Bot. Mag. 

t. T1G6 (1891).. 

South Africa. Transvaal: Macalisberg, Dec, Burke (type). 
Springbokolakte, Klipfontein, W. Nelson 275. Wonderfoutein 
district, W. Nelson 344. Between Broiikhorstspruit and Middel- 
bnrg, Dec. 1883, F. Wilms 3. Sandy places near Sandfontein, 
1320 m., fr. 14 April 1894, R. Schlechter 4784. Fields near 
Doekerhoek, 15G0 ni., 4 Jan, 1894, R. Schlechter 4133. Kndus- 
poort, Pretoria, A. Rehmann 4661. Wonderboompoort, Pre- 
toria, A. Rehmann 4590. TVithout definite locality; Sanier$on\ 
Zeyher 3. 

TnoricAL Africa. Eliodesia : Lesliumo ralley and forest, Jan. 
1876, Dr, E. Holub. K'ear Cliirinda, 1050 m., Oct. 1907, C. F. 
M. Swynnerton 358, Batoka Plateau, Feb.,. small slirub 2-3 ft. 
tigh, (7. E. F. Allen 508. Gweloe on the veldt, Jan. 1905, 
1\ Gardner 9. Matabeleland : hills near Selnkwe, 1^-2 ft. high, 
fls. white, tinted with pink, stamens greenish-vellow, Nov. and 
Dec. 1899, Hon. Mrs. Evelyn Cecil 119. '' South African Gold- 
fields," 1870, T. Baines. Angola: Hnilla ; near Lopollo, 
Welwitsch 1221 b, . 

There is a beautiful figure of this species (as Clematis Stanleyi), 
in the Botanical Magazine t, 7166 (1891), and the late Sir 
Joseph Hooker therein gave some highly interesting notes which 
support our theory on the connection of Clematopsis with Clematis 
and Anemone. Hooker says ^' Few genera of plants present such 
remarkable divergences in habit and fiowers as Clematis^ and the 
subject of the present plate shows, perhaps, in this respect the 
greatest departure from the. prevalent characters of its congeners. 
In fact it most resembles an Anemone in foliage and flowers, 
though no species of that genus has so shrubby a habit. Mr. 
Watson, indeed, informs me that as grown at Kew the leaves are 
sometimes alternate^ a singular fact, which if confirmed,* would 
leave nothing whereby to distinguish the two genera from one 
another but the valvate petals [=sepals] of Clematis^ these being 
imbricate in Anemone,^^ If the reader turns to this plate in tho 
Botanical Magazine, however, he will see at a glance that the 
«ame plant of which Sir Joseph was speaking has widely imbricate 
sepals. 



^ 



The fact that under cultivation Clematopsis StanJeyi may pro- 
duce alternate leaves and thus become almost a true Anevjone is 
highly significant in pointing out it^ origin from the genus 
Anemone. I say '^almost a true Aiiemone,^^ for the aestivation 
of the sepals of C. Stanleyi (see diagram no. 3) is very peculiar, 

* Mr. Coutts has shown me several pots of O. Stanleyi at Kew, in many of 
which the leaves are alternate. 



22 



and is a very g^rapliic example of tlie way in wliicli valvation may 
have arisen from imhrication. Snch an aestivation, I think, will 
not be found in Anevione proper. 



lemat 



grows Mr. E. E. Galpin wrote to Kew in July, 1890, as follows: 



[ — Cleviatopsisl 



own 



It lias turned 



very 



temp 



is scarcely wliat an outsider would expect in a subtropical place 
like Barberton.'^ 

Tlie specimens from Tropical Africa quoted above are included 
with some reservation ; tbeir leaf-segments are faainly broader and 
less liairy tban in typical C. Sta7tleyi from tbe Transvaal. 

12. Clematopsis oligophylla, Hutchinson, comb. nov. 
Clematis oUffophylla, Hook. Ic. PI. t. 80 (1837J. C. villosa, 

subsp. oligophylla, 0. Kiintze, Monogr. Clemat. 173 (1885). 

Madagascar. Mountains of Emirra Province, Bojer. North 
East of Aiikaratra Mts., Langley Kitching. " Central Mada- 
gascar," Rev. R. Baron 17G6, 1817. 

E ■ 

F 

13. Clematopsis anethifolia, Bojer ex Hook. Ic. PI. sub. 
t. 78 (1837), nomen. , 

Clematis anethifolia. Hook. I.e. t. 78. C. villosa, subsp. 
anethifolia, 0. Kimtze, 'Monogr. Clemat. 174 (1885). 

Madagascar. Dr. Lt/qZZ 109. Central reg-ion, i^eu. 72. 7?aron. 
Very abundant on Tatber dry gi^ound, Arivorarnano. youn^ fr. 

Jan., Scott Elliot 1926. ' ^ ^ 

L 

14. Clematopsis pimpinellifolia, Boier ex Hook. Ic. PI. sub. 

t. 77, nomen (1837). 

Clematis pimpinellifolia, Hook. I.e. t. 77. C. villosa, subsp. 
pivipinelhfoha, 0. Kwatze, Monogr. Clemat. 173 (1885) 

Madagascar. In fruit, Dr. Lyall 103. Central region, Rev, R. 
Baron, 690, 2004. Nortb Betsileo, Loberano, flowers milky white 

Jan. 1881, /. M. HiUehramlt R87T ^ 



15. Clematopsis vi'Iosa, Hutchinson, €onib. noy. 
Clematis villosa, DC. Syst. 154 (1818); C. villosa, yar. ,.^,^ 
viahs forma Bojeri, 0. Kuntze, Monogr. Clemat. 173 (1885). 



nor- 



Hook 



nomen. Clematis Boieri. H 



Madagascar Dr. Lyall. 61 (type) Central region, Rev. R. 
Baron b90. North Betsileo; Loberano, flowers milky white 
Jan 1881 J M . Hildehrandt 3877a. Dry ditch in long grass at 
foot of Andriugitra Mt., Jan., Scott Elliott 1824. Without 
definite locality, Bojer. 

I accept here 0. Kuntze's determination of De Candolle's 
Clematis viUosa formerly supposed to have come from India I 
haye not seen the type specimen, which is in Paris. ■ 



23 



IV.— DIAGNOSES AFRICANAE : LXXIII. 



1641. Acmadenia teretifolia, PhUlips, comb. nov. [Rutaccac 

Diosmeae]; affinis .4. macrostylidioidei, Sclilecliter, sed folii 
coufertis majoribus siibteretibus liispidulis ditlert. 

Frutex depressus, liguosus, circiter O'S m. alius; ramuli 

folioruin yestigiis asperati, minute pubescentes. Folia subses- 

silia, sub{eretia,_ supra canaliculata, apice obtusa, 3-5 mm. longa, 

1 mm. crassa, bispidula, viscida et glandulosa; peliuli O-o-l mm. 

longi. Flores sessiles, terminaJes, 2-4-iiati; bracteae clavatae, 

obtusae, 2-3 mm. longae, bispidulae. Sepala spatbulata, obtusa, 

3-4 mm. longa, hirsuta, marginibus membranaceis ciliatis. 

Petala breviter unguiculata^ elliptica vel suborbiculata, apice 

obtusa, 6-65 mm. longa, extra pubescentia, ciliolata, ungue 

oblongo 1-1-5 mm. longo 0-75 mm. lato. Filavienta 1 mm. longa, 

subteretia, glabra ; antlierae 1 mm. longae, ellipsoideae, apice 

glandule parvo spbaerico coronatae. Staviinodia glanduliforinia, 

0-25 mm. longa. Ovarium spbaericum, 1 mm. diametro, superue 

pubescens; stylus 1 mm. longus, curvatus, teres, glaber, stfgmate 

capitato. Fructus 4 mm. longus, 5 mm. latus, valvis costatia.- 

Diosvia teretifolia, Link, Enum. 237; Sond. in Harv. & Sond. 

Fl. Cap. i. 376. 

South Africa. Glanwilliam Div. : Sneeuwkop Mountain, 
Liepoldt 651. Ceres Div. : Cold Bokkeveld, near Ceres, abouf 
2000 m., Schlechter 1009S; Gydouw, near Ceres, Dec, Bolus 
7576. Worcester Div. : Matroosberg, about 2400 m., Jan., 
A. Bolus in Herb. H. Bolus 6360; Phillips in Herb. Mils. Austr.- 
Afric. 11768. Tulbagh Div. : Great Winterhoek, A. Bolus in 
Herb. Guthrie 4188 ^nartiml. 



Worcester Div. : Dutoits Kloof, 600-900 m 
Swellendam Div. : Summit of a mountain pe; 
Jan., Burchell 7349).— Ed. 



Herbarium 



g 



■/ 



South Africa. Worcester Div. : Matroosberg, 1050 m., 
A. Bolus ill Herb. Guthrie 3968: about 1950 m., Marloth 2343. 
Tulbagb Div. : Great Winterhoek, _4. Bolus in Herb. Guthrie 



4188 (partim). 



■/ 



and retained as such by Sender in the Flora Capensis, but on 

account of the clawed petals and the presence of staminodes it 

would appear better placed in Acmadenia. The Director of Kew 

was good enoug-h to compare specimens with the Kew material 



folia 



form with shiny leaves is found. 



rous 



1642. Craterispermum caudatiim, Hutchinson [Eubiaceae- 

Vanguerieae] ; affinis C. montano, Hiern, sed foliis caudato- 
acuminatis fructibus longe pedicellatis differt. 



24 



^Arbor parva (Aylmer) ; ramuli sicco laete virides, subangulares, 
glabn, internodiis 2-3 cm. long-is. Folia oblonga vel oblongo- 
eihptica, basi breviter cuneata, apice louge et acute caudato- 
aciimmata, 8-14 cm. longa, 2-5-4-5 em. lata, tenuiter cbartacea, 
utnnque sublaxe reticulata, glabra, sicca pallide viridia; costa 
supra impressa, infra promiueus, straminea; nervi laterales 
utrmsecus circiter 8, a costa sub angulo fere recto abeuntes, prope 
margmem conjuncti, gracillimi ; petioli 5-6 mm. longi, supra 
canahculati ; stipulae cupulatae, caudato-acuminate, 3-4 mm 
longae, margiue setoso-ciliatae. Pedunculi supra-axiUares, 
circiter 6 mm. longi, complaiiati (fere alati), glabri. Flores 
pauci dense capitati; bracteae biuae, oppositae, triangulari- 
lanceolatae, acutae, 2 mm. longae, parce ciliatae ; bracteae 
breviter cupulate, minute ciliolatae. Eeceptaculum late obconi- 
cum, 1-25 mm. longum, minute-puberulum. Calyx 0-65 mm. 
longus minute 5-denticulatus et ciliolatus. CoroUae tubus 
4 mm longus, extra glaber, intra parce pilosus; lobi 5, oblono-i, 
intra breyiter cucullati, 2-.5 mm. longi, 1-5 mm. lati, intra glabH. 
:^tamvna exserta; filamenta 2 mm, longa; antberae 1 mm. longae, 
versatiles leviter curvatae. Stylus gracilis, 3 mm. longus 
glaber, stigmate lobulato. Fructus globosus, 3 mm. diametro, 
minute pubernlus, pedicellis fructiferis 4 mm. longis. 

in\?'''''1aii^™-£''' '^^^?^. ^^"^^- ^^'^^^juma. small tree, 
10 May, 1914, " NeT^-erri " Mendi), G. Ayhncr 78 (type); near 

Liknru, Talla Hills, Feb. ^3, 1892, G. F. Scott ElUot ^^ 

Kenema, Jan. 28, 1915, A^. W. Thowas 7857, 7891, 7946. 

This distinct species may be at once recognised by its small 
closely capitate inflorescences, tlie long-pedicellate subnmbellate 
truits, and the oblong long-caudate leaves. 

Jtf.\ ^^'''c ^c"f''?'"/^' Hut^-f^inson [Compositae-Senecio- 
et r.l' l""''!^! '^^^^"i^^!!' «°^l^«t-- sed planta ubique breviter 
tcnrZt ^^^^^,^ -P^^^' ^°l^f marginibus minute c?enulatis et 
differt '^^' ' ^""^^^^ campanulatis, bracteis paucioribus 

Ilerba usque ad 075 m. alta, erecta, ubique dense glandulosa; 
cauhs subsunplex vel parce ramosus.' Folia numerosa 
mox abrupte reflexa, linearia, apice obtusa et carti La^ 
gineo-incrassata, basi semiamplexicaulia, 5-6 cm. longa. 5-9 mm 
lata, margmibus obtuse crenulatis late recurvatis, iitriiqne piH^ 
glandulosis dense induta. Ca^Atula solitaria, term nali. ^rel 
pauca et laxe corymbosa ; pedunculi circiter 2 cm. lonoi fol^is 
btacte.formibus paucis ornati. Involucri bracteae cTr? ter 14 
crassae, extra dense glandulosae, marginibus abrupte membrnnn' 
ceis, circiter 1 cm. ongae et 0-75 mm? latae. FllrZ S 4 cm" 
expansi flavi; corollae tubus cylindricus, 6 mm. lonV^^s llaber- 
lamma Imeari-oblonga, apice rotundata, 1-5-2 cm Wa 5 mm' 

trTailulares tT m^^^ ''''''"^ latior; lobi 5, obtus 

Acr.^e:L";:;cepubTula°'^"^ pappus corollae tubo aeqnilongus. 

lan^d!T00-3trr^.^n^^^^^ in sliort gr.ss- 



25 



m 



tiiral Officer, Uganda Protectorate, wiio lias collected several 
interesting novelties in tlie temperate zone of Mt. Elgon. 



1644. Mostiiea amabilis, TurrUl [Loganiaceae] ; species 

M. syringaeflorae, S. Moore, affinis sed foliis minoribus, calycis 
lobis minus ciliatis, corollis oampanulatis praecipue differt. 

Frictex parvus, 3-6 dm. altus (ex collectore), ramis glabris vol 
junioribus adpresse pubescentibus teretibus. Folia elliptica vel 
elliptico-ovata, apice obtusa, rotundata vel leviter emai^ginata, 
basi in p-etiolum pubescentem vix 1 mm. longuzu abrupte 
-angustata, usque ad I'T cm. longa et 1-1 cm. lata, margine forte 
plus minusve undulata, nervatione utrinque sub-prominente, 
jsupra yiridia, costa liirsuta excepta glabra, infra pallide 
Tiridia, costa et nervis prineipalibus leviter liirsutis; 
^tipulae interpetiolares 2'5 cm. longae, in dimidio inferiore 
late vaginatae, superiore aciculares. Injiorescentiae axil- 
lares vel terrainales 3-4-ilorae ; bracteae ininutae ; pedunculus 
5'7 mm, longus, gracilis, g-laber; pedieelli usque ad 7 mm. longi, 
^raciles, glabri. Calyx 5-lobatus, lobis oblongo-ovatis 1-5 mm. 
longis 1 mra. latis apice obtusis margine ciliolatis. Corolla cam- 
panulata, 1 cm. longa, diametro basi 1*3 mm., fauce 4-5 mm., 
aurantiaca (in siccitate), lobis late ovatis 3'5 mm. longis 4 mm. 
latis margine minutissime ciliolatis. Stamina 5, subaequalia, fila- 
mentis 5"5 mm. longis leviter glandulosis. Ovarium subcjlindri- 
cum, 1-5 mm, altum, 0'5 mm. diametro, apicom versus hirsutum; 
styli 2 mm, longi. 

Tropical Afktga, Portuguese East Africa : near tbe moutb of 
tlie Musalu River, fl, Dec, C. E. F. Allen 90. 



1645. Thunbergia (Euthunbergia) prostrata, Turrill [Acan- 

tliaceae-Thunbergieae] ; T, primulinae^ 'Kemsl.y affinis sed foliis 
latioribus, floribus longe pedunculatis minoribus praecipue 
differt. 

. Herha gracilis, prostrata, caulibus teretibus, leviter pubescen- 
tibus. Folia late ovatai, apice obtusa vel subacuta, basi sacpe 
■obliqua, * plus minusve truncata vel subcordata vel cuneata, 
petiolo 7 mm. incluso usque ad 5-2 cm. longa et 5'5 cm, lata, 
utrinque leviter pubescentia, margine ciliata, costa et nervis 
pagina inferiore prominentibus, superiore basi excepta impressis. 



Flores in foliorum axillis solitarii, pedunculo 8 cm. longo aspero- 
pubescente; bracteae oblique ovatae, apice acivtae, basi cordatae, 
2-5 cm. longae, 1'5 cm. latae, nervis parallelis 7-9 prominentibus, 
extra pubescentes, intus glabrae. - Corollae tubus cylindricus, 
arcutus, 1'6 cm. longus, 3 
intus in annulo duplici le\ 

fauce 5 mm. diametro; lobi 5, inter se subaequales, 8 mm, longi, 
1 cm. lati, flavi. Stamina 4, filamentis duobus 6 mm. longis, 
duobus 3-5 mm. 'longis, basi pubescentibus ; antlierae 3 mm. longae, 
tliecis subaequalibus calcaratis; poUinis granula spbaeroidea, 
^b fj. diametro. Discus annularis, inconspicuus.- Ovarium ovoi- 
deum, bilateraliter compressum, 3 mm. altum, 2-5 mm. diametro. 



mm. supra basem leviter constrictus et 
riler puberulus, basi 3-5 mm. diametro 



26 



p^labriim; stylus cum stigraate 2'5 mm. longo bilabiato lobis 
aequalibus rotundatis I'l cm. longus. 

Tropical AriiTCA. Britisli East Africa: Common on exposed 
grasslands, 2150-2460 m. ; grown at Kew from seeds collected 



comniunic 



It is said to be a prostrate lierb, growing wbere tliere ia- 
abundant raiufall^ amongst grass, and never climbing. 

r 

1646. Asystasia amoena, Turrill [Acanthaceae-Justicieae] ; 

A. Colae, Eolfe, affinis sed foliis lanoeolato-ellipticis majoriLus, 
bracteolis caljce brevioribus^ corollis majoribus facile dis- 
tinguitur. ■ 

Herha erecta, canlibus teretibus .patenter liirsutis. Folia 
lanceolato-eliiptica, apice acuminata, basi gradatim aiigustata, 
usque ad 14 dm. longa, 3'5 cm. lata, casta nervisque pagina 
superiore subprominentibiis, inferiore prominentibus, nervia 
lateralibus utrinque circiter 6, costa nervisque infra leviter 
liirsutis, alioqui glabra; petiolus circiter 1 cm longus, birsutus. 
Inflorescentia terminalis, patule hirsuta, usque ad 1-8 dm. 
longa; bracteae lineares vel lineari-lanceolatae, 0-6-3-5 cm, 
longae, plus minusve Lirsutae; pedicelli 0-8-2 cm. longi, patule 
hirsuti; bracteolae late ellipticae, aplce obtusa©, V2 cm. longae, 

latae, fere 3 mm. mfra apieem positae, dorse birsutae, 
intus glabrae. Calyiz _5-fidus, segmentis subaequalibus anguste 
elliptico-lanceolatis apice subacutis 1-5-2 cm. longis utrinque 
glandulosis. Corolla late infundibuliformis, 3-5 cm. lon^a, basi 2 
mm. diametro, 2 mm. supra basem dilatata et 3-3 mm. diametro,. 
7 nam. supra basem constricta et intua -m'lnrnTn nnTmln r^r-ao/lifo 



mm 



mm 



alioqui glabra, fau€^ 8 mm. diametro, lobis 5 fere aequalibus 
oblongis obtusis vix 1 cm. longis 4 mm. latis. Stamina 4. glabra, 
filamentis 2-3 cm. lougis, antberis 4 mm. longis tbecis 2 parallelis 
mstructis; pollinis granula breviter ellipsoidea circiter 56 fx 
longa et 48 /x diametro. ^' , . - ■ r- 

Ovarium obovoideum, 2-5 mm. altum, 2 mm. diametro, glalinim; 
stylus 2-9 cm. longus, apice breviter bifidus, supeme leviter 
birsutus praeterea glaber. Capsula spatbulata, 2-2 cm. longa, 
9 mm. lata, glabra. Semina 4, plana, fere orbiculaxia, T-8 mm. 
diametro, rugosa, flava. 

Teopical Africa. Sierra Leone : undergrowtb in Eain Forest - 
common round York Pass, Lane-Poole 180. ' 

+ 

164T. Leucadendron imiflomm, Phillips [Proteaceae- 
Proteae] ; species capitulis 9 unifloris distiiictissima 

Suffrute.v 1-2 m altus. Rami et ramuli glabri vel pubescentes. 
J^oka l-2_6 cm. longa, linearia, apice obtusa, basi angustata, 
glabra. Inflorescentia (f peduncukta, terminalis 6 mm 1— 
4 mm. lata; pedunculus 1 cm. longus. Bracteae 2-5-3 „.m 
longae ovatae vel Imeares apice obtusae, pilosae. PeriantJni 
tubus 6 mm.. Ion - t t • 

pubescentia ; lob 

pubescentes. Antherae 2 mm: longaefiinear^^ 
longus, glaber; stigma 2 mm ' 
9 uniflora, sessilis, 1 cm. Ion 



mm. 



gus cylmdricus, Tillosus; segmenta 1 mm. lon^ra. 



mm 



jlorescentia 

I 4-5-9 mm. 



27 



longae, 4-6 mm. latae, concavae, ovatae, vel ovato-lanceolatae, 
apiee obtusae, aliquando acuminatae, villosae. Periantliii tnhiis 
9 mm. long^us, villosusj segmenta 4 mm. longa, linearia, villosa; 
limb lis 3 mm. long'us, linearis, apice obtusiis. Staminodia 

longa. Ovarium 2 mm, Icngum, 1 mm. latum, globosum, 



villosum^ 

A shrub 1*2 m. high with 7--12 bran cblets • 12-19 cm. long 
arranged in a whorl on the branches, which are produced 
24-2(5 cm. beyond the whorl and bear the inflorescences. Branches 
and branchlets glabrous or ver\'' iinelj pubescent. Leaves similar 
in both sexes, 1-2-6 cm. long, linear, obtuse, narrowed to the 
base, glabrous; when boiled out the leaves appear rough which 
is due to striations in the walls of the epidermal cells.* Male 
inflorescence peduncled, terrainal on short axillary shoots; 
peduncle surrounded by the upper leaves, 1 cm. long, bracteate; 
head 6 mm. long, 4 mm. in diameter, few flowered. Flowers in 
the axils of bracts. Bracts 2'5-3 mm, long, obtuse; finely pilose 
on the upper half; the outer 1*5 mm. broad, ovate; the inner 
1 mm, broad linear. Perianth-tube 3 mm. long, cylindric, 
villous; segments 1 mm. long, pubescent: limb 2"5 mm. long, 
linear-lanceolate, obtuse, pubescent with glabresccnt tips. 
Anthers 2 mm, long, linear. , Style arising from apex of perianth- 
tube, 1'5 mm. long, cylindric, glabrous; stigma 2 mm. long, 
somewhat clavate, minu 



fl 



cence terminal on short axillary shoots, one-flowered, sessile, 



1 cm, long, T mm 
leaves. Oiit 



4^6 mm. broad. concaT 



ovate, obtuse, some shortly and bluntly acuminate, villous with 



g, concave 



lanceolate, obtuse, villous. Perianth-tuhe 9 mm, long, densely 
villous, segments 4 mm. long, linear, villous; limb 3 mm. long, 
linear, obtuse, Staininodes 2'5 mm. long. Ovary 2 mm. long, 
1 mm. in diameter, globose, densely villous; style 8 mm. long, 
cylindric, glabrous; stigma not seen. 



South Africa. 



M 



Pass, about 320 m,, October, Galpin 4441, 4442 (and in National 
Herbarivm, Union of South Africa 800, 801). 

This species approaches L. coryvihosuin, Berg,, in habit but 
differs in having the male inflorescence pedunculate; also allied 
to L. ericifoliinn, R, Br., but diifers in the longer and thicker 
leaves, and by the fleshy glabrous or almost glabrous male bracts. 

4 

1648- Phyllanthus asperulatus, Ihitchimon [Euphorbiaceoe- 

Phyllantheae] ; affinis P. Niruri, Linn., sed ramulis asperulatis 
disco 9 mintis lobato differ!. 



* Mr. Boodle has examined these leaves and makes the loWowm^ obser- 
vations : 

" In a transverse section of a leaf, the cuticle appears slightly warted. 
This is dne to longitudinal cuticular rideres, of which there a'^e usually 
three or four over each epidermal cell, extending for the greater part of 
the length of the cell. 

A soaked leaf has a rather white appearance OTving to reflection of 
light from a substance occupying the cavities of the epidermal cells, 
and having sphaerocrystalline structure." 



28 



Flanta annua, circiter 2-5 dm. alta, in parte superiore tertia 
ramo&a; caulis inferne nudus, straminens, minute et parce 
scabrido-puberulus ; ramuli foliati, compresso-angulares, marg*ini- 
"bus minute asperulati. Folia oblongo-elliptica, utrinque rotun- 
data, 0-8-1*2 cm. longa, 4-8 mm. lata, membranacea, glabra, 
sicco glauco-viridia; nervi laterales utrinsecus 5-6, supra vix 
evidentes, infra wsatis prominuli; petioli graciles, circiter 1 mm. 
longi ; stipulae subulato-lanceolatae, acutae, membranaceae, 
1 mm. longae. Flares monoici, rf iu parte inferiore, 9 ^^ parte 
superiore ramulorum dispositi. Fedicelli (f brevissimi; sepala 6. 
obovata, apice rotundata, 1 mm. longa, 1-nervia, membranacea, 
hyalina, glabra; disci glandulae 6, "planae, rotundatae, laeves; 
stamina 3, filamentis brevissimis in columnam connatis, antheris 
transverse dehiscentibus. Flores ? brevissime pedicellati ; 
sepala ^ 6, subacuta, membranacea, virideseentia, marginibua 
Kyalinis, glabra. Ovarium^ laeve, stylis breyibus e basi patenti- 
bus apicibus incrassatis bifidis. Capsula mox dehiscens, integra 
non visa, parietibus crustaceis tenuissimis. Semina triquetra, 
dorso cpnvexa, crebre et longitudinaliter sulcata. 

South Africa. Kalahari Region: Transvaal; Komati Poort, 
320 m., Dec, Schlechter 1186G, 

^ 

1G49. rhyllanlhus delagoensis, Hutchinson [EupliorLiaceae- 
Phyllantlieae] ; affiiiis P, heterophyllo, Muell. Arg., sed stigma- 

tibus siibintegris et subsessilibus, foliis minimis dense dispositis 
diifert. 

■ Caules ut videtur e rliizomate lignoso orti, e basi ramosi, sulcati, 
glabri; ramuli satis foliati. J'olia late elliptica vel oblongo- 
elliptica, utrinque obtusa, 3^-5 mm. longa, 1-2-5 mm. lata 



oriaoea 



anaceae. Flores 



monoici, masculi in ramulorum parte superiore, foemini in 
parte inferiore dispositi. Pedicelli <^ breves et grociles; 
sepala 6, maequalia, lanceolata, subacuta, usque ad 1 mm. longa, 
glabra; disci glandulae minimae et rotundatae, laeves; 
stamina 3; filameuta breviter connata; antlierae mao-na© 
transverse debiscentes. Pedicelli 9 1-1-5 mm. longi; sepala g' 
quam cf majora et subaequalia; discus patelliformis, leviter 
undulatus, carnosus, glaber; stigmata subintegra et fere sessilia- 
capsula et semina non visa. ' 

South Africa. Eastern Eegion : Delagoa Bay; Lorenzo 
Marques, 7?. Schlechter 11663. 



1650. Isachne an 



Staff [Gramineae-Paniceae] 



hiantibus versus apices paniculae ramorum congestis et glumis 
angustis facile distmctu. ^^ 

Perennis \^^^ caespitosa, ad 25 cm. alta, rbizomate graeili 
mnovationibus extrayagmalibus, gemmis cataplivllis tenuibus 

'd^ntel" Ses fl"'"; ""^"T P^.^---'^-- geAiculato-ascin- 

inTe ^od. rf/'-/.!?j;^l "^1^^^^^^ Pl-:-a- plurinodi. 



peme 



K«a w 1- • ^-K.....o ov^^criiit^ auprej^se puDescenti- 



marcrines 



ciliatum 



reductae; laminae lanceolatae, acuta?, basi subrotundatr 



29 



1-5-3 cm, longae, 3-6 mm. ]atae, planae, patentee, rigidulao, 
^ubglaucae, glabrae, laeves vei sublaeves, nervis peiinultis 
toiiiiissimis, primariis subtiis utrinque circiter 3 subdistinctis. 
Paincidae longe e summa vagina exsertae, ambitu ovatae, 
1-5^ cm. longae, graciles, glabrae; rami primarii obliqui, iiifimi 
ad 2-1 cm. iougi, ad medium indivisi, abliiiic in racemum 
basi saepe compositiim contractum abeuutes; pedicelli iuferiores 
3-4 mm, longi, snmmi et racemulorum laterales multo breviores. 
Spiculae hiantes 1-75 mm. longae, pallide vel glauco-virides; 
rliacliillae iniernodia brevissima, sed distincta. Glumae 
aeqiiales, oblongae, 1-5 mm. longae, subacutae vel obtusiuscu- 
lae, scaberulae. Antlioecium inferum $ oblongnm, subobtusum : 

valva tenniter 5-nervis, pallida, tenuiter chartacea; valvnia 
structnra valvae; lodiculae tenuissimae capillaribus, ploiumque. 
Aiithevae filamentis inter stigmatis piles I'etentae, 0*25 mm. longae. 
Anthoecium swpenim 9 ? infero applicatum et id paulu excendcns, 
ei simillimiim; lodiculae ut videtur 0; stamina ad staminuJiu 
minuta vix 0'2 mm. longa clavata redacta. 
Bourbon. Without precise locality, Balfonr. 



v.— THE REV. H. F. TOZER AND PLANTS 
COLLECTED BY HIM IN THE NEARER EAST. 

AV. B, TUERILL. 

Amongst a collection of dried plants recently presented to Kew 
by Miss E. M. Wakefield were found a number of specimens 
collected in the Balkans and Orient by the Eev. H. F. Tozer. 
Some of these come from localities which have been very little 
visited by botanists, such as the Scardus (Shar Dagh or Shar 
Planina) and Pindus Eanges and Mt. Olympus in Lesbos 
(Mitylene). ^, , 

The Eev. H. F. Tozer, M.A., F.B.G.S., was born at Plymouth 
in 1829 and died at Oxford on 2nd June, 1916. He became a 
Fellow of Exeter College in 1893 and was a well-known figure m 
Oxford. He traA'elled extensively in Europe and the Orient, 
especially in Greece and the old Turkish Empire. Numerous 
journevs were made to tliese interesting regions and many moun- 
tain ranges and peaks were climbed. His most noteworthy 
ascent was that of Mount Argaeus, the highest summit of Asia 
Minor. His chief works dealing largely with the Nearer East 
are: " The Highlands of Turkey," 2 vols., 1869; " Lectures on 
the Geography of Greece," 187:;^; "Primer of Classical Geo- 
graphy," 1877; Turkish Armenia and Eastern Asia 3iinor 
1881'- " The Church and the Eastern Empire," ISSS; Ihe 
Islands of the Aegean," 1890; and "History of Ancient 
Geoo-raphy," 1897. He edited Finlay's "History of Greece, 
1877 and Wordworth's " Greece," 1882, and was also the author 
of the following articles in the Encyclopcnedia Britannica, ed. 11 : 
Attica ; Euboea ; Santorin ; Thessaly ; Thrace and Trebizond. An 



30 



obituary notice of liim was published in tlie Geo^r. Journ. vol. 

48, p. 176 (Aug. 1916). 



and Mr. C. H. W 

above particulars. 



M.A., F.L.S,, 

in traciner the 



H 



TOZER IN THE BaLKANS AND OllIENT. 



Ranunculus Villarsii, DC. (E. oreopliilus, M.B.). Macedonia : 
Scardus, 1865. 

Nigella Damascena, L. Greece: Corinth; Isthmus. 
Delphinium orientale, J. Gay. Macedonia : Chalcidice, 18G1. 
Glauciuvi flavum, Cr. Macedonia: shores of Athos. 
Capimris sicula, Duh. Greece: Euboea, Chalcis. 

Dianthus erinaceus, Boiss., var alpinus, Boiss. Anatolia- 
Mt. Ida, 1861. 

Dianthus hmmatocalyx, Boiss. et Heldr. Thessaly: Mt. 
Oljmpus, 1865. "^' 

Dianthus deltoides, L. Macedonia: Scardus, 1865. 

Cerastium alpinum, L. Macedonia : Scardus. 1865. 
Hyp ■ ,.-.-- 



Anatolia : Mt 



Hypericum Aucheri, Jaub. et Spach. Anatolia: Mt 



■/ 



Macedonia; Scardus, 1865. 



Mt 



- ... - , — Ya.r. rumelicum, Vel. Macedonia: 

bcardxis. 

Anthyllis Vulneraria, L. var. Dillenii, Schult. Thessalv • 
t. Olympus, 1865. ^ ' 

Anthyllis aurea, Host. Thessaly: Mt. Olympus, 1865. 

Astragalus cephalonicus, Presl. Greece:' Phocis; Peaks of 
Parnassus. 

Lathyrus grandiflorus, Sibth. Macedonia: Athos. 
Gemn montanum, L. Macedonia: Scardus, 1865. 
Geum coccineum, S. et S. Macedonia: Scardus 1865 
Potentilla ternata, Koch. Macedonia : Scardus, 1865 
Rosa pendulina, L. Macedonia : Pindus, 1861. 

Saanfraga chrysopleni folia, Boiss. Greece: More- 
Saxif ■"-.... 



^axifraga tederici-Augusti, Bias. Macedonia: Athos, 1861. 
Thessaly: Mt. Olympus, 1861. 

Samfraga heucheri folia . Griseh. Macedonia: Scardus 1865 
Saxilraga sanct^, Griseb.^ Macedonia: Peaks of Athos,' 1861.' 
baxifraga Sihthorpii, Boiss. Greece: Phocis; Peaks of Par- 
nassus, near the snow, 1861. 

Bupleurum odontites, L. Macedonia : Chalcidice f 9) 
Asverulaarcadiensis,^ims. Greece: Achaea; Megaspelion. 
PterocephalusParnassi,^^reT,^, Anatolia : Mt. IdS 1861 

Greece Td If tT^^ ^^^o^^^ion in the mountainous districts of 
Greece and it has also been found on Athos but, so far as the 
writer knows, has not been previously recorded from Asia Minor 
The nearly related Pterocephalus. Pinardi takes the place of P 

nie.t on .his mountain r.Ji:^P^.ar^i^^^^^^:^ 



31 



F. Parnassi hj its laser caespitose habit, more divided foliage 
leaves^ and narrow and longer involucral leaves. 

Centmirea rupestris, L. var. atlioa, DC, (pr. sp.) Macedonia: 
Atlios, 1861. 

Centaurea rupestris, L. var. hirtella, Posp. Anatolia : Ida, 

1861. 

Hieracixim Tloppeanum^ Scliultes. Macedonia: Scardns, 1865. 

Cavipanula oreadum, Boiss. et Heldr. Thessaly : Mt. 
Olympus, 1865. 

Campanula patula, L. Macedonia: Scardus, 18C5, 

Bruckeiithalia spiculi flora, Rclib. Macedonia: Scardus, 1865, 

Datura Stramonium, L. Macedonia: Atlios, Iveron. 
I Atropa Belladonna, L, Macedonia: peak of Athos, 1861. 

Thymus Serpyllum, L, Macedonia: Scardus, 1865. 

Aristolochia Clematitis, L. Macedonia : -Chalcidice, near 
Erisso. 

Euphorbia myrsinites, L. Greece: Phocis; Parnassus. 

Daphne oleoides, Sobreb. var. glandulosa, Bert. ^Macedonia: 
Mt. Pindns. 

Daphne oleoides, Sclireb. var. puherula, Jaub. et Spacb. 
Greece: Pbocis; Mt. Parnassus. Tbessaly: Mt. Olympus, 1865. 

Orchis papilionncea, L. Lesbos (Mitylene) : Pyrrba, 1886. 

Scilla hifolia, L, Lesbos (Mitylene) : Mt. Olympus, 1886. 

AnthericuTn Liliago, L. Thessaly: Mt. Olympus, witbin the 
region of the trees. 

- Sternhergia lutea, L, Greece : Arcadia ; Muchli and Kary- 
tena, Sept. 1882. 

Sternhergia colchiciflora, W. et K. Macedonia : northern 
lieights of Pindus. 

Gagea foliosa, Presl. Lesbos (Mitylene) : Mt. Olympus, 1886. 



VI.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Sir William MacGregge. — Best known for bis remarkably 
successful administrative work under tbe Colonial Office, tbe 
Eigbt Hon. Sir William MacGregfor, G.C.M.G., wbose deatli 
took place in Aberdeen on July 3, was distinguisbed in several 
ways, and will be remembered not only as a great Governor, but 
as a medical man, an explorer, and a collector of natural bistory 
objects. In tbe last-named capacity and as tbe donor of col- 
lections made under bis direction be became known to Kew about 
-30 years ago, wben specimens of several plants used as foods, 
etc., in British IsTew Guinea, of wbicb Sir 'William MacGregor 
was tbe first Lieutenant-Governor^ were received from bim 
tbrougb Sir P. von Mueller, to wbom be bad previously sent a 
collection of interesting plants from tbe New Guinea bigblands; 
of tbe latter many were ne^ and were described by Mueller in 
tbe Transactions of tbe Royal Society of Victoria, vol. i. pt. 2, 
pp. 1-45 (1889). Larger collections from New Guinea and tbe 
Louisiade Arcbipelago were received direct from Sir William in 
1889-90 and in 1897 and 1899. Tbese included numerous speci- 
mens, in many instances of new species, collected on Mount 



•Til 



Scratchlej^, and on tlie AVharton Range and in tlie Vanapa. 
Valley, INew Guinea, by A. Giulianetti and A. E. English, of 
wliich an account was given in the Kew Bulletin, 1899, p. 95. 
In 1901 and 1902, while Governor of Lagos, Sir William Mac- 
Gregor contributed three collections to the Herbarium, including 
382 specimens collected by T. B. Dawodu. In 1904 he' was trans- 
ferred to_ Newfoundland, where he remained till 1909, and during- 
this period he personally conducted a scientific expedition to 
Labrador, the object of which was to fix the longitude of some 
of the principal points on the coast, to make astronomical, 
meteorological, hydrographic, and niineralogical investigations, 
and to collect botanical and zoological specimens. The expedi- 
tion was a great success. With the assistance of others and par- 
ticularly of the Rev. P. Hettaschi, of the Moravian Mission, col- 
lections of nearly 400 specimens were made and sent toivew. 
Enumerations of these were published in the Kew Bulletin, 1907 
pp. 76-88, and 1908, pp. 135-137. Sir William's last contribu- 
tion to the Herbarium was a small collection made in Grant 
Land by Capt. Bartlett, received in May, 1910. His services to 
botany are commemorated in the names of species of Hypericum, 
^t/6M5 Gentiana, Cyathea, Daltonia, Ectrofothecium and 
iichlotheimia, the last three being genera of Mosses. 
• ^T^ learn from the interesting notice, with portrait, published 
in the Aberdeen Grammar School Magazine for October, that Sir 
William MacGregor was bom at Towie, Upper Donside 
October 20, 1846, so that at the close of his eventful and extra- 
ordinarily useful life he was 72 years of age; Lady MacGregor 
survived him only a few months, her death having occurred 
suddenly on December 4. s A s 



?r1- -.'^v T- ."• Trail—The following list of papers, 
pub ished by the late Prof J W. H. Trail, is a suppWnt to 
the list already printed m K.B., 1919, p. 381 : — 

r 

Publications of Pkopessor Trail. 

Supplementary List. 

The modes of ^i^Persion of tlie seeds of Scottish wild plants. 
Perths. Soc. Sci. Proc. 1881-86, pp. 57-63 

Q Ti^\,^^*^*ifs°f dispersion of the seeds of Scottish wild plants. 
hcot. JNat. 1881-82, p. 25T. 

«;?\*\^ TT'l^^^ l\ Monoecious plants oi Mercurialis pcren- 
nis. Scot. iN^at. 1883 84, p. 96. 

..?V^r^?''"f1 ^^'^""f't; Co^""^' Entyloma canescens, Shrot, 
and A. Lalendulae, Oud. Scot. ^at. 1883-84 p 180 

Report on fungi. E. Scot. Fnion Rpt. 1 'p 55 

Report on tiie fungi of the east of Scotland. E. Scot. Unioii 



I 



33 



Report for 188G on fungi of east of Scotland. E. Scot. Union 
Proc. 1886, p. 69. 



Eeport for 1888 on fungi of east of Scotland. 



Scot. Nat. 



1887-88, pp. 355-357. 

Eeport for 1887 on the fungi of tlie east of Scotland. E. 
Scot. Union Proc. 1888, p. 27. 

Unconscious influence of liuman agency on tlie flora of Scot- 
land. Gard. Chron. 1889, ser. 3, vol. vi, p. 103. 

Eeport for 1888 on the fungi of the east of Scotland. 
Scot. Union Proc. 1889, p. 37. 

natiuiJ' Diutera of Scotland. E. Snot. Union 



E. 



Proc 



1889, p. 41. 

Eeport for 1889 on the fungi of the east of Scotland. E. Scot 
Union Proc. 1890, p. 49. 

The work of the British Association in 1889 in i elation to 
Scottish Scientific Societies. E. Scot. Union Proc. 1890, p. G8. 

The British Association in its relation to local natural history 



museums. 



Proc 



XJ 



E 



E. Scot. 



species 



Perthg. Soc. Nat. 



Inverness Sci. Soc. 



Sci. Trans. & Proc. 1, 1891, p. 207. 

Additions to the Elora of Scotland, 
Trans, iii, 1893, p. 408. 

First records of Scottish plants. Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist. 1894, 
pp. 122-123. 

Botanical Notes from Mu.rthly. Perths. Soc. Nat. Sci, Trans. 
& Proc. ii, 1895, pp. 127-131. , ■. ■ > 

Notes on the Elora of Buchan. Trans. Buchan Field Club, v, 

1900, pp. 174-179. 

Aliens. Trans. Aberdeen Working Men's Nat. Hist. & Sci. 

Soc. 1901-06. BID. 203-206. 



■ I 



Additions to Gardens.— Railway and transport difficulties last 
continued to interfere witli the interchange of material 

The total number of 
"Separate consignments, large and small, to the Gardens was 



year 

l)etween Kew and other establishments. 



more 



Edinhurgh, Eojal Botanic Garden. 



p'h 



and Szechuan ; Gentiana hea:aphylla. 
Singapore Botanic Garden.- — 3 Wardian 



other plants; various seeds. 



seeds. 



Garden. — 370 packets of Himalajan 



Arnold Arhoretum (Prof, Sargent). — ^Various see-''^^ and seed- 



lings of trees and shrubs, including Cunninghamia Konishii. 
Loanda Botanic Garden, Angola. — Various seeds, ^ includir 

Trichoscypha sp., " a distinct and omamelital palm/' ironi Porti 
LBse Congo, Eaphia'sp. and Ennedpogon mollis. ' 

Washington. Denartment of Ap^rirulfnre. — Yarioui platits an 



mg 



¥> 



seeds, including new species of Cactacea)s. 



c 



34 



Somaliland, Britisli (the Secretariat). — Seeds of '' Yebb/' 
Cordeauxia edulis^ for distribution. 

Melbourne Botanic Garden. — Bulbs of bybrid AVatsonias, 
Houg Kong Botanic Garden. — ^Seeds of Faulownia Fortunei. 
Eoyal Horticultural Society. — Seeds of Stevia liehaudiana. 
Trinidad, Royal Botanic Garden. — Wardian case of plants, 

Hibiscus hybrids. 

Pretoria Botanical Department (Dr. I. B. Pole-Evans), — Seeds 

and plants of new or rare succulents, including Pachypodium 

ISealii^ Commiphora sp. and Trichocaulon cactiforme. 

Khartoum Palace Garden (F. Sillitoe). — Seeds and bulbs- 
Virgin Islands Experimental Station. — ^Seeds of Thrinax Mot- 

risiiy Mamillaria nivosa; Yams, etc. 

Zionist Commission, Palestine. — Various bulbs and corms. 
Dehra Dun, Forest Research Institute (B. B. Osmast-on,).^ — 

Seeds of Strohilanthes atropurpureus and >S'* Wallickii* 

Glasnevin Royal Botanic Garden. — Various plants and seeds. 
Liverpool Botanic Garden.^ — Various stove plants and orchids. 



Mr. G. W. E. Loder, Wakehurst Place. — Various trees and 

shrubs, 150 packets of Chinese seeds, Hanashiisaya asiatica. 

Mr. E. H. Wilson, Korea. — Seeds, Taiwania cryptomeriodes, 
from Formosa. 

Mr. J. C. Williams, Caerhays Castle. — Many packets of Chinese 

seeds. / 

Mr. S. Morris, Norwich. — ^CoUection of seedling Montbretias. 

Hon, Vicary Gibbs, Aldenham. — Plants and cuttings of trees 
and shrubs, including Castanopszs hystrix. 

Sir Arthur Hort, Bt., Harrow.^Seeds of Chinese Primulas, 

Mr. H. A: Moore, Saintfield.--Six Rhododendron callimor- 
phurriy Picea morindoides, etc. ; ' 

Mr. H. J. Elwes, Colesborne. — 55 packets of Chinese seeds. 
Lady Hanbury, La Mortola.— Collection of seeds, including 

Juhaea spectahilis, 

Mr. C. H. Percival, 'Morj^eih. —Habcnan-orchis virldimaculata. 
Mr. J. Hudson, Gunnersbury. — Amaryllis Parleri x Crinum, 
and Amaryllis ParJceri x Clivia. 

Mr. E. D. Sturtevant, California. — Beaumontia fragrans. 

Mr. 0. ^. Badewell, Streatham.— Collection of seed? from 

Yemen, Arabia^ 

?^^;.^^^^' Dublin.— Seeds, Glyptostrohus heterophyllus. 
Lady Pentland, Hereford Square.— ZzTmw neilgherrense. 

Sir Alex, Hosie, Sandown.— Seeds of Pima Armandii from 
Yunnan. , 

^Messrs. F. Sander and Sons, St. Albans.— " Xeropliytes from 
tlie mountains m Central Madagascar "—? Pachypodium sp. 

I,' i' ^°'^'''^' Paraguay.— Seeds of Stevia Rebaudiana. 

Mr. G-, W. Parsons, BnsmgsioU.~Ar,xnd{naria tessellata. 

Messrs. Boustead and Co., Leadenhall Street.— Se^ds from 
Brazil. 



- * 



Mr. E. Frosio, Uruguay.— Seeds of Pouteria Frosiana. 

A^r ^' ?^ HotliscMld, St. S^itliin's Lane.— Collections of 
seeds from China. .: ■' 

^^ r 

Mr. C. H. Lankester, Costa Rica.— OrcMds and Bromeliads. 



35 



Mr. R. M 



State. 



W 



Hon 



WestoiilDirt .—Hybrid Cymbi Jiums . 

_ ^ Orcliids from New Guinea. 

Mr. E. Brown, Uganda. — Pancratium trianthum, various 

Orcliids. • , . J ,7 • 

Mr A K. Bulley, Nestou.— Seeds of A^omoc/iam />ama7if /una. 

Mr. il. 0. Williams, Trinidad.— Twelve Orcliids from 

Trinidad, 17 packets of Palm seeds. . _ 

Mr W. E. Dykes, Godalming.— Collection of Irises. 
Mr. G. B. Michell, Perak.^Plants and seeds of 6 species of 

Passiflora. 

Colonel S. R. Clarke, Cuckfield.— Seeds, Jimiperus procera. 

Mr. F. Fyles, Ottawa. — Seeds, Zizania aquattca. 

Professor J. H. Wilson, St. Andrews.— Hybrid Passifloras.^ 

Mr. R. Farrer. — Seeds from Upper Burma, including 
Meconopsis and Cremanthodiuvi, 

Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bt., Monreitli. — Seeds of Iris from Tibet, 
and of a wliite Martagon lily. 

Mrs. E. C. Villiars, Bexliill. — Anaectochilus regalis from 

Ceylon. 

Sir jSTormau Lamont, Bt., Toward. — Rosa saturata. 

Sir Edmund Loder, I3t., Leonardslee. — Yarious trees, including 

Platanus hispanica. 

Sir John Ross of Bladensburg, Rostrevor. — ^Yarious shrubs. 
Professor Gaudron, Ecuador. — Salanum immita and S. Maglia. 
Major F. C. Stern, Goring-by-Sea. — Lilium Farreri, Populus 

canescens and P. lasiocarpa. , 

Donard Nursery Company, Newcastle, co. Down. — Yarious 



trees and shrubs. 



Ma 



Yarious trees and shrubs. 



Hislop, Ehodesia. — Yarious native plants. 



H 



Coryliis tibetica. 



Messrs. Houghton and Co., Eastcheap. — Bulbs, Urginea 
maritima. 

Corporal E. C Phillips, Union Defence Forces.- — Seeds of WeU 
witschia mirabilis and Caralluma sp. 

Mr. J, S. Gamble, East Lis.s. — Seeds of Dendrocalamus longis- 
patJius. 

Mr. M. T. .Da we, Bogota, Colombia. — Seeds of numerous rare 
and interesting plants, incduding Arecastrum sp., Quercus toli- 
Tnensisy Arracacha esculenta and Befarias. 

Surplus plants were distributed as usual, either in exchange 
with botanic gardens or as gifts to various teaching institutions, 
and there was the usual distribution of seeds saved from the culti- 
vated plants. The total number of packets distributed was 1833 
of trees and shrubs, and 1151 of hardy herbaceous plants. The most 
important of the seeds obtained for special distribution were — 
Yebb (CordeaiLTta ediilts)^ Ceratotheca sesamoidesy Stevia Re- 
haudiana, Pouteria Frosiana^ Rhopatostylis sapida^ Bamhusa 
arundinacea, and Pinus Armandii. 

Among the recipients of plants from Kew were the following : 



eybridge Laboratory — 489 trees 



C 2 



36 



Mr. P. D. \Yilliams, Lanartli — 50 Eucalyptus Gunnii and other 
trees. 

Mr. H. Cliuton Baker, Oaklands. — Trees and shrubs. 

Mr. A. Grove, Alder River Nursery. — Acers. 

Lady Stair, Castle Kennedy .^lIlLododendrons. 

Mr. H. A. Moore, co. Down. — Chinese llhododendrons. 

Hon. Vieary Gibbs, Aldenham. — 225 trees and shrubs. 

Marquis of Headfort, Kells. Trees and shrubs. 

Mr. F. E. S. Balfour, Dawyck. — Trees and shrubs. « 

Sir Hesketh Bell, Mauritius, — AVurdian case of ornamental 
plants. 

The flower beds and borders, which owing to the need created 

by the war had been devoted to the cultivation of vegetables, 

w^ere restored to their former use. The parterre in front of the 

Palm House was sown with grass seeds in spring, and in the 

autumn the flower beds were cut out on a plan slightly diiferent 

from the previous one. Potatoes were grown a^'ain on the lawn 

in front of the Palace, and vegetables in the nursery near the 
Palace. 



Arboretum. — One of tlie most noticeable results 2)rotluced in 
tlie Arboretum by tbe conditions of the last five years Las been 
the overcrowding of shrubs in the botanical collections. The 
occupants of an ordinary shrubbery may be allowed to become 
fairly crowded without greatly reducing its use and eff,ectivene:.s, 
especially where the system of grouping together plants of each 
species or variety is adopted, but in the botanical arrangements it 
IS very desirable that each plant should have room for its full 
individual development, so that its character and value are ' 
shown ._ A thorough and systematic overhauling of many of the 
collections has, therefore, become necessary and a beginning was 
made last autumn with the barberries and magnolias The 
central mound in the Berberis Dell is occupied almost wholly by 
barberries. These have been thinned out, duplicates removed 
and a grass path made over the mound so that plants in the 
centre can now be easily examined by visitors. Owino- to the 
numerous new species introduced from China the collection is 
now a very extensive and interesting one, and of great horti- 
cultural value. ° 

The plants in the fine collection of magnolias adjoining, which 
give one of the most popular displays at Kew every spring, were 
alsxi suffering from want of room to develop. By the removal of 
a few common treses close by space has been obtained to enable 
us to spread out the magnolias. This genus has had some very 
interesting additions made to it through Mr. IVil.on's work in 
China Of these M o^ctnahs, M. Wihonii and M. Sargentiana 
have for some time been established at Kew, and M. Dawsoniana 
Bml M Ntchohomana h^ye TeceiAly been obtained. Another 
interesting specimen is a healthy plant of the Himalayan 

■ lon?^ -?■?•'' ^^ ^> V^^' ^''^^ *^°"^ seed sent from Calcutta 
in 1904. This species is usually considered to be not very hardv 

but this tree has not suffered from cold up to the present. The 



37 



Af. salicif 



every 



spring, M. Wihonii flowered for tlie first time at Kew last 
summer; it is allied to, and seems to be as beautiful as, M. 
j)aTvifioraj and like tliat species flowers on tlie leafy sboots of 

the current year. 

In the Berberis Dell is also situated the collection of 
Heliaiithemum and Cisttis, which grow on a slope on the northern 
side- This slope has been transformed into small terraces by 
the use of some yellow limestone originally obtained from 

Gloucestershire for the Rock Garden. 

The erection of the new flagstaff^ (see K.B., 1919, p.^ 393), 
involved a certain amount of alteration and renovation in the 
immediate neighbourhood, but thanks to tho care exercised by 
the contractors not so much as might have been anticipated. 

The Water-lily pond in the Arboretum (J 5 on the Key Pkn), 
formed originally in 1896, had become overshadowed and its 
area contracted by the vegetation overhanging its banks, much 
o-P TxrliioL TVQQ r>nT>T7-»n«Arl n-f rnmmnTi lanrpl mid other uninteresting 

noved and replaced 



mater 



occa 



by more ornamental and interesting plants. 

also taken to provide swampy recesses on the banks for such 

water-loving plants as Siberian iris and Primula japonica. 

Most of the lawns that during the war had been left to grow 
for hay have been got back to their original condition. This 



and the drought during the early summer reduced the hay crop 
1 i_ •!__ xi__i. _j! : — „:„«^ rji-j^g 21 acres of lawn in 



much 



1^1 



witli potatoes, the varieties used being "Majestic," "Ally," 
and " Kerr's Pink," all of wliicli are immune from tlie dreaded 
wart disease. Good crops were obtained, and tlie potatoes of 
eating size were readily disposed of in tlie neighbourhood, whilst 
the " seed " was purchased by the Government of Luxemburg'. 

Valuable contributions either in the shape of seeds or of small 
plants of trees and shrubs were received during 1919 from the 
Botanic Gardens' of Edinburgh and Calcutta, the Arnold 
Arboretum, Messrs. Eley, Elwes, G. W. E. Loder, Lionel de 
Eothschild, and J. C. Williams, the Marquis of Headfort, Sir 
Edmund G. Loder, and the Hon. Yicary Gibbs, the most_ im- 
portant being seeds collected in China by Forrest and by Wilson 
m Japan and Korea. To the trade firms of Messrs. Hillier of 
Winchester, Chenault of Orleans, and White of Suimin^dale, 
Kew has also to express its obligations for valued contributions. 



Museums. — It is satisfactory to record that during the past 
year the work of the department has progressed more on normal 
iines as the Temporary- Preparer and remaining Museum Porter 



from 



the col- 



lections could therefore be accelerated. After a long period 
of service Mr. G. Badderly retired from the position of Pre- 
parer {K.B., 1919, p. 315), and has been succeeded by Mr. L. J. 
Harding, who has acted for several years past as Temporary 

Preparer. 



38 



Museuins 



some interesting and valuable additions have been made to the 
collections. Tlie work of cliecldng and relabelling the 
specimens in Museum N"o. I is nearing completion, and it is 



much. 



building may be redecorated. 



nftminsr and 



reporting upon a large nun^ber of varied economic products and 
m iurnisliing general information to correspondents, casual 
callers, and to the many individuals who have systematically 
studied the collections. 



_ ine Lruide whicli has been prepared for Museum No. IV. has 
]ust been published. 

Museum No. IV. is at the northern end of a walled garden 
to the left of, and three minutes' walk from the Main Gate, and 
two minutes walk from the northern end of the Eock Garden. 
It occupies Cambridge Cottage, formerly the residence of H.R.H. 
(Z.R 1911 ^^J]'^"'^^^ ^^^1 ^^« •opened to the public in IBIO 

The object of the Museum is to direct attention to British 
forestry-, and m most instances the specimens on view have been 
grown, manufactured or collected in the British Isles Where 
h<)wever a comparison between articles produced in Britain and 

+inTM "f ' °i^ T'^^'" ^^^^a^^ter produced elsewhere hag been 
thought desirable, they have been included. A great deal still 
remains to be done to make the collections complete, but as 
numerous inquiries have been made regarding a guide a pro- 
visional one has been prepared which will be added to as the 
collections increase. 



Many of the objects connected with forestry operations 
diflicult to reproduce on a small scale in a museum n^ 



are 



museum, and at 



present the scope of this museum has been limited to collections 

fl^r^/l' ^T^f ^""^ '%'^l '^. '''''' ^^^d specimens of a few 
types of hardy trees and shrubs, photographs of isolated tree^ 

plantations and natural regeneration of trees, the fundus and 
insect diseases of trees, articles manufactured f.n. "p'-.f!"^ 



wn 



from British- 



arboricultural operations. 



Presentations to Museums— The following miscellaneous 

quinquegona, etc. ^a,Lutn, ^raisia 

Ca^ehfr'^^; ^%'^ Horticultural Society.^Dried specimens of 
i^aa-ehe {6levta Rehaudiana), Paraguay 

UoZ^lf\ ^f?^ ^r'^''' ^""^^^'' ^-Two straw hate, 
ftmtTctanrOhta.'"' ""^ --elianeous fruits and seeds 

Cefa^; f/«W ^^^'^' ^^^^^^^f ^^^^' London, S.W.-Woods of 
Red StinWn^/7p ^"'"''^^i Ironwood (Olea Hochstetteri), and 
Ked btmkwood {Pygeum africanum) from British V...i \dU 



39 



M 



r 

F. 0- Creed, East Croydon. — Sample of ^vax from stem 



of Ceroxylon andicola from Tolima, Colombia. 



M 



Yeo, East Dean, near Eastbourne. — Cones of Cedrus 



Lihani from Mount Lebanon. 



IT 



J, S. 



am 



C.I,E., F.E.S., East Liss, Hants, 



Sections of Beech and Hazel injured by Honeysuckle.^ 

Director of Agriculture, Southern Provinces, Nigeria. — Fibre, 
yarn and '' Ufa '' cloth prepared from the bark of Coiwpharynpia 
pachysiphoTiy also samples of twine prepared at Old Calabar from 
the fibres of Agave americanay Agave rigida, var. sisalana and 

Hibiscus vitifoliiis* 

Mrs. Trelawney Adams, Beaconsfield, Kew Green. — Xative 
dress of Hibiscus fibre, ornamented with ferns, from the Tonga 

Islands. , _ _ 

Messrs. Hun 

Samples of Tanning bark and Tanning Extracts. 



The 



Eight 

Wigtownsh 



Hon. Sir H. E. Maxwell, Bart., M 



Wood 



reith, 
Mr. 



Age of tree about 40 years. 
M. 



T. Da we, 



(Symplocos alstonia)^ wood 
mens of Cinchona barks, etc. 



Bogota, 



frigida 
Sample of 



grown at Mo 



" Bogota 



Haemal 



Tea ;' 

speci- 



- I 



Conservator of Forests, Bangkok, Siam. — Thirty-two specimens 



of Siamese woods. 



J. M. H, 



Research in Jodrell Laboratory in 1919. — Mr. L. A. Boodle 

experimented in metliods of examination of plant-fibres, and 
made some observations on anatomical structure in Cyclamen and 
other plants. 



T. TJphof studied the anatomy of some xerophytic 
species of ^Selaginella, and also the structure and morphology of 
the rhizophore in this genus. 

Mr. W. C- Worsdell carried out some further ^work on the 
va&cular anatomy of the Dicotyledons, especially in connection 



m 



g 



•The continuation 



of the several periodicals and serials received in exchange for 
HooJcer's Icones Plantaruta, excepting those^ published in Ger- 
many and Austria, have been presented as in former years bv 
the Bentham Trustees. It is hoped that the exchanges which 
have been interrupted by the war will soon be resumed, and 
that the sets at present imperfect will be completed. 

Though thje additions by presentation have been 
numerous and are of great value in augmenting the efficiencv of 
the library department at Kew, there are few publications 
among those received in 1919 which are more than ordinarily 
interesting, and therefore claim especial notice. . ^ 

^rom many agricultural, botanical or other scientific estab- 

Xether- 



very. 



lishments 



in Europe, the British Colonies, India, 
lands India, and America liberal contributions of literature of 



40 



considerable usefulness liave teen sent. These include tlie 
publications of the "Wellcome Chemical Uesearch Laboratories, 
London, from the Director; twenty-five ' papers on Plant 



om 



Paris; Mededeelingen van de Landhouwlioogeschool, 



cm 



of the Malayan 

tot de Kennis der Combretaceeen en Flacourtiaceeen van 
N ederlandscli-Indiey by D, F* van Slooten, and other papers, 

the Director, Botanic Garden, University of Utrecht; 



rom 



fragen der Vegetationsf 



oni 



Professor Hans Schinz, Director, Botanic Garden, Zurich ; 
Aiivari and Musei Barcinonensis Scientiarum Naturalium Operay 
from the Junta de Ciencies jS'aturals de Barcelona; numerous 
Memoirs and Bulletins of the Agricultural Research Institute, 
Pusa; the Indian Forest Records and other Government publica- 



N 



for the Punjab with Ha 



f 



Rubber, by B. J. Eaton and others, from tlie Director, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Federated Malay States; a consideraMe 
number of publications issued by tbe Department of Agriculture, 
Industry and Commerce, IS'etLerlands India, includiner De Nut- 



H 



Malayan Ferns and Fern Allies, by Capt. C. R. W. K. van 



Alderwerelt van Rosenburgli, supplement 1, and MikrograpTiie 
der Holzes, by H. H. Janssonius, Sth part, from tbe Director; 
Mededeelingen 'van het Algemeen 



Med 



from 



tlie Union of Soutb Africa Department of Agriculture, from the 
Director of the Department and from Dr. Pole Evans, Chief of 
the Division of Botanv: Wair>oua Kmiri Fnrpxt ■ " " 



State 



Hutchins. from 



its demarcation 



i 



Agriculture 



'n of PoptiJar Inf 
from the Dirpotor 



f Ha 



J — — -'--*-..-^ ^ ^*^-' Vlt -^-L J- 0-I-.1. 

Sargent; the continuation 
from the Gray Herbarium 



Prof. B. L. Robinson; the 3 parts published during the year of 
the North American Flora, from the Director of the N'ew York 
Botanical Garden; numerous papers and bulletins on Plant 
Diseases from the Departments of Plant Pathology of Cornell and 
Purdue Universities' Agricultural Experiment Stations; Report 
for 1917-lS of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Santiago de 
las ^egas, Cuba from the Director; and Fihras teMeis e celln- 

Use, by M. Pio Cprrea, from the Ministry of Agriculture, Rio de 

Janeiro. 

The Secretary of State for India has presented a copy of Indian 
Medicinal Plants, by Lieut.-Col. K. R. Kirtikar and Major B. D. 
Basu. This work, which was published by the Panini Offiee 



41 



Allahabad, comprises 2 quarto volumes of text and 1033 un- 
coloured plates. The latter are mostly copied from the well- 
kiiown but often rare and not easily accessible works of Roxburgh, 
■\Vallich, Wight, Griffith, Brandis and others. From the same 
source has been received a Report on an inquiry into the Silk 
Industry in India, 1916, by H. Maxwell-Lefroy and E. C. 
Ansorge, in 3 thin folio volumes, and the third part of the Flora 
f the Presidency of 



has also been presented by the author. 



Prof. F. 0. Bower has sent a co^nplete set in 7 parts of his 
Studies in the Phytogeny of the Filicalcs, which appeared in the 
Annals of Botany, 1910-18. Two copies of Prof. Bower's e:scel- 
lent little work on Sir J. D. Hooker, published by the S.P.C.K., 
have been received from the publishers. 

The Trustees of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 
have published a handsome volume on the Lobelioideae of the 
Hawaiian Islands, by J. F. C. Pock, and have kindly presented 
a copy to the library. 

Mr. J. H. Maiden has 'issued during the year parts 36 to 38 
of his Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus, and _Kew is 
indebted to him for these as well as for the parts received in 

previous years. 

In 1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey commenced a series of volumes 
entitled Annals of Horticulture in North America, of which five 
volumes have been published, covering the years 1889 to 1893. 
Only one — that for 1890 — was at Kew till a few weeks ago, when 
Dr. Bailey sent the volumes for 1889, 1892 and 1893. The 1891 
volume, still wanting, has been out of print for a long time. 



by Dr. Bailey. 



"W. Card, has also been presented 



reoei\ 



authors should be mentioned the following: — Les Asterinees, by 



G. 



/ 



cees, by L. Beauvisage ; Science and Fruit Growing, by the Duke* 
of Bedford and S. Pickering; El Jardin Botanico del Instituto de 
Segunda Ensenanza dc la Habana, by F. G. Canizares; The 
Marine Biological Station at Port Erin, by W. A. Herdman; 
Etude . . . des Chlaenacecs, by F. Gerard; A Monograph 
of the Norxoegian Physciaceae, by B. Lynge; Nature aiui uses of 
Madras Timbers, by A. W. Lushington; The Origin and Develop- 



Ne 



f 



The following have also been received: — Flora y Fauna and 
Climatologia de la Provincia de Santiago del Estero [Argentine 
Republic], by A. Alvarez, from Sir Reginald Tower; L pper 
Cretaceous Floras of the Eastern Gulf Region in Tennessee, 
Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia, by E. W. Berry, from the 
Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries; Details of speci- 



of Rhododendrons f( 

from Mr. J. C. Will 



Mr 



Mr. Mauro Jatta; The Essentials of American Timber Laic, by 
J IP Kinney and Indentiflcation of the Economic Woods of the 
United States, by S. T. Record, from Messrs. Chapman and 



42 



Hall; Studien iiher Konstruhtions-typen und Entwicklungswege 
des Embryosackes der Angiosyermen, by B. Palm, from Prof.. 



severa 



others; Hortus Bengalensis, bj W. Eoxburgh, from Mr. W. 
Small. The last named once belonged to Dr. W. Ainslie, the 
author of a Materia Medica of Hindoostan, and bears his auto- 
graph on the title-page. 



The three Botanical 



/ 



the Oxford IJni- 



A. H. Churcli; 2, Gossypium in pre-Linnaean Literature, by 
H. J. Deuliam; and 3, T lialassiophyta and the subaerial Trans- 
migration, by A. H. Church) have been presented by their 
authors. 

Other contributions to the library' have been received from 
Dr. J. C. Arthur, who has sent his recent papers on the TJredi- 
nales, Mr. B. C. Aston, Mr. E. T. Baker, Dr. P. A. A van der 
Bijl, Dr. J. Briquet, Prof. G. Bitter of Bremen, Dr. F. 
Bdrgesen, Dr. Brotherus, Dr. E. J. Butler, Prof. D. H. 
Campbell, Miss A. Camus, Dr. A. Chevalier, Prof. T. D A 
Cocherell, Dr. E. De Wildeman, Mr. 0. A. Farwell, Dr. E. 
Foex, Sir T. R. Eraser, Prof. P. F. Fyson, Mrs. Grieve, Dr. E. 
Hassler, Prof. L. Hauman, Dr. W. Kinzel of Munich, Mr C 
a. Lacaita, Mr. C. G. Lloyd, Dr. E. P. Phillips, Lieut.-Col. Sir 
David Pram, Prof. F. Eamaley, Mr. H. N. Ridley, Dr. J. N 
Rose, Dr. C. L. Shear, Mr. W. T. Swingle, Dr. A. Warten- 
weiler, Mr. C. _T. White, Mr. E. H. Wilson and Mr. W. P. 
"\A_ilson. The titles of their contributions cannot be given in 
this note, but_ those that are not excerpts from publications at 
Kew will be incorporated in a forthcoming supplement to the 
catalogue. The excerpts are arranged according to authors' 
names, and are easily accessible, without the aid of the cata- 
logue, m the large collection of tracts preserved in the library. 

Presentations of periodicals include, besides the new Journal 
vf the Arnold Aboretum to which reference has already been 
made, the first number of The Journal of Indian Botany, edited 
by Prot.^ Fyson and presented by him, Bulletin of the Rubber 
Growers Association, from the Seqretary, Jahresbericht der 
GeseUschaft zur Forderung der naturhistorischen Erforschuna 
des Orients in Wien 1896-1913 (except 190T and 1911), from 
Dr. Ott^ Stapf, and the Journal af Pomology, just begun under 
the editorship of Mr. E. A. Bunyard, and presented by the pub- 
hshers, Messrs. George Bunyard &. Co., Ltd. . 

Manuscripts that should be mentioned here are • —A collec- 
tion of original letters from various botanists k) Mr J F 
Duthie presented by Mr. Duthie ; Piperaceae of the Malayan 

f/^'^'u r' ?f ^^^ ^r'^^^'^ ^laterials, by C. de Candolle, 
from Mr Gamble: Catalogue of Succulents and other Plants, 
c^Uvated in Succulent House, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
VSii, by R. I. Lynch, from the author; a volume of original 
tvT^ii^^ W. Roscoe, of Liverpool, to N. Wallich, dated 
1^.8-1830^ from Mr. Leopold Cust, through the kind offices of 
_\lr. H. 1^. Ridley. Numerous letters and other manuscripts 
relating to the Flora of British India, Bentham & Hooker's 



43 



Genera Plantarum^ etc., have been presented by Lady Hooker, 
who has also kindly sent to Kew, at present as a loan, Sir J. D. 
Hooker's considerable and valuable botanical correspondence. 



Additions to the Herbarium during 1919, — During the year 

about 22,000 specimens were received as donations or exchanges 
and 3380 acquired by purchase, while about 8000 were 
received on loan in addition to those temporarily deposited fur 
the preparation of the *' Flora of Madras.'' The principal col- 
lections are enumerated below: — 

EuRorE. — Presented : Britain : Cornwall, by Mr. Edgar 
Thurston; Oxfordshire, by Mr. W. B. Turrill ; plants cultivated 
hv Mr_ Thns. Clark at Bridgwater, bv Mr. H. Stuart Thompson. 



OniENT. — Presented : Syria, by Lord Lamington and Miss 



M. L. Teo; Palestine, Ephraim Hills, west of the Jordan 
Yalley, by Capt. (x, H. Ogilvie; Palestine/ chiefly at Wady-el- 
Jib, by Mr, G. C. Johnson; Mesopotamia, bv'Capt. G. A. 
Watson* ' ' , , 

PurcJiased: — F. Vester and Co,, Palestine. 

North ATHiCA.^Presented: Egypt (Dr. A. Keller), by Dr. 
Hans Scliiiiz; Morocco, by Professor C. J. Pitard. 

Chixa. — Presented: Cbili Province; PeitaiKo, Peking and 
Wofussu, by Mr. N. H. Cowdry. 

IxDiA. — Presented : various localities, by Mr. R. S. Hole. 

Malay Peninsular. — Presented: Pahang, etc. (Mohamed 
Haniff and Mohamed N'ur), by Mr. I. H. Burkill; North-western 
coast and islands (J. H. N. Evans and C. Boden Kloss), by Mr. 
H. C. Robinson; various localities (H. N. Ridley), by Mr. I. H. 

Burkill. 



L mi 

Malaya. — Presented : Siam (Mohamed Haniff 



W 



Mr. I. H. Burkill; Siam, Rajburi District (Khoon 



M 



Merr 



C. S. Sargent, 



Australia* — Presented: South Australia, by Mr. J. M 



Black; various localities, by Mr. J. H» Maiden and. Dr. R. fe. 



M 



Tropical Africa. — Presented: Nigeria, Northern Provinces » 
(H. Y. Lelv), by Mr. E. W. Foster; Sudan, Lado District 
(T. Cartwright and F. S. Sillitoe), by the Director of Forests, 



Sudan; British East Africa, highlands, by Mr. J. J) 



British East Africa (members^ of the Forestry Depart- 
ment and Miss Werner), by Mr. E-. Battiscombe ; Uganda, by 
Mr. R. A. Dummer, Mr. t. D. Maitland and Mr. R. Fyffe; 
German East Africa, by Mr. E. Battiscombe on behalf of the 
Political Officer, Morogoro; Central Africa (Archdeacon "W. P. 



H 



Eyles. 

South Africa. — Presented: South-west Africa (Rautenen 
and Schlechter), by Dr Hans Schinz ; Transvaal, by Dr. I. B. 
Pole-Evans; various localities, by the Bolus Herbarium. 



44 



North America. — Presented: Yukon (Miss Alice Eastwood) 
and the soutli-Tvestern United States (E. J. Palmer and B. F. 
Bush), by Prof. C. S. Sargent; British Columbia, Kelowna, by 
Miss E. M. Warren; and the following by the Gray 
Herbarium: — Plantae Essiccatae Grayanae, centuries 2 and 3; 
Newfoundland and Labrador (M. L. Fernald); Quebec, Gaspe 
County (J. E. Collins and M. L. Fernald); Bermuda (F. S. 
Collins); South California (Mrs. Spencer); Texas (B. H. A. 
Groth) ; Florida (A . Fredholm) . 

Purchased: S. M. Zeller, Washington State; S. F. CoUms, 
Phycotheca Boreali- Americana, fascicle 4G. 

CE?fTRAL k^mv^ic A.— Presented: Mexico (Dr. E. Palmer), hj 
Mr. F. V. Coville; Mexico and Cuba (Freres Arsene, Nicolas 
and Leon), by Prince Roland Bonaparte; Nicaragua (C. F. 
Baker), by the Gray Herbarium. 

West Ixdies. — Presented: Jamaica, etc. (W, Harris, Dr, 
N. L. Britton and others), by the Director-in-Chief, New York 
Botanical Gardens; Porto Eico, by F. L.- Stevens; Bahamas (A. 
E. Wright), by the Gray Herbarium. 

South America. — Presented: Colombia; Ruiz, Caldas, 
Department del Valle and Darieu Country', by Mr. M. T. 
Dawe; Colombia (Mr. F. W. Pennell and i)r. H. H. Rusby), 
by the Director-in-Chief, New York Botanical Gnrdens. 

^Purcliased: Dr. E. Hassler, Paraguay; Dr. Otto Buchtien, 
Herbarium Bolivianum, century 5 and supplement 1. 

Mr. Edgar Thurston, C.I.E., lias presented tlie lierbarium of 
Cornisli plants collected cliieflj hj liimself during several years 
residence in Cornwall, The specimens were mountel by liim on 
sheets uniform in size with those in use at Kew and form a 
valuable addition to the British collections, which are not well 
represented by recent specimens. Seeds of British plants have 
been given by Mr. "\V. B- Turrill to supplement the seed 
collection now being formed in the Herbarium. Prom Mr. H. 
Stuart Thompson has been received a collection of dried speci- 
mens of plants cultivated in th^ early part of the last century at 
Bridgwater by Mr. Thomas Clark. Southern Palestine jdants 
have been received from Capt. G. H. Ogilvie and Mr. G. C. 
Johnson. Lord Lamlngton, G.C.M.G., Commissioner to the 
British Relief Unit to Syria, has presented specimens collected 
by him and Miss M. L. Yeo in the Lebanon, Antilebanon and 
Beirut districts. Specimens collected in Mesopotamia by Capt. 
G. A. AYatson have been presented through Mr. A. Sharpies. 
Prof. C. J. Pitard, of Tours, has presented a large collection 
made by him chiefly in Morocco. Various critical species of 
Indian plants have been contributed by Mr. R. S. Hole. Malay 
Peninsula plants have been represented by collections made in 
the north-western part of the peninsula and lower Siam under the^ 
auspices of the Director of the Federated Malay States Museum, 
which are being worked out at Kew by Mr. H. N. Ridley, aa 
well as those from Pahang and other localities at the instance 
of the Director of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore. A fine set 
of Philippine plants gathered by Mr. E. D. Merrill's col- 
lectors lias been presented by Prol C. S. Sargent. Khoon 



45 



Winit Wanadorn lias collected in the Rajburi District of Siam, 
and liis specimens have been receiyed through Mr. AY. F. Lloyd, 
Conservator of Forests. Mr, J- H. Maiden has sent various 



M 



r. 



Australian plants, including new spcies di 

J, M» Black has presented specimens of 
species published by him in the Transactions of 
of South Australia, and Dr. R. S. Rogers has 
Orchids. A continuation, comprising Conifera 



ibed by him. 



and cryptogams, of the collection made m 

S. Gibbs, F.L.S., has been presented by 

il 



her. Botanical col- 



Africa. 



coll 



lecting has again been active m iropicai i^iiica. -lwu vajucv- 
iions from the Lado District (one along the Yei River) of the 



Sudan have been received from expeditions 



orofaniscd 



by the 



Director of Forests, Sudan. Mr. J. D. Snowden has explored 
ihe highlands of British East Africa and presented his collections 



to Kew while other parts of that region have been visited by 
member's of the Forestry Department tt„„^j„ t? i.^.-. 



Uganda 



Fungi have 



Mr. T. B. Maitland and Mr 



Dr. I. B. Pole-Evans, Chief, Division of Botany, Pretoria, has 
continued to contribute Transvaal plants, and valuable specimena 
have been received from the Bolus Herbarium. 

The North American collections have been augmented, 
especially by the contributions, detailed above, from Dr. B._L. 
Eobinson, Curator of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University. 
Dr. N. L. Britton, Director-in-Chief, New York Botanical 
Garden has continued to send valuable instalments of West 



plants 



Mr 



well as a collection made in the Eepublic of Colombia by Mr. 
F. W. Penncll and Dr. H. H. Rusby. Mr. M. T. Dawe has 

several expeditions in the last named country and for- 



made 



warded his specimens to Kew. 

The collection of illustrations consists largelv of representa- 
tions of portions of plants and their details, but is deficient m 
pictures showing the habits of trees and shrubs: this has been 
partly remedied by a donation of photographs of "West^Indian 
and East African trees from Dr. Andrew Balfour, C.M.Lr., 
Director-in-Chief of th( 
and of similar photog ^ 
and Ceylon by Mr. H. N. Ridley, O.M.G. 

A collection of photographs showing the appearance of 



M 



im- 



portant plant diseases in the tropics is in course of formation, 
and contributions have been received from Mr. L. Lewton-Bram, 



Mai 



M 



Evans, Pretoria; and Sir Francis Watts, K.C 
missioner of Agriculture, Barbados, on behalf of Mr. W 



Com- 



■ 

Effect of removing the Pulp from Camphor Seed on Germina» 
lion and the Subsequent Growth of the Seedlings.— A reprmt 

of a paper by Mr. G. A. Russell, of great importance to those 
engaged in the camphor industry, which appeared m the ^i^ited 
■States Journal of Agricultural Research, Yol. ^vi|. ^f: ^' *^^' 
heen issued from the Government Printing Office, Washington. 



46 



In Florida and other countries tlie development of the camphor 
industry has been checked by the low percentage of seeds wliick 
produced transplantable seedlings, about 10 per cent, being the 
average, theretore during the winter of 191b-17, and again in 
1917-18, experiments were undertaken by Mr. Russell to deter- 
mine whether, by the adoption of any special method of seed 
preparation before sowing, better results could be obtained. 

Previous experience indicated that the removal of the pulp 
from the seeds before sowing hastened, if it did not increase,, 
germination, whilst there was a prevalent belief that the exposure 
of the fruits to frost whilst on the tree was detrimental to seed 
germination. Therefore, these were two of the chief factors borne 
m mind whilst conducting the experiments. In addition, the 
action of fermentation, dry and moist heat, and sulphuric acid 
on the vegetative properties of the seeds was studied. Attention 
was also paid to the diiference in the germinating qualities of seeds 
picked up beneath the trees during the early ripening period and 

those that were hand-picked from the trees a little later. 

The results of the 1916-17 experiments proved conclusively that 
seeds from which the pulp had been removed previous to sowing,, 
not only germinated more quickly than unpulped seeds, but that 
the percentage of seedlings rose from 9*4 in the case of seeds 
sown as gathered from the tree to 60'1 in pulped seeds. Seeda 
that fell to the ground early were found to be less fertile than 
those that remained on the trees to a later date. Before the 
removal of the pulp 5*9 per cent, of such seeds germinated, 15-6 
per cent, germiating after the removal of pulp. 

Exposure to frost on three successive nights, the lowest tempera- 
ture being 26*^ F., did not result in the total loss of the power of 
germination, although about 50 per cent, fewer seedlings appeared 
than from unfrozen seeds. From frozen seeds, as gathered from 
the tree, 4*5 per cent, germinated and, after the removal of the 
pulp, 32-6 per cent. A curious result was obtained by soaking^ 
frozen seeds in water at a temperature of approximately 25^^ C^ 
for 18 hours, for the germinating percentage of unpulped seeds 
was' reduced, whereas the germination of pulped seeds was- 
increased by 23 per cent. 

One thousand seeds enclosed in a jar and fermented for 35 days 
failed to produce a single plant, but seeds fermented for $-10 
days and then spread out to cool and dry produced the normal 
number of seedlings. Seeds artificially dried at a temperature 
of approximately 55° C. failed to germinate, and the same things 
happened after seeds had been allowed to air dry in an attic for 
several weeks., Soaring in water at a temperature as high as 
50=^ C. had no effect on germination, but pulped seeds treated with 
5 per cent, sulphuric acid failed to germinate. 

In addition to the experiments confirming the view that pulped 
seeds-germinated more quickly than unpulped, they also indicated 
that the earlier germmation enabled a greater percentage of seed- 
Imgs to reach a transplantable size; the few w^eks earlier growth 
enabling them to withstand the effects of hot sun during spring. 
Seeds sown early m winter took longer to germinate than those 
60wn m spring, but generally they formed sturdier plants. 



47 



The 1917—18 experiments were comnienced in November, 1917, 
and in order to ascertain whetlier seeds taken from different trees 
possessed tlie same germinating qualities, seeds were gathered 
separately from 10 trees on November 27, and they were ^aken 
from all parts of the trees, so that each sample was thoroughly 
representative of the yield. They were sown on November 28, 
part as gathered and part pulped. The percentage of germination 
differed in the seeds from the different trees, iDut in every case 
the pulped seeds both germinated quicker and better than the 
unpulped. From the 10 trees the percentage of seedlings from 
unpulped seeds varied from 3 to 23'4, w^hilst for pulped seeds 
the minimiim w^as 65*2 and the maximum was 95-4. A diagram 
illustrating the percentage of seedlings from each kind of seed 
from the 10 trees is both interesting and instructive. 

In this series of experiments the advantage of earlier germina- 
tion was very pronounced. Seedlings from unpulped seeds gained 
on the average a fortnight^s advantage, which enabled them to 
become well enough rooted to withstand the heat of the sun and 
the drying of the surface soil. At transplanting time, not only 
were the plants bigger, but they were better in every way. The 
increase in the number of seedlings of transplanting size secured 
by pulping the seed amounted approximately to 600 per cent. 

In order to clean the seeds, it is recommended that the fruits 
should be rubbed through a wire screen and afterwards sun-dried 
for onei or two days. w. n. 



J* 



The Fruiting of the Ginkgo at Kew. — There does not appear 

to be any record of the Ginkgo having borne fruits in the British 
Isles. Kent, the author of Yeitch's Manual, evidently had no 
knowledge of this having ever occurred, aud observes merely that 
fruit is ^* rarely, if ever, seen in this countr3^" Elwes and 
Henry, too, in The Trees of Great Britain and Ireland^ p. 56, 
say that *' no fruit so far as they know has evdi* been produced in 
England.^' It is worth while, therefore, to put on record the 
production of fruits at Kew. 

Ginkgo Miloba, as is well known, bears dioecious flowers; that 
is to say, the male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. 
The fine tree at Kew, the best known of all Ginkgos to the 
general public of this country, w£tg planted where it now stands 
probably about 1760. Being then a very rare and precious plant 
whose hardiness had not been proved, it was planted against a 
wall and trained like a fruit tree. Ultimately the wall was taken 
down and the side branches of the Ginkgo were cut away, since 
when it has assumed its present fine shape and dimensions. It 
first bore flowers in 1795 which proved to be male. In recent 
years it has blossomed frequently; and sometimes so profuselv as 
to litter the ground beneath it with its small, green, cylindrical 
inflorescences. It was this free production of staminate flowers 
which suggested that if female shoots were grafted on the tree, 
fruits might eventually be obfained. Accordingly application 
was made to Mr. Flauhault, Director of the Montpellier Botanic 
Garden, for grafts from the famous female iree that prows there 



48 



These lie kindly sent, in 
^'worked'' 



on the tree at 



and each, year bears fertile fruit. 

February, 1911, and tliey were duly 

Kew. Some of them united satisfactorily, but nothing further 

was noticed until last November, when, on the leaves falling 

away from the branches, four fruits were seen to be hanging on 

one of the Montpellier grafts. _ 




The " fruits "—bright yellow, a little over one inch long, like 
a small plum In shape and each borne on a stalk 1^ to 2 inches 
long^are not fruits in the strict botanical sense, but seeds with a 
thin fleshy covering. This outer layer has a most offensive odour 
resembling that of butyric acid, but the kernel of the seed is 
pure white when washed and edible. Mr. E, H. Wilson tells us 



that 



commonlv. in those of Korea and M 



churia. Henry says that they are eaten roasted at feasts^ and 
weddings and are supposed '' to promote digestion and diminish 
the effects of wine-drinking^/* 



O 



d 



m 



and 



in having spreading or 



even pendulpus branches. 



M 



r. 



Wil 



Ginkgo, both in China and Japan, controverts this view in a recent 



(November, 1919) of the 



Magazine. He says 



there that he has never found it possible to determine the sex of a 
tree by its mode of growth and that both the Chinese and Japanese 
say it is impossible to do so. - 

A fine example of a female tree with spreading branches may 
be seen in the Botanic Garden, Padua (the erround. below the 
tree was crowded with <!eedlingg in 1918). Other fine female trees 
may be seen at Ouchy by the Lake of Geneva, : 



Printed un^er the Authority ol His MxrBSTT's STATiONBBt Ofpicb, 

B7 Jas. Tmsotrtt and Son, Ltd., Saflolk L^ne, £.a 4. 



l^Crown Copyright Eeserved 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



OF 



J 



MISCELLAN EOUS INFORMATION 



No. 



o 



[1920 



VIL— THE FLORA OF MADRAS: III. 

Tlie third part (pp. 391-577) Leguminosae'i'nesalpinioiJcae to 
Caprifoliaceae of the Flora of Madras has now "been published, 
and the following notes have been drafted by Mr. Gamble. We 
are indebted to him for the opportunity of placing these on 
record for the information of workers in herbaria, relative to con- 
clusions with regard to particular species dealt with in the work 
that differ from those arrived at by earlier writers. 



Notes ox the Flora or Madp.as.* 

J". S. Gamble. 
Leguminosae PaplHonatae. — In the Key to the Genera at p. 

270, line 2, after '' 1-seeded/' should be inserted '' (except nos. 
24 and 25)/' The omission was made inadvertently, and I am 
obliged to the Reviewer of Part ii in the '' Journnl of Botany/' 
for July, 1918, p. 220, for drawing my attention to it. Both 
Fycfiospora and Psendarthria are clearly, as was pointed out in 
the '" Genera Plantarum," nearly related to Desmoaiiim, in which 
genus, indeed, one species, D. gyians, ha> also the character of the 
joints of the pod not sej^arating. A rack /••^ also has the pod not 
jointed, while Lespedeza has only one joint, but bcdh seem rightly 

to belong to Hedysareae, 

Indigofera. I am still a little in doubt about the correct name 
for the well-known common shrub of the forest undergrowth 
described as 7. pulchella, Eoxb. In adopting this name I have 
only followed other works, but I am inclined to think that there 
are perhaps two species — the northern one, /. elUptica, Eoxb., 
the southern one, I. cassioides, Rott«, though I found it impossible 
to give satisfaetoiy distinguishing characters. 

TepJirosia. I am much indebted to Mr. J. E. Drummond for 
his a^'^istance in this genus which he has been studying for so 
long. I hope that his general paper on the genus will soon be 
published, with the descriptions of his new species, T. wynaadensis 
and T. Barheri. 



Previous notes were published in the Bulletin for 191^, p. 57, and for 
1918, p. 222. 

($56.) Vt. lM-829. 1,125. 3 20. J, T. & S., Ltd. G. 14. Scu, 12. 



50 



Seshania. I have not followed Dr. Merrill in taking tlie Lin- 
nean specific name and changing S. aegyptiaca, Pers. into S. 
Sesban] see PKilipp. Journ. Sc.vii. 235, In my opinion, S. Sesban 
practically is a '' duplicate binomial/' and so I tliink it best to 
adhere to the well-known name of aS. aegyptiaca, 

Smiihia. An omission under >S'. geminifiom, lloth, requires 
correction. Before '' W. & A. 220/' should be inserted " 5. sen- 
sitiva, Ait/' 

DesmodiuTTi. True D, CepJialotes, Wall., occurs in the hills 
of the Northern Circars, specimens of it, collected in the hills of 
Ganjam, haying recently been received at Kew. When I pre- 
pared the account for the Flora, I possessed leaf specimens froin 
the hills of Yizagapatam which I believed to belong to it. They 
were, however, unfortunately without fruit, so that I could not be 
sufficiently sure about it. It must now be added to the Flora, 

Erythrina. I have described in Kew Bulletin, 1919, p. 22^, 
as a new species, E. mysorensisj from a specimen collected by 
Ml'. Meebold at Chickenhalli, in Mysore. There is, however, 
I think it right to explain as I did in the Kew Bulletin referred 
to, a possible doubt as to its being really an indigenous* Indian 
plant. It may have been collected in a garden, but I have gone 
carefully over all the specimens preserved at Kew and have not 
found any that agree with it, so that I think it was best to 
describe it as if it were certainly indigenous. 

Pongamia. I received Dr. Merrill's " Interpretation of 
Rumphius' Herbarium Amboinense " too late for (considering the 
question of adopting the name P. pinnata instead of P. glabra 
for the well-known Indian tree. Dr. Merrill considers that it is 
the Cytisus pinnatus, Linn., and that consequently the specific 
name pinnata has priority. 

Verrts. D. eualata was described in Beddome's Icones t. 18ri. 

but in my opinion, the description in the ''Flora of British India'' 

does not fit it at all well, while that of D. platyptera, Baker, agrees 

much better- The specimens written up at Kew as Z). eualata 

are really D. hrevipes, and those named D. platyptera correspond 

to Beddome's figure and description of Z>. eualata. It is strango 

that the important character of the diadelphous stamens shown 

in Beddome's figure is not mentioned in the ''Flora of Britisn 
India." 



g 



Caemlpinia. The reasons 



for abandoning the specific names, Bonducella and Bonduc, are 

given by Dr. Merrill in Philipp. Journ. Sc. Botany, v. 53,' and 

Interp. Rumphius' Herb. Amboinense, 260. It seems to me that 

his arguments are sound, and I have consequently described the 

first two^ species as C. crista, Linn,, and C. Jaynho, Maza. I 

think it is an -advantage to get rid of the confusing names Bondw 
cella and Bonduc. 

Delonix. As Dr Merrill has pointed out, the generic name 
Pomctana was established by Linnaeus for the plant now known 
as Laesaiptma jmlcherrima, consequently Poinciana, Linn., 
cannot be maintained for P. regia and P. elata. It is unfortu- 



.51 

nate that sucli a well-kuown name lias to go, but it caiiiiot be 
lielped- 



Leguminosae Mimosoideae. — Mimosa. The discussion oi the 

Indian species of Mimosa, and especially of those which have been. 
considered to belong to M. rubicaiilis^ is the subject of a separate 
paper in the Bulletin, I am convinced that M . nibicanlis, l.anik., 
is a south Indian species only, and have described the Himalayan 
species a^ Mimosa hlmalayana. I have also described as a new 
species^ J/. Barheny chielly from Dr. Barber's specimens from 
Godavari. I first called it I/- anffiistisiliquay and as such it 
appears at p. 421 in two places. I then found that the name wa-^ 
inadmissible, so that it should be corrected to 3/. Barheri. The 
separate paper referred to contains the explanations regarding the 
species of Mimosa for the AVestern Peninsula of British India, 

Hhizophoraceae, — -The nomenclature in the Tribe of Rhizo- 
pJioreae is rather confusing, and has been mucli discussed, most 
lately by Merrill in his Interpretation of Rumphins' Herbarium 
Amboinense, published in 1917. He follows Trim en (Journ- 






Linn. Soc. xxiv, 142), in establishing the fact that Linnaeus^ 
Mhizophora coiijugata, represented in Hermann's Herbarium by 
a figure only, is really Bruguiera gymnor'hizay Lamk. This 
necessitates altering the name RhizopJiora conjugat-a, given by 
Henslow^ in the ' Flora of British India ' to the second species of 
i:hat genus, which now hecomes R, Candelaria, DC. 

It may be useful to record the identifications of the Mangroves 
figured in Rheede's ' Hortus Malabaricus,' figs. 31-37. 



Fig. 31-32. ^ Kandel ' — Bruguiera conju- 

gata, Merr. 



f 



r 



ff 



9y 



yy 



J} 



-9 J 



33. ' Kari Kandel ' — Bruguiera cyliri' 

drica, W. & A. v ,^, - , 

OA c ^J TT 1 1 ' D7 • 7 n 7 itfiizopfioraceae. 
o4. Tee Xandei — Knizophora Cande- j ^ 

laria, DC 

35. ^ Tsjeru Kandel ' - — Kandelia 

Rheedli, W, & A. 

36. ' Pou Kandel ' — AE giceras majtis^ 

Gaertn, ... ... ... ... Myrsinaceae. 

37. ' Kada l^dLnAei^—Lumnitzera race- 

mosa, Willd. ... ... ... Comhretaceae. 



CoMBKBTACEAE. — While travelling on Forest duty in various 
parts of South India I could not help being struck by the in- 
adequacy of the arguments by which the well-marked species of 
Terminalia^ T. crenulata, T. tomejifosa, and T, coriacea, admitted 
by Wight and Arnott, were joined together into one species, T, 
tomentosa, in the 'Flora of British India.' I have, therefore, 
gone back to the arrangement of Wight and Arnott. T, glabra, 
W, & A., is not, I think, the same as T. Arjuna^ but a separate 
North Indian species. Also, among the specimens which I had 
available for study, I found some which had the velvety fruits of 
T. Bellerica, though usually larger, but were different in leaf and 
inflorescence. On carefully comparing the description in 
Hooker's Journal of Botany, iii. 27, I came to the <^onclusion that 

a2 



62 



iu all probability these specimens belonged to T. Gellny Dalz., 
but unfortunately I liave failed to find any authentic specimens of 
tile plant, and Beddome, in liis ' Flora Sylvatica/ p. ciii, says 
be had never met with it. The only point in which Dalzeli's 
description does not agree with the specimens I had before me 
was that of tlie glands on the petiole, which most, though not all, 



mecituens 



are absent. I 



have thought it best to assume that the specimens belong to T, 
Gella until the discove.ry of Dalzell's original specimens settles 
the question finally. 2\ Gella is not accounted for in Cooke's 
' llora of the Bombay Presidency/ 

31yrtaceae. — Syzyyinm, Since Part 3 was published, speci- 
mens from the collections of Colonel Beddome of the follo\^'ing 
two species of Ceylon plants gathered by him in the Anamalai 
Hills have been presented to Ivew by the Madras Herbarium. 
The following are the necessary additions to the key and 
descriptions. 

Flowers in short terminal cymes, the ultimate 
branchlets umbellate, 3-flowered; calyx- 
tube 0-75 1 in. long^ glabrous, funnel- 
shaped, the mouth truncate with small 
rounded lobes; leaves oval-elliptic, obtuse 
at apex and base, 1-5-2 long, 1 in. broad, 
Crowded, the nerves at rijrht anades to the 



C ^ v*.x_, 



mid-rib; petals pinkish 3,* FergusonL 

4 

3."* Syzygium Fergusoni, Gamble, n. comTi. Evgejiia Fer- 
gusoni, Trim. FL Ceyl. ii 172, t. 38. ' 

W. Ghats, Anamalai Hills at 6000 ft. {Beddome). 

A small or middle-sized tree witli conspicuously long funnel- 
sliaped calyx-tube. 

Leaves cliartaceous, oblauceolate-spathulate, 
obtuse or slightly acute at apex, much 



narrowed at base, up to 2 in. long, '75 in. 
broad, nerves distant; inflorescence- 
branches slander, the flowers very small, 
pinkish-white 



« « « * * 4 



9.* olivi folium^ 



9.'* Sy/yg 



y.' syzygium olivilolium, Gamhle, n. comb. Eugenia oUvi- 
foha, Duthie in F.B.I, ii 495. 

W. Ghats, Anamalai Hills at 7000 ft. {Bfddome). 



muf 



Melastomaceae.— C>.6ec^m. There is, and always has been. 



ume 



iiinn, 1 have only found one Indian specimen at Kew and 
thaUs 111 the Walhch Collection, no. 4073 A. lib. Madr., collected 

oy ^I^^ D. Mitchel, though there is also another 



urn 



very 



opinion, A and B 0. minor, Triana, from Travancore, A", 
O. .9?aMca, Benth., from Trincomali, Ceylon. I do not agree with 
O. B. Clarke m thinking that 0. minor, O. aspera, O. Kleinii and 

I 



53 



O, gJauca can only differ by very minute cliara€ters, tliey seem to 
be quite easily distinguished from each other and from the three 
new species which 1 have thought it right to describe out of the 
rather heterogeneous sheets included in the Kew cover of 0. 
aspera, viz. : O. luieolata, 0. courtallensu and 0. Lawsoni. They 
have been published in the Kew Bulletin, 

I am not sure that Osheckia rosfrata, D. Don, var. imlchellay 
Triana, of which there is a specimen in tlie Kew Ilerbarium, 
should not be considered as a separate species. Bcddome sent it 
to Kew with a description as 0, recalva, but C. B. Clarke con- 
sidered it to be the same as var. ptilcheUa, thouo-h it seems to nie 
different from the specimens of that variety from Bengal, AVall. 
Cat. 4059 and 406^3, whi<h do not quite answer to Clarke's 
description. 

OsbecJcia cuimlaris, Don, seems to be as often 5-merous as 
4-merous, and this has to be remembered by field botanists who 
may be puzzled by the explanatory notes of Clarke^s in the ' Flora 
of British India/ 

Osheclcia suhlaevis, Cogn. Of this species I have seen no 
authentic specimens, so that my identification of those which I 
have assumed to belong to it had to be done entirely by the 
description. I believe that my identification is correct. As 1 
collected it myself on the rocks near the road leading to Sispara 
in the IN'ilgiris, I remember it as a small, almost fleshy, under- 
shrub with very bright large flowers. 

Since Part 3 was jiublished, specimens of the following two 
Ceylon mountain species have been sent to Kew by the Madras 
Herbarium from the Travaneore-Tinnevellv mountains. The 
following are the necessary additions to the key and 
descriptions : — 

Tufts of bristles mostly stalked, some, on 
the lower part especially, sessile, append- 
ages long-stalked, calyx-lobes triangular- 
lanceolate, pectinate on the margins. 

Calyx-lobe with one large tuft of bristles 

at apex, simple bristles on the mid-rib 
at back, the bristles straight; leaves 
elliptic-oval, obtuse or obtusely acute at 
apex, subcordate at base, scabrous- 
hairy, up to 3 in. by 1*5 in., 5-ribbed. 7.'* ruhicuncla. 

Calyx-lobes with many bulbose bristles 

towards apex and on midrib at back, the 
bristles long and curved; leaves orbi- 
cular-ovate, cordate at base, ferruginous- 
villous, the margins recurved, '5 in. in 
diameter, strongly 5-7-nerved, the 
nerves imi)ressed ... T.*** hnxifolia. 

r 

7.»* Osbeckia rubicunda, Am,; F.B.I, ii 520. 




Ghats, on Agastiamalai peak, Travancore-Tinnevelly 
boundary, about 6000 ft. [Barher). 

A shrub with large purple-red flowers in terminal clusters. 



54 



7/^^^ OsbecKia buxifolia, Am,; F.B.I, ii 518. 

AY. Gkats, on Agastianialai peak, TraYancore-Tinnevelly 
Ijouiulary, about 0000 ft, {Bather). 

A muck brancked densely woollj skrub witk large purple-red 
flowers among tke upper leaves* 

Memecylon. Tkis very difficult genus lias given trouble to most 
of tkose wko kave worked at it. Tkis kas been explained as regards 
tke Ceylon species, in a note at tke beginning of tke genus in 
Trimen's ' Flora of Ceylon/ and, in tke ' Flora of Britisk India ' 
Mr, C. B. Clarke found kimself reduced to beginning witk tkose 



most 



ma 



mass 



iV, eduley Roxb. It is untortunate tkat tke 
available contains so many in a somewkat fragmentary condition, 
wkick makes it difficult to correlate flowering and fruiting ones, 
wkile tke fact tkat in so many species tke nervation of tke leaves 
is difficult to distinguisk increases tke difficulty. In J. Burmann^s 
' Tkesaurus ' two species are figured, wliiok were afterwards men- 
tioned by kis son, N- Burmann, in kis ' Flora Indica,' as M. capi- 
teUatum and M. twihellatum. Tke former, tke original type of 
tke genus, described by Linnaeus in tke ' Species Plantarum ' in 
1753, is, as stated by Trimen, "our best-marked species,'' and 
seems to be an endemic Ceylon plant. It is admirably figured in 
Trimen's Plate 41, and I kave seen no Indian specimen tkat can 
be referred to it. Tke latter, also described from a Ceylon plant, 
according to Trimen 
I consider rio-litlv 



from tke figure given by Burmann, kas 
identified by Trimen witk M. ramifl 



Madi 



quently as it does in tke low country of Ceylon, It is fortunate 



some 



dency, I was miicli attracted by tliese beautiful skrubs whose 
geographical distribution I think I understand fairly well, and 
I am convinced that this species is the one with small rather 
yellowish leaves and dry yellowish berries, so common in Car- 
natic districts from the Kistna river southvrards to opposite 
Ceylon. In^Wight's 'Illustrations' and in Wight & Arnott's 
' Prodromus ' it is clearly^ in my opinion, meant by both their 
ramifloTum, Lamk., and tinctorium, Koen., and this seems to have 
been the view taken by Triana. 

Now comes the question of Roxburgh's M. edule. Cor PI t 82 
Eoxburgh's own specimen is in the Wallich collection at Kew! 
rso. 410- ^\^^ m his own descriptions in the * Coromandel 
Plants and Elora Indica,' he says it is " a very common small 
tree or large shrub to be foimd in every jungle all over the (Coro- 
mandel) coast This_ is also mentioned in Rees' ' Cyclopaedia.' 



d bluisk- 



u.ue. puip^ ecuDie Derries This agrees well with the plant which 
L X"^. "fl tave collected m Circar Districts from Orissa south- 
waicl. to the Cuddapah and X. Arcot Ghdt slopes, but not further 
south. Roxburgh s specimen has the leaves more acute at the 
base and more acuminate at the apex than his figure 
do my specimens, and he gives their size as ' 3-4 in 



long by 2-3 



55 



ill. broad/ wliicli is larger tlian any specimen shows or than his 
figure depicti>. I tiiink thai tlie measurements are, at any rate, 
extreme. In any case, I feel sure, for my own part, that Kox- 
burgh's M. edule is the common species of the North Coromandel 
coast and adjacent hills, which undoubtedly has shining leaves 
and blue-black ]3iilpy fruit. I cannot identity with it any other 
of the species described by other authors, unless perhaps it is the 
M , uvatuniy Sm. in Kees Cyclop, in part, as recognised by Triana. 
Most of the specimens in tlie Kew Herbarium written up by (J. 13. 
Clarke ajs M, ediile var. ovata seem to me to belong rightly to M. 
grande^ Eetz, as was recognised by Trimen. Of the Madras plants, 
therefore, placed by Clarke under M. edtde, I propose to accept 
three species^ M. edule, Roxb., M. umhellatumy Burm. f,, and 
M. grande, Ketz (Jl/. edule var. ovata, Clarke) as well as M, moles- 
turn ^ a little known plant of the Anarualai hills with quadra iig alar 
branchlets. Clarke's var. Rottleriana, distinguished by larger 
flowers and longer peduncles, does not seem capable of separation 
as a species, or even as a variety, from M. itvihellaiuvi. It was 
collected by Heyiie and seems to be the same as Wall. Cat. 4107 B. 

The genus Memecylon is one which presents considerable diffi- 
culty^ especially when one is dealing with dried specimens, many 
of those available being rather imperfect and '^scrappy/' It is 
a pity that I had not the Madras Herbarium specimens available, 
but when travelling about the Madras Presidency on Forest De- 
partment work in the years 1882-1890 the genus interested me and 
I collected many specimens myself. It may be not out of place 
here to put on record my idea of the geographical distribution of 
the chief species, because they seem to me to occupy fairly well 
defined regions. In the "dry evergreen^' forests of the East 
Coast from Orissa down to the latitude of Madras the common and 
almost only species is M, edule, Eoxb. In the more southern 
forests, overlapping M . edule, M . umhellatum is found from near 

the Kistna river southwards to Cape Comorin and westwards to 
the slopes of the Ghats. It passes over into Ceylon which M. 
edule does not, and in Ceylon is found, apparently' quite endemic, 
the pretty and well-marked M. capifellatuTti, so well figured by 
Burmann and in Trimen's Flora. On the "West Coast the chief 
species is J/, grande, not unlike, But distinct from M. edule, as 
well as other but less abundant species like M. depressum, M, 
■ Talbot iaiivm, 3/. deccanense, M. termivole, M, qracile, and in the 
extreme south M. angusti folium, ^Ve now come to the hill species : 
the first to appear, in the Deccan hills of Cuddapah, extending to 
Coimbatore and the Nilgiris, is the slender 3/, Lushingtonii. In 
the Shula forests of the Xilgiris and Pulneys the most common 
species is M. mrt/f/6aricu^«, veiy noticeable about Coonoor and other 
places for its bright flowers. We also get the yellows-leaved 3/. 
fiaveseens on the east and M, molestum on the west, while towards 
Sispara and Naduvatam the handsome M. sisparcnse is conspicu- 
ous. Away to the north, on the Bengal-Central Provinces bordei, 
a little known species occurs at high levels which I have called 
M. madgolense. It is to be hoped that Madras botanists and 
forest officers will continue to pay attention to the genu< and 
collei^^t specimens both in flower and fruit, and obtain further 



66 



information about the distribution of the species. I am full}' 
con^^eious of the imperfeutionof my account in the ' Madras Flora/ 
and I may very likely have made too many species, but I have 
tried to studj^ and do my best with the material available. 

Li'iiiiiACEAE. — In this family I have adhered as nearly as pos- 
sible to the arrangement adopted in Koehne's Monograph 
(Engler's Ptlanzenreich)^ more especially as regards the sub- 
division of Ammanuia (Genera Plantarum), into the three genera 
— RotaJay Ammannia and Nesaea. The only difhculty I have found 
is in Eotala, in which genus it is not at all easy to separate the 
species A^. leijtopetala, Ivoehne, and R. densifloray Koehne. This 
has been fully pointed out by Blatter and Hallberg in a papei- in 
the ' Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, xxv 701/ 
in which they finally settle to combine the two species in one, R. 
pentandni, Blatt. and Hallb. I should, however, think that if 
their view is adopted, the oldest name would be it. densijiova. So 
far as the Madras material is concerned, I have succeeded, with 
the help of the lists of numbers given by Koehne, in separating 
the species fairly clearly, and I propose to adhere to the separa- 
tion. The same authors also propose to put R. ifnacrandra, 
Koehne, under R. rofinuUfoUa, as in genera of Lylhraceae the 
length of the stamens cannot be considered a safe character of 
divisiiui. There is much to be said for their point of view; all 
the same I prefer to leave the species as arranged by Koehiie. 
The macranda specimens are quite easy to recognize. 

Lagerstroemia. For the reasons given by Sir G. King in his 

' Malay Materials ' and Dr. T. Cooke in his ' Flora of Bombay/ 

I have adhered to the well-known name L. Flos-Rcginae for the 

splendid flowering tree so much grown in India, instead of-L. 

speciosa, Pers. The two species, L. Thomsonii^ Koehne, and L. 

Rottleri^ C. B. Clarke, are apparently very little known and 

deserve to be carefully looked for by local botanists and forest 
officers in Madras. 

Samydaceae. — I regret that, by an oversight, the genera Cascaria 
and Homalium were not described, as I think they should have 
been, under Flacourtiaceae in Part I. In that Part, the ' Flora 
of British India ' was followed and the Flacourtiaceae joined to 
Bixaceae in which only Bixa should have been described, Corhlo- 
spermum being quite distinct, in a family of its own' CocJdn- 
spermaceac. 

Casearia, I cannot agree witl) Sir D. Brandis {' Indian Trees/ 
P; ™)^?f combining C. glomerata, Roxb,, and C. gniceolen,^. 
lialz, Ihe latter is a very widespread small tree of low level; 



S 111 



turn 



they fall, and is I think, very distinct fi'om the toll, apparently 
evergreen, C. glomerata of the Sikkim forests, about TUUO ft. I 

red bv Bed- 



dome (Flora Sylvatica, t. 208) as C. varians, Tliw., and co,nI. 
Irom the ^/eii^e nioist forests of the W. Ghats at 2000-3000 i.. 
elevation. rhe figure does not aj?ree with C. e.wuUnta, Eoxl), 
as Clarke and Boiirdillon have identified it, nor entirely, thoii-h 
nearer^ with 6. ruhescens, Dalz. There are two specimens fn the 
Kew Herbarium, collected hy Bonrdillon— (1) IS"o. 181 from ever- 



57 



green forests at Peermercl, 3500 ft., wliit-li, I tliiuk, is a form of 

C. ruhescens witli more lanceolate leaves tlian tlie Bombay plant; 

and (2) No. 104 from evergreen forests near Colutoorpolay, whicli 

is^ I believe, tlie jolant of Beclilome's figure. I have, therefore, 

assumed it to be so, and, pending the possibility- of examining 

more and better specimens, I am calling it C. varians, Bedd. not 
of Thxv. 

In his account of C. Taiians^ Beddonie also mentions as very 
common on the higher ranges of the Anamalais at GOOO-TOOO ft. 
and in Ceylon a tree with coriaceous leaves drying black. He 
identifies it with C. coriacea, Thw., which Trimen says is only a 
Ceylon species. I have seen no specimens from the Auamalais, 
but I believe it to be the tree of which I myself collected specimens 
at 7000 ft. on the l^ilgiris, and which Sir A. and Lady. Bourne 
collected at Gundattu Shtda on the Pulneys. Fyson mentions this 
(Bourne 937), but says it was probably plnnted. Except that the 
leaves are rather larger, the specimens agree with Thwaites's from 
Ceylon. 



VIII. —BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN CHILE 

AND ARGENTINA.* 

^V. B. TURIIILL. 

Argentina was first visited by Europeaiis in the year 1516, 
when a company of Spanish adventurers under the leadership of 
Juan Dia:z de Solis kmded uear the Rio de la Plata in search of a 
passage to the East Indies. In 1520 the Spanish King, Charles 
I. (better known as the Emperor Charles V".), sent Ferdinand 
Magellan (Fernando de Magellanes), a Portuguese, oh an ex- 
pedition round the world and in October, 1520, he discovered the 
straits now named after him. Chile was added to the Spanish 
dominions, by conquest and exploration from Peru as a centre, 
in 1540. Among the first explorers of these regions are included 
J. le Maire, "\V, C. Schouten, J, Hermite, Dii ^ ^ 
Pedro de Yaldivia, 

Some of the earlv authors refer more or less casuallv to pUmts 
and vegetable jnoducts, e.g., Axara, Xajera, Orvalle and Eosales. 
Louis Feuillee (1060-17-32), undertook a journey in South 
America between the years 1709 and 1711, and with him the 
botanical exploration of our area mav be said to have commenced. 
He made observations and conducted researches at Buenos Aires, 
Montevideo, Coneepcion and Valparaiso, and his results were 
published' in three volumes with 50 plates (Journ. des observ. 
phys. math, et hot. Paris 1714). The- work is largely a herbal 
and the nomenclature pre-Linnean. Frezier in 1712 to 171-1 
visited Valparaiso (where he lived 8 months), Santiago and 
Coquimbo. He is perhaps best known as the author who 
was indirectly responsible for the transfer of the name 
Pomme de Terre from Heliaiithus tuherosns to Solanum 



e 



# 



This essay was written privately for Jlr. G. ^Y. E. Loder, and it is 



published here with his kind permission. 



58 

taberod'us. He ex^^lored the central provinces and was 
the first to introduce Fragaria chiloensis to Europe. His 
work, " Relation du Voyage de la Mer du- Sud aux cotes du Chilj- 
et du Perou," was published in 1716-1717, and an English trans- 
lation appeared in 1717. Jorje Juan and Antonio de Ulloa 
(1744) during their travels investigated certain indigenous and 
economic plants of Chile, and facts of botanical interest will be 
found in their works, of which the '' Relacion historica del 
viage a la America meridional " (Madrid, 1748) has been trans- 
lated into English under the title " A Voyage to South America," 
and has been passed through four editions in this lanffua^e. 



many 



& ""o 



The French botanist Philibert Commerson, who accompanied 
Bougainville's Expedition (1767-1768) as surgeon and naturalist, 
brought back from the areas around the Magellan Straits an 
important collection of plants which became the basis of onr 
knowledge of the Magellanic flora. His collection is in the 
Herbarium of the Museum d'Histoire Xaturelle, Paris. See Life of 
1 hilibert Commerson by Pasfield Oliver, pp. 93 seq., 226. The 

collections of Banks and Solander (Cook's First Vovage, 

liveryman ed., p. M seq.) added largely to the number of plonts 
Imown froin these regions and are chiefly at the British Museum. 
l-orster and Sparrman (Cook's Second Voyage, I.e.. p. 203), 1772- 
liiD investigated especially the forest vegetation on the south- 
west of the Fuegian Archipelago. 

In 1777 H. I^uiz and J. Pavon were authorised by the Spanish 
(government .md King (Charles III.) to conduct natural history 
research m Peru and Chile in connection with J. Dombey a 
French docter and botanist. After collecting in Peru thev 
extended their researches to Chile traversing the territories of 
Loncepcion, Itata, Rere, and Arauco, the provinces of Puchacav, 
Mnule San Fernando, Eancagua, Santiago and Quillota and pait 
nt tlie Andes They returned to Lima with numerous specimens, 
notes and drawings. Many of these were lost through the 
wreck o£the^ship " le San-Pedro d' Alcantara " off PortSgal in 

i'^^'- ®^^^P* Dombey 's collections (including many 



ruarv 



dui.hcates of Euiz and Pavon), which reached Europe safely and 
are at Paris (Herb. Mus d'Hist. Nat.) etc. See Ruiz & Pavon, 

i»U^,. Iheir later explorations relate to P«ru only. 

A. Menzies was surgeon and naturalist to Vancouver, 1790- 
1.90, and observed the flora and collected plnnts in Chile etr. 

Museum and Kew. He intro- 



T H .;t';?'T'' ^^,^'^^^^^« i^to cultivation in Europe in 1796. 
darv ir.?nn.r ' ^^P\?^^«5 P^^'ts of Chile, but his work is of secon- 
830 r;^'T%T.-^" Presl, .Reliquiae Haenkeana^, Pmgue, 
1830. Se^eral Chilean Jesuits (xMoIlna, Gomez de Vfdaurre 

tl e veTlf:tr"""T'>f 1^?^^ containing informntion .oncoming 

he vegetation, rhe Abbe Don J. Ignatius Molina (1740-1829) 

written t'7, V ^^'t ^.f '"^^^ ^•-^^- ^° ^^^^ country wa 

The firff It; 't-'^-^' suppressed in the Spanish possessions. 
Ihe first part containing the r.atural history was piiblished in 



59 



1T8T, tke second part containing the civil liistoiy not till some 
years after. An Eng'lisli edition, entitled " The Geographical, 
Xatural and Civil History of Chile " was published in 1809. Au 
entire chapter of 36 pages is devoted to " Herbs, shrubs and 
trees," chiefly plants of economic value being described and 
named. There is also a systematic list "of the various species 
of natural productions " which includes the plants described in 
the body of the work. The German Adalbert von Chamisso 
collected (1816) around Concepcion. 



J. Miers resided several vears in La Plata and Chile. He 



«/ 



landed at Buenos Aires in March, 1819, and traversed the 
country to Mendoza through Luxan, Salto and the provinces of 
Santa Fe, Cordoba (Cordova), and San Luis. From Mendoza he 
crossed the Paramillo range and the Uspallata desert and arrived 
at the valley of Tiipungato. He then journeyed to Santiago and 
on to Valparaiso, ^ilost of his iiunierous drawings, descriptions 



and notes liave never been published. His lieibarinm of 20,000 



sheets and 




Mu 



W 



his " Travels in South America " in 1825, and monographs of 
various orders largely dealing with South American plants. 

H. Cuming in 1819 made a voyage to South America and 
settled at Valparaiso. His most important work was connected 
with concholugy, but he collected many botanical specimens, 
especially in Chiloe, the province of Maule, and in the nei^h- 
bonrhooct of Concepcion, of Valparaiso and of Coquimbo. 
Alexander Caldcleugh aided Cuming, and his collections in- 
cluded plants from Santiago and Coquimbo. He also crossed 
the Pampas from Buenos Aires to Mendoza. Capt. Beechy 
risited Concepcion in 1825 and Valparaiso in 1825 and^l828, and 
also Coquimbo. His plants were des.cril- 
G. A. AV. Arnott, " Botany of Capt. Beechy's Voyage," 18-11. 
Hooker and Arnott had previously pulilished in Botanical Miscel- 
lanv. vol. iii., 1833, p. 129, under the title " Contributions 

towards a flora of South America and the Islands of the Pacific," 
an account of plants collected by numerous workers: Bertero, 
Bridges, Cruckshanks, Cnming, Miers, Gillies, Macrae, Darwin, 
fete. 

T. Bridges was a Kew Collector in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, and 
California, 182T-1865. He colletted plants in the neighbourhood 
of Valparaiso and Valdivia and up to Lake Ptunco in the Andes 
during an expedition against Indians. Another journey took 
him up into the Andes via the Plainchon Pass, while other 
plants received from him came from the province of Colchagua. 
He left Valparaiso for the north of Chile and explored the 
districts of Copiapo, Balenar and Trierina and crossed on foot 
the deserts between Copiapo and Huasco. He then returned 
along the coast to Coquimbo, some days afterwards taking the 
route to Valparaiso, passing by Andacolla and Petorca and 



descending the valley of Aconcagua he went by Quillota (Q 

tota). , T , 1 1 

Officers of Capt. King^s ex|>editions (1820-1836) brought back 

plants from Chile, Fuegia, etc. These are at Kew, the British 

Museum and Edinburgh. See " Is^arrative of the Voyages ot 



GO 



H.M.S. Adveiihire and Beagle/' Charles Darwin, under Capt. 

FitzroT of tlie ^' Beas^le,'' visited i\roeniiiia Chile and Pata- 



gonia. In Chile the Magellan Straits, the Chonos Archipelago, 
Chiloe, Mocha, Concepcion, and Yal2}araiso were visited and the 
Cordilleras "were crossed south of Santiago. In north Chile 



Hua 



Darwin 



was the first to investigate the flora of the eastern part of Fuegia 

*' 184-4, 



are 



and '' Geological Observations on South America/* 1846. 

Eduard Poeppig was professor of zoology at Leipzig. lii 
March, 1827, he landed at Valparaiso, and from then till 
October he explored the regions round A^alparaiso, Santiago and 
Quillota. The mountains of Chacahuco and the valley of San- 
Felipe were explored and the Andes crossed to Mendoza, from 
Avhence he returned and embarked for Talcahuano (prov. Con- 
cepcion). Tlie summer was spent in the Andes round Antuco 
and in March he returned to Talcahuano. Further explorations 
were conducted in Peru and Brazil. His plants are at Petrograd, 
Geneva, Kiel, Leipzig, Vienna, etc. See Poeppig and Endlicher, 
" Nov. Gen, et Sp. Chil, Per." 1827-1832. 

C. J. Bertero made a rich collection of plants in Chile. Over 
5000 specimens, perfectly preserved and accompanied by descrip- 
tions and notes, are at Paris. He was a native of Turin, and 
landed at Santiago in December, 1827. After travelling through 
the province of xlconcagua'and a great part of North Chile, he 
passed the winter at Quillota and returned to Valparaiso in 
November, 1829. He visited Juan Fernandez, and afterwards 
Tahiti, and was lost at sea. See CoUa, '' PI. rar. in reg. Chil. a 
Bert, nuper detectae '' and Moris in Mem. Ac. reale delle se. di 
Torino, vol. 37-39. 

Xlaude Gay reached Valparaiso in December, 1828, and com- 
menced research near Santiago. In 1830 he conducted systematic 
investigations in the neighbourhood of Rancagua, San Fernando, 
the Cordilleras of Cauquenes and Tal(n\rehue clijnbinff the volcano 



Tunguiritca. 



f 



Cokliagua and in the winter of 1831 he was in Copiapb and 
Coquimbo. He visited Juan Fernandez and returned to Chile 
in 1834 when he traversed the districts of Melipilln, Casa Blanca, 
and a part of the province of Aconcagua, and in October, 1834, 
he went to Yuldivia, and later to Chiloe. After his return to 
Santiag-o he commenced research in September, 1836, in the 
province of Co(|uimbo, the Cordilleras of Santiago and 'the pro- 
vinces of Maule and Concepcion. Ilis plants are chiefly at Taris 
and las great work, " Historia fisica v politica de Chile 



IS 



composed ot iJt) volumes (8 zoology, 8 botany, G history 2 docu- 
ments, 2 agriculture), and an atlas. 

A. Cruckshanks (about 1830) made excursions from Buenos 
Aires and Mendoza. J. Gillies resided (about 1830) several 
years at Mendoza and made excursions across the Cordilleras up 
to the Pacific and later across the Pampas to the Atlantic. He 
explored the •^heights of TJspallata and the mountains of the 
provinces of San Luis and Cordoba (Cordova). His plants are 
at Kew and the British Museum. J. Baird collected in 1820 



61 



X 



and 1830, some plants around Buenos Aires (and als=o iu 

Ur uguay ) . 

Arsene Isabelle in February, 1830, readied the lUo de la Plata 
and landed at Monteyideo, from whence lie crossed in a few days 
to liuenos Aires. He visited Porto- Allegro (iirazil) and 
Uruguay, and apparently did little collecting in tlie Argentine. 
F. J. V. Meyen during tlie yoyage of the • Prinzess Louise" 
(1830-1832) visited South America and botanically explored the 
neighbourhood of Valparaiso and Santiago. lie climlied thehigh 
Cordilleras of Maypu and San Fernando, and also visited 
Coquimbo, Huasco and Arica. His book, " Eeise uiu die Erde," 
was published in two volumes in 1834 and 1835. B. Honibron 
on the expedition of " 1 ' Astrolabe " (1837-1840), under Dum^mt 
d' Urville, visited Concepcion and the Magellan Straits. ^ His 



collections are at Paris and Geneva, and are especially rich in 



■ ^^ B^H ^^^ ^^^ ^m ^m ^m ^^^r 

Compositae. The U.S. Expedition imder Capt, C, W 
(1838-1842) made excursions in the neighbonrliood of Valparaiso 
and Santiago, and a short one to the High Cordillera. See Asa 
Gray, ** Botany of the United States Exploring Expedition/' 
J. Tweed ie collected on the banks of the llio Plata and in 
Uruiruav, and also sonth of Buenos Aires, from the Rio Salado 



up to the Serra de Tendil. His plants were sent to Kew between 



1832 and 1849. 

Bade and his widow sent from time to time various plants 
from Buenos Aires and from the Andes of Arf^entina to Paris. 



Comte Francis de Castelnau (1843-1847) was in north Chile 

(and also in Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru). The results 
of his collecting were published by "VVeddell, in ^^ Chloris andina, 
Essai d'une Flore de la region alpine des Cordilleres de I'Amer. 
du Sud/' Paris, 1855-1857. 

The investigations of J. D. Hooker, as published in his '* Flora 
Antarctica,'' are very important. Hooker himself visited Her- 
mite Island in the southern part of our region, and his '* Flora 
Antarctica " includes plants collected by Banks, Darwin, Forster, 
Gaudichaud, King and others. It was believed by Hooker " that 
successive expeditions have nearly exhausted the phanerogamic 
productions'' of the Magellanic area (''Flora Antarctica," II. 
introd.). Some 100 species of flowering plants which were not 
known in 1S44 have, however, been discovered thei'e since. 

W, Techier collected plants in the Magellanic area and in 
Chile. See his *' Berb. Amer. austr. Accedit enumeratio plan- 
tarum quas in america australi auetor detexit," Stuttgart, 1857. 

WilHani Lobb was a collector for Veitch between 1840 and 
1857. He first visited Brazil, but soon left for Chile, crossing 
the great Pampas of Argentina and the Chilean Andes. Continu- 
ing his journey southwards Lobb penetrated the great Araucaria 
forests, where he collected a large quantity of seeds of Araucaria 
imhricata, and was thus instrumental in brinering this conifer 
into general use for ornamental planting. He returned to 
Ensrland in 1844, but the followinar vear went again to Brazil 
and thence to Yalparaiso for the purpose of exploring south Lnile. 
He obtained a rich harvest. Amongst his earliest successful 
introductions from this region were Lapageria rosea, Escalloiua 



.62 



macrafitha,. Emhotherium . coccineum, Philesia btiJ^ifoUa, upd 
Desfontainea spinosa. He continued explorations in Y^^^divia, ^ 
Cliiloe, and northern Patagonia, wliere lie collected seeds and 
plants of Lihocedrus tetmgona, Fitzroya pQtagonica, Sna'egothea 
coiispicua, and Podocarpus nuhigcna, BevherU Dancinii was first 
introduced to BritiriK gai^dens during tki^ interesting expedition. 
See '[ Hortus A^eitchianus/' p, 37, Richard Pearce also 
collected for Veitcli between 1859 and 1866. He was instructed 
to proceed to Valparaiso and collect in Chile and Patagonia- His 
particular attention was directed to the collection of seeds of 
Lihocedrus tetragonal at that time supposed to be the tree which 
produced the famous Alerze timber; Lapageria rosea and L. 
alba; the Chilean Pine {Araucaria imhricata)^ and other hardy 
trees and shrubs j secondly, to procure such plants as require a 
greenhouse temperature; and^ thirdly, Orchidaccae and stove and 
greenhouse flowering plants. Pearce carried out these instruc- 
tions and, besides the above-named plants, obtained and intro- 
duced Priimnopitys elegans, Podocarpus nuhigena^ Eiicryphia 
pinnatifolia^ several species of Bomarea^ Thibaudia acuminata , 
Ourisia coccineay 0, Pearcei, and quantities of ferns. At the 
same time, through his researches, the true Alerze-producing tree 
was found to be Fitzroya patagonica and not Lihocedrus fetra^ 
gona as generally supposed. During 1860 Pearce made many 
journeys to the Cordilleras and the interior of the country, to 
Los Banos, the Baths of Chilian, and to Los Luganos, etc- His 
herbarium specimens are at Kew, See ''Hortus Yeitehia " 



anus, 



p: 45. 

R. A. Philippi went to Chile in 1851, and in 1853 became pro- 
fessor of zoology and botany and Director of the National 
Museum, He was settled in Yaldivia, and, naturally, studied 
the vegetation here very fully. He also made excursions from 
Santiago to the Cordilleras, to the baths of Colina, the Cordilleras 
of Rancagua and the district between the capital and Valpa- 
raiso, the volcano of Chilian, the provinces of Concepcion and 
Araucania. His very numerous publications appeared in many 
scientific periodicals. 

I?. O. Cunningham, during the voyage of H.M.S, " Nassau '' 
(1866-1869), visited the Straits of Magellan and the west coast 
of Patagonia. .S^^e his " Xotes on the Natural Histoiy of Straits 
of Magellan." This work also contains notes on Chiloe, Lota, 
Valparaiso, and Santiago. 

P..G. Lorentz in 1871-18T2 explored the provinces of Cordoba, 
Santiago del Estero, Tueuman and Catamarca, between 26° and 

•^1^ S. lat. The plants he collected were worked out and published 
by Grisebach in '' Plantae Lorentzianae/' 1874 (927 Argentine 
species). Lorentz himself published " Vegetacion del Nordoste 
de la Provincia de Entre llios/' In 1879 Lorentz and G. 
NieJcrlein accompanied General Hosa on an expedition to the 
Rio Negro. The plants collected on this expedition are at Buenos 
Aires and Cordoba,. In 1880 Lorentz visited the Sierra de la 

Ventana. Lorentz avtJ G» Ilieronvmus to«rether investijrated 
th 



j^^^^^i J.^^,»^„Vig, 



©flora of tlie provinces Tuciiman, Salta, -Ttijuy, and Oran; ttey 
passed the tropic up to and beyond Tarija, and went by the Rio 



-63 



to tlie Laguua del 
by Grisebacli in 

" Symbolae ad floram argentinain/^ 1879, together with, colleo- 



tions of Lorentz from Entre Eios and of Hieronynius from tlie 
Sierra de Cordoba, and of Schickendantz from C'atamarca. 

Hieronynius returned to his OAvn country in 1884 and was suc- 
ceeded by G. Kurtz, wbo kas explored and collected in Patagonia, 
up to tlie pass of la Cumbre, and to tlie liio Salado, etc. 

George Downton collected for Yeitcli (18TU 1873). lu 
October, 1871, he started on a mission to Chile to collect a frnther 
supply of seed of Ejnbothrium coccineitm^ TropacoJum QznTenvi^ 
l\ tricolor^ and other plants of horticultural interest. 



Otto Kuntze m his journey 



4^18 



crossed Chile and Argentina. Xo general account of his South 
American travels has been found, but a reference to the follo\\- 
ino" naner has been met with : '' Botanische Excursion durch die. 



Pampas und Monte-Formationen naeh den Cordilleren," in 



it 



Potonie's Naturwiss. Wochen^crift, No. 1-3, 1893. In hi 
Eevisiu Generum Plantarum,'' vol. iii, a full list of plants is 
given and the following localities are mentioned ; — Chile ; Angul, 
Ercilla ; boundary between Chile and Argentina: pass of la Cruz 
de Piedra (Paso Cruz); Argentina : Tucuman and Cordoba; 
Patagonia : Santa Cruz. 

Several expeditions have casually touched Chile — e.g., the 

ger'''(187^ 



?> 



Austrian *' Donau 
1876). The expedition of the *' Gazelle •* (about 1880) worked 
in the Magellan Straits, and was accompanied by the botanist 
Nauinann, who collected some plants. See Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 

Bd. 4-6. 

The French doctors, Savatier, Harlot, and Hyades (1877- 

1879) made important collections in the south. See Franchet, 
*' Mission scientifique du Cape Horn.^' P. A. L. Savatier's collec- 
tions are at Kew, and an account of his life and travels is given 
in the Kew Bulletin, 1909, p. 148. 

John Hall traversed the Chilean coast-belt from Arica to the 
Magellan Straits, and an account of his tour is ^iven in his book, 
** Notes of a Xaturalist in South America,'' London, 1887. 
Gussfeldt, in 1882, travelled in the Cordilleras of Central Chile. 
See his book, '^ Reise in den Anden,^' Berlin, 1888. 

F. Philippi, son of E. A. Philippi, accompanied his father on 
many excursions, and also made many of his own in the coast 
Cordilleras of Valdivia, in the province of Tarapaca (1884 1885), 
the northern forest regions of Chile (1883), and Atacania (1885). 
Carlos Reiche has made journeys into South Chile and other 
parts. The first volume of his *' Flora de Chile " was published 
(in Spanish) in 1896, and the work is not yet completed. His 
excellent work on the phytogeography of the country was pub- 
lished in Engler and Drude, *' A^egetation der Erde,'' vol. 8, 
1907. This latter work is in German. 

Wilczek (1897) crossed the Andes and collected plants at Saint 
Raphael and in the valley of the AtueL See Chodat and Wilczek 
in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii*. ser., vol, ii. p. 281, 1902, and Briqnet 
in Ann. dn Conserv. et du Jard. bot. de Geneve, 1900, p. 14. 



64 



Tke Argeutiiie botanist, C. Spegazzini, has explored many 
parts of Argentina and also (1881) Eastern Euegia. He lias, for 
the most part, published the results of his own researches. ' His 
herbarium, which is particularly rich in Cryptogams, is at La 
Plata. 

The Princess Therese von Bayern in 1898 made a journey 

in Chile and collected plants from the coastal districts, from 
Antofagasta to Coquimbo, and from the Cordilleras, near the 
Uspallata Pass. In Argentina she travelled from the Uspallata 
Pass to Mendoza, and thence to Buenos Aires (See Beih. Bot 
Centrlb. xiii, p. 1, 190^3). 

P. 

the 



D 



N. Alboff has also studied the flora of South Fuegia (1896) 
usen (1895-1896) investigated the flora on both sides of 
Magellan Straits. The results include the publications of 2Y _. , 
species (largely Compositae, Leguminosae, and Gramineae). 

Hatcher m 1896 and 1897 visited parts of southern Patagonia, and 
Nordenskjold, in 1898, explored from Punta Arenas to Ultima 
Esperanza, both making botanical collections. For the work of 
Skottsberg, see a summary by the writer in the Kew BuUetin, 

1919, pp. 268-279. . . 

E. A. FitzGerald was accompanied by Philip Gosse in his ex- 
ploration of parts of the Andes. Gosse collected in the Lns Cuevas 
and Horcones valleys a number of plants which were named by 
I. H. Burkill, and are now at Kew'. See FitzGerald '* The ' 

Highest Andes," j^p. 370 seq., 1899. 

^^ H. J. Elwes (1901-1902) collected plants and seeds in a 
number of scattered localities belonging to different phytogeo- 
graphical areas " in Chile and Argentina. His plants are at Kew. 
I^obert Fries accompanied the Swedish Chaco-Cordillera Ex- 
pedition (1901-1902), which explored the mountains and high 
plateaux of the northern provinces of Argentina, especially the 
pTovince of Jujuy. ■ His plants are partly at Hpsala, partly at 
Stockholm. See hiswork, " Zur Kenntnis der alpinen Flora im 
nordhchen Argentmien," Upsala, 1905. 

In recent years a considerable amount of botanical work has 
been done by naturalists residing in Chile and Argentina. The 
work of the Philippis, Reiehe, and Spegazzini has been referred to 
above. Others who should be mentioned are Echejjarav, who 



studied the flora oi parts of Sn'nluanTVve! Lailefnand', who 
worked m San Luis, and Roman in the province of Buenos Aires, 
particularly at Chacabuco. 

E. L. Holmberg has published (1898) a " Flora de. la Republic 
de la Argen ma, but this is a general phytugeographical account 
(m Spanish), and no complete systematic flora of Argentina ha<: 
appeared. Re.che's Flora de Chile " is purely systematic. 

Reference niay be made to Capt. A. ^V. Hill's paper, " South 
America m relation to Horticulture," in the Journal of the Royal 
Horticultural Society, October, 1911, p. 51, and to the illustrated 
guide by C. Thays, - El Jardin Botanico de Buenos Aires," 1010. 

.3/7.r?^^3\,^"^*'-^" Hauraan, published in 1919, and 
entitled, La Vegetation des Hautes Cordilleres de Mendoza," 
deals with the flora ecologically, phytogeographically and 



65 



systeinatically. The general part (in French) is extremely 
interesting reading. 

The principal herbaria in Argentina are in the Mujieum of Cor- 
doba, including types of Orisebach, Lorentz and Hieronymus, and 
greatly enriched by Kurtz, Niederlein, Holmberg, etc., at La 
Plata (Spegazzini's plants, etc.) and at Tucuman, where is the 
herbarium of JVTiguel Lillo, which is particularly rich in plants 

of the sub-tropical formations. 

The principal herbaria in Chile are In the Museo Nacional, 
Santiago, and the Museo de Historia Natural, Valparaiso. 



REGIONS IX THE ARGENTINA OR CHILE AVHEIICH ARE RELATIVELY 

UNEXPLORED BOTANICALLY. 

The compilation of an account of the botanical exploration in 
Chile and Argentina has brought out one point very strongly : 
that Argentina and the Argentine side of the Andes have been 
much less visited, especially by horticultural collectors, than Chile 
and the Chilean Andes. This is probably explicable, in part at 
least, bv the fact that the mountains are so much nearer the west 
than the east coast. 

In Argentina the Territory of the Kcuquen (Gobernacion del 
Neuquen) seems the least explored of the southern Andine pro- 
vinces and might yield some hardy horticultural novelties. The 
Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway runs from Buenos Aires 
as far as Senillosa, a little west of Neuquen (1919 map) in the 
east of the province, and it is projected to carry it to the western 
frontier. From Senillosa exploration south-west towards the 
sources of the river Limav and its tributaries and north-west 

ft/ 

towards the sources of the river Xeuquen and its tributaries should 
3'ield a great many inteiesting and new plants. South of the lati- 
tude of Chiloe a considerable amount of work has been done and 
the flora is less rich. The provinces of Mendoza (north of 
Neuquen) and San Juan have been visited by several botanists. 

The northern xVndine provinces of Catamarca and Jujuy and the 
.territory of Los Andes would certainly yield mnny new plants, 
but these, excej^t on the higher mountains would tend for the most 
part to be of a more sub-tropical character. The northern and 
north-eastern province of Salta, the territories of Formosa, Chaco 
and Misiones, and the provinces of Corrientes have- apparently 
been little explored botanically and certainly verv little visited 
by European collectors. The flora is here sub-tropical. Ine 
central provinces (Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Santa Fe, San Luis, 
and the Territory of the Pampas) have been relatively well worked, 
but even in these there must be many species of horticultural 
value which have never been introduced into Europe. In the 
southern provinces (territories of the Rio Negro, of the Chubut 
and Santa Cruz, i.e., '' Patagonia '') there is a poorer flora and 
few good lines of communication. 

Chile, with its long coast-line, narrow width and many ports, 
may be said to have been well explored, and it is difficult to give 
preference to any of the provinces. Certainly, whatever part of 
the Andes might be visited, some plants new to European horti- 
<5ulture could be obtained, but the desert northern provinces of 

B 



6G 



Tarapaca and Autofagasta, and the region of tlie Llanquihue 
lakes, appear to liaye been less visited than most districts. 



sum 



the impression obtained by the studies detailed 
above is that the two areas most likely to provide a large number 
of new plants are : (1) the territory of the Neuquen (hardy plants), 
and (2) the province of Jujuy (sub-tropical and montane plants). 



IX.— DECADES KEWENSES 

Plantarum Novahum in Herbario Horti Regii Conservatautjm 

DECAS XCV. 
941. Stellaria Wallichiana, Tlalnes TC 

1 



. _ . , , A', neglectae, Weihe, 

aflinis; ab his sepalis petalisque 4, sepalis ovatis sine marginibus 
scariosis, petalis saepe potius emarginatis quam 2-fidis, foliis 

omnibus petiolatis basi late subcordatis sed versus petiolum cune- 
atis differt. 

Hevba tenuis, procuiubeiis, caulibus pubescentibus pilis eglan- 
dulosis plus minus in duas lineas confertis atque pilis glandulosis 
dispersis. Folia omnia petiolata, ovata vel ovato-lanceolata, 
1-2-5 cm. longa, basi late cordata, in petiolutn autem cuneata; 
petiolus tenuis, pubescens. Flores solitarii, pedicellis bis vel quin- 
quies quam sepalis lougioribus. Sepala 4, ovata, interdum subito 
acuminata, 2-5-3 mm. longa. Petala 4, ovata, 2-fida vel solum- 
modo emarginata. Stamina hypogyna. Ovarium ovoideum, 
stylis 2-3 recurvatis. Cap^wZa" sepalis brevior, (4?)-6-valvis. 
Semina 3-12, muricata (non grauulata ut in S. media, Hook, f.) 
Alsinella Wnllichiana, Benth. in AVall Cat.; S. media, Hook. f. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. partim. 

Ixdia. Sylhet, Wallich 630; Bengal Eungpore, Clarhe 
26820, Purneah, Haines 5161. In damp places. 

942. Aspidopter}s Hutchinsonii, Haines [Malpighiaceae] ; 
si>ecies A. ohcnrdatae., Hemsl., arete affinis sed paniculis brevibus 
densioribus, pedicellis fructiferis brevioribus, sepalis dorso pube- 
scentibus, samararum nervis paucioribus minus reticulatis 
distinguitur. 

Friitex scandens, caulibus pilorum delapsorum cicatrieibus 
asperis juventute lanuginosis. Folia orbiculari-obovata subito 
cuspidata, 7-11 cm. longa, saepe latiora, basi truncata vel 
rotundata, non cordata, apice praeter cuspidem obtusissima vel 
leviter retusa, juventute utrinque dense flavo-tomentosa mature- 
sceutia subtus hir.uto-pubescentia, supra glabrescentia ; nervi 
laterales circa « quorum unus prope basem. Petitdm circa 2 
mm. longus. Pamculae breves (nostris in exemplis foliis bre- 



Hint 



cm 



^. , ^. -~ --- .....V.V..C.VX, ixixiit ctiticiuuuonem mrsuti, supra 
artieiilationem fere glabn vel glabri. Sepala obloiigo-raiiceolata, 
14 mm. longa dorso longe piibeseentia. Petala oLlonga vel ellip- 
tico-oblonga, 4-5-5 mm. longa. Staviina petalis mnlto breviora. 



67 



glabra. Ocarium g-labrum, minute alatiiin. Samara ut in .L 
obcordotay HemsL, sed nervi laterales plus distincti, minus reticu- 
lati et carpopliorium acuminatum, 4 mm. longum. 

IxDiA. Orissa; mountains of Mayurbhanj, Haines. 

This species might perhaps be considered as an extreme western 
form of A. obco/data. In the ty2)e of that species the leaves are 
cordate both at the base and at the apex- examples from Siam are 
only cordate at the base, while some Burmese specimens show some 
leaves cordate at the base, others rounded and with the apex either 
slightly retuse or even obtuse. In all these, however, the sepals 
are glabrous and the panicles large and lax. 



!J4o, Tetrastigma alcicorne, Hairivs [Ampelidaceae-A'^itoideae] ; 

species 1\ lanceolariae, Planch., 1\ Thomsonianae^ Planch., 2\ 
bnwteolateae, Planch., affinis; ab omnibus folioruni rhachi louga, 
extreme foliolo obovato snbito aciiminato, petalis neque cucullatis 
nee calcaratis, ab unoquoque aliis characteribus dift'ert. 

Frutex scandens, caulibus paulum complanatis glabris, cirris 
foliis oppositis simplicibus. Folia trifoliolata, nitentia, glabra, 
rhachi cum petiolo extremo 2—3 cm. longo, petiole 5-8 
cm. longo; foliola 8-10 cm. longa, in parte superiore leviter 
crenata denticulataque, obtusa, subito caudata, foliolo extremo 
obovatoj nervis lateralibus utrinque 4-6. Cymae 2-5-6-5 cm. longae, 
petiolis breviores vel iis aequilongae, puberulae, sessiles 
vel brevissime pedunculatae, ramulis, saepe complanatis 
atque sursum gradatim latioribus (alcis cornubus similibus). 
Bracteoe 1-3 -I'G mm. longae. Flores dioici, tetrameri, viridi-albx, 
1"3 mm. longi. Calyx patelliformis, vix vel leviter 4-lobatus. 
Petala oblongo vel lanceolato-oblonga, jmberula, in mediis con- 
cava, apicibus patentibus minute mucronatis vel muticis; discus 
ob^curu^. Sfiffvia latiim, lobis 4 distinctis acutis vel obtusis, 
F met us non risus. 

IxDiA. Chami^aran; near the Xepal Hills, Haines, 3961. 

944. Oldenlandia anamalayana, Gamble [Rubiaceae-Hedyo- 

tidieael; O. Lessertriiiae, 0. Kze., affinis sed minor, foliis tenui- 
oribus Jiaud plicatis, floribus minoribus in cymulas parvas dis- 
positis nee umbellatis, pedicelli.^ gracilibus bracteolatis. 

Arbuscula glabra, ramulis tetragonis, ultimis compressis. 
Fo/w lanceolata, acuminata, 7-11 cm. longa, 2-4 cm. lata, ner^'is 
utrinque 5-7 obliquis parullelis supra impressis; petiolus 1-1*5 cm. 
longus; stipulae inferiores tubulosae, marcescentes, ad 1 cm. 
longae, dentibus paucis subulatis, superiores ad basim fissae, 
inde triangulares, dentatae, omnes scariosae. Flores parvi, in 
cymarum j^aniculis corvmbosis terminalibus vel in cymis e nodis 
ultimis pedunculatis ; pedunculi 1-1-5 cm. longi ; pedicelli 
graciles, 2 mm. longi; bracteae foliaceae, lanceolatae; bracteolae 
lineares, minutae. Calycis limbus campanulatus, 1 mm. longus, 
dentibus minutis ovatis. Corollas tubus cyliudricus, 4 mm. 
longus; lobi lanceolati, intus ad tubi faucem barbati, patentes vel 
recurvi. Stamina exserta, filamentis longis, antheris medio 
affixis oblongis. Stylus gracilis, stigmati]>us 2 linearibus. Cap- 
suhf dicocra^ circiter 2 mm. longa, in qiiodam cocco placentae 

12 2 



68 



oblongae, seminibus paucis. Hedyotis Le-^sertiana^ BedJome 
Icones Plant, t. 31, non Arnott, 

South I^dia. Anamalai liills, in liigher ranges, Beddome in 
Herb. Madr., coll, 1872. 

This seems to be distinct from 0. Lessertiana and to be the 
plant figured by Beddome, Avhich fignre Trimen refused to quote 
as *^ scarcely appearing to represent any form of this species" 

{Hedyotis Lessertiana, Arn., Trimen FL Ceylon, ii. 309)- 



945. Oldenlandia Barberi, Gamble [Eubiaceae-Hedyotidieae] ; 
species distincta, lignosa, facie 0. huxifoliam^ 0. Kze., et 0, quin- 
qiienerxiairiy 0. Kze., ob folia parva ad apices ramulornm congre- 
gata referens, ab utraque specie cymis trifloris sessilibus axiliari- 
bus et stipulis nun pectinatis dilfert. 

Arhusciila lignosa, ramulis didi-vel trichotomis curvatis griseis 
cicatricibus folioruni delapsornm notatis. Folia ad apices ramu- 
lornm congregata, percoriacea, ovata, apice obtuse acuia, basi 
obtusa et decurrentia, margine conspicue incrassata, 2-3 cm, 
longa, 1-1"5 cm. lata ;costa crassa, nervis utrinque 4-5 obliquis por- 
obscuris; petiolus baud ullus; stipnlae orbiculares, margine glan- 
dulis nigris ornatae et intus ad medium glandularum annulo 
notatae, conspicue marcescentes albidae, Cymae axillares, tri- 
florae, biacteolis 2 subulatis ad basim ornatis, pedicellis brevibus 
2—3 mm. longis. Calycis tubus infundibularis, lobis 4 lanceolutis 
acuminatis giabris 2 mm. longis. CoroUae tubus cj-lindricus, 3 
mm. longus; lobi ovati, acuti, 3 mm. longi, fauce pauUo puberuli. 
Staviina vix exserta, subsessilia, antheris oblongis. Stylus 
simplex, stigmatibus 2 parvis brevibus. Capsnla glabra, non pro- 
trusa, seminibus paucis. 

South Ixdia. Agastiamalai peak, on the boundary between 
Travancore and Tinnevelly, at about 1500 m, alt., May, 1901. 

C. A, Barber 292Q. 



946. Knoxia linearis, Gamble [Rubiaceae-Xnoxieae] ; /v, 
Wightianaej Wall., affinis, sed pubescens, foliis angustioril)iLS 
linearibus, stipulis elongatis pubescentibus et mericarpiis vix 
separantibus differt. 

Herha\iexQTiJi\%, erecta, piibescens, raniis multis gracilibus tere- 
tibus, e caudice lignoso. Folia sessilia, linearia vel aliquando 
lineari-lanceolata, ad 6 cm. longa, 3 -8 mm. lata, nervis utriuque 
circiter 5 perobliquis scabris; stipulae ovatae, acuminatae, margine 
pinnatisectae, 2 mm. longae. Flares in corymbis terminalibus 
racemiferis di-trichotomis ad 4 cm. longis. Calycis tubus brevis, 
campanula! us; lobi breves, unus lougior. CoroUae tnh\\< anguste 
infundibularis, 3 mm. longus, intus parce villosus; lobi breves 
in alabastro incurvi, demum patentes. Stamina exserta; iilamenta 
e f undo corollae tubi gracilia ; antherae oblongae. Stylvs gracilis, 



stigmatibus 2 ovatis. Fructns ovoideus, mericarpiis 2 connatis 
vix separantibus, facile integer a columelln centrali persi^tente 
solutus; pericarpium membranacenm, siccitate rugosu.m. 

South India, Mahendragiri hills in Tinnevelly District, 
September IT, 1916. K. Rangachari 13168. 



69 



94^- 



i 



/ 



1 /. huiiiilij Linn., 



uiicaniiy ijinn., eiiam 
similis sod calycis deutibus multo brevioriLus et puLescentia 

differt, 

Frutex 15-30 cm. altus. I^amuli intricati, striati, cum foliis 

ealycibusque piiberuli. Folia alterna, coriacea, 3-5-foliolata, 

1-2 cm. loiiga; foliola ovata, obtiisa, obscure mucronata, 3-6 mm. 

loiiga. Flares terminales et axillares solitarii; bracteae mimitue; 

j^ediinculi calyce breviures. Calyx 2—3 mm. loBgus, urceolatus; 

tubus 5-costatus, dentibus subulatis bis longior. Corolla 2-3 cm, 

loii^a, aureo-flavaj lobis tube bis brevioribus, Bacca didyma, car- 

pellis 3 mm. diametro ellii^soideis, albido-viridibus, transluceuti- 
bus. 

India. Cbamba State : lower part of upper basin of tbe Ravi; 
Tiari, Barmaor, on dry ground among boulders, 800 m. R. /V. 
Parker, July, 1919. (Fl. June.) Mr. Parker notes its occur- 
rence in other places in tW same valley. 



948. Pseuderanihemum Dawei, Turrill [Acaiitliaceae-Pseuder- 

antliemeae] ; affinis P. clliptico, Turrill, sed foliis majoribus, 
inflorescentia paniculata, calyce niinore segmentis membranaceis, 
corolla infundibuliformi distinguitur. 

Herha erecta, caulibus teretibus inferne glabris vel leviter 
pubeiulis superne Inrsutis. Folia elliptica, apice gradatim 
acuminata, basi in petiolum 1-2 cm. longum angustata, usque ad 
16 cm. longa et 5'7 cm. lata, costa in pagina superiore sulcata, 
inferiore prominente, nerves lateralibus utrinque circiter 10-12 
in pagina utraque prominentibus marginem versus sursum 
curvatis, nervis tertiariis subparallelis, supra glabra, infra in 
cost^ nervisque puberulis alioqui glabra. Inflorescentia panicu- 
lata, r6 dm. longa, multiflora, puberula; bracteae lineari-lanceo- 
latae, 2-5 mm. longtie; bracteolae vix 1 mm. longae; pedicelli 
l"5-2 mm. longi. Calyx fere ad basem 5-fidus, segmentis lanceo- 
latis acutis 3 mm. longis membranaceis extra puberulis. Corolla 
anguste infundibuliformis, extra glanduloso-puberula, tubo 
8 mm. longo basi 1*3 mm. fauce 2'3 mm. diametro, lobis sub- 
aequalibus elli2)tico-ovatis 6 nun. longis 4 mm. latis, abaxiali 
leviter latiore. Stamina fertilia duo 3 mm. supra tubi basem in- 
serta, filamentis 0*5 mm. longis, antlieris 1 mm. longis; pollinis 
granula ellipsoidea 32 /a longa 25 p. diametro. Discus brevis- 
simus. OvariuTn cylindricum 1-5 mm. altum, 0-75 mm. diametro, 
minutissime puberulum; stylus 3 mm. longus, inferne patule 
pul>erulus. 

Colo:mbia: Cauca Valley, fl. April, M, T. Daice 847. 



949. Pseiideranthemum ellipticum, Turrill [Acantliaceae- 
Pseuderantliemeae] ; species P. lanceo^ Turrill, comb. nov. (Eran- 
tkemo lanceo, Nees), valde affine sed foliis ellipticis vel elliptico- 
oblanceolatis basi gradatim angustatis, in pagina utraque glabri?, 
calycis lobis longioribus, oorolla birsutiore differt. 

Herha erecta, caulibus teretibus inferne fere glabris superne 
leviter hirsutis. Folia elliptioa vel elliptico-oblanceolata, apjee 
acuminata, basi in petiolum plus minu^ve 1 cm. longum gradatim 



70 



«Tio;u6lata, usque ad 8 cm. loiiga, et 2'6 cm. lata, iu pagimi utiaque 
g-labra, €Osta in pagina superiore sulcata; infeiiore piomiuente, 
nervis lateralibiis utrinqiie circiter 8 infra promineutibiis siipia 
subpromineiitibus, nervis tertiariis reticulatis. Ijiflorescevtia 
fere spicata, hirsuta, usque ad 1*6 cm. longa; bracteae lanceolato- 
lineares, 4 mm. longae; bracteolae subulatae, 1*5 mm. loiigae; 
pedicelli brevissimi. Caly.t fere ad basem S-fidus^ segmeiitis 
lanceolato-linearibus acutis 6 cm. longis dense glandulose-liir- 
sutis. Corolla alba^ extra dense liirsuta, tubo cylindrico in parte 
superiore leviter ampliato 1 cm. longo basi d'3 mm. fauce 2 mm. 
diametro, lobis subaequalibus 6-5 cm. longis 3-4*5 cm. latis. 
Stamina fertilia duo 7 mm. supra tubi basem inserta, filameutis 
1 mm. longis, aiitlieris 2 mm. longis; pollinis granula ellipsoidea 
52 /A longa 32 p. diametro. Discus inconspicuus, vix 0-5 mm. altus. 
Ovarium cylindricum, 2 mm. altum, 0*75 mm. diametro, minutis- 
sime puberulum; stylus 14 cm. longus, inferne hirsutus. 

Colombia. Fusagasuga', white bedgerow flower in lanes and 
patlis between coffee plantations, fl. April, Mrs, 7. A, Tracey 24; 
Arizal, in forest sliade, 1700 m., fl. May, Kalhreyer. 



950. Lasiococca Comberi, Ilaines [Euphorbiaceae-Acaly- 

pheae] ; affinis L, symyhylliaefoliae Hook, f., sed foliis multo lati- 
oribus, floribus feminis saepe subcorymbosis nee glandulosis, 
sepalis exteris fructiferis brevioribus latioribus, capsula mntura 
tuberculata, tuberculis uno aut ad summum duobus pilis .<iin- 
plicibus exceptis glabris, differt.. 

Arbor parva, trunco erismis instructo cortice pallido, 



ramulis albis juventute dense pubescentibus. Folia sub- 
verticillata, oboyata vel elliptica, acuminata, basi cordata, 
9-20 cm., longa, 4'5-6-5 cm, lata, glabra, nervis lateialibus 
lO-oO utrinque, petiolo tomentoso brevissimo, Racemi (/ 
3-6 cm. longi, axillares (etiam in fuliorum delapsoruni axillis); 
rhaclii pedicellisque i>ubescentibus ; bracteae 3 mm. ovatae, 
obtusae; pedicelli articulati, 3-^ mm. longi. Calyx in alabastro 
apice extreme pu1)escens, ceterum glaber; sepala circa 7 mm. 
longa, elliptica v. elliptico-oblonga. Pedunculi 9 pube- 
scent-s, non-glandulosi, 1-6-26 cm. longi, ramulorum versus apices 
axillares vel ad perularum deciduarum axillaa subcorymbosi, 
bracteis parvis 1-2 lanceolatis instructi. Seprda inaequalia, 
exteriora J^ate ovata, subito^ acuminata, paucis ciliolis exceptis 

vel tul»*a- 
instructi s; stvli 



glabra, 
culatutii 



Ovarium leviter trilobum, minute squamatum 
, tuberculis apicibus 1-2 setis simplicibus instri 



extus leviter setulosi. 



2-1 



tuberculata, demum glabra. Semina brunnea, frlobosa. 

LvDiA Orissa: Aiigul: in rocky ravines of "tlie mountains of 
iMayurblianj, Comhrr. 

This spe^cies is named after Mr. Comber, of the Tudiuu Foiest 
bervice, who kmdly visited one of the localities in Augul, where it 
grows, until he had collected all stages of the flower and fruit. 

e to supplement and 



spec 



slightly modify the description of the genus as nriginallv pub- 
lished m Hooker's Tfrnips /'Vol "YVT iQcr t)1 i.-;q'^\ 



Tl 



Lasiococca, Hook, f . Flores monoiei vel dioici, apetali, (/ race- 
uiosi, racemis lateralibus, 9 solitarii, pediinculati, nxillares v. 
sviLcorymbosi ad ramulorum novoriim apices. Fl. cf : Calyx glo- 
bosus, valvatim tripartitus. Discus 0. Stamina perplurima, centro 
floris inserta, antheris in phalanges ramosissimas dispositis, 
loculis globosis subdivaricatis, conneotivo lociilos cingente. Pistil- 
lodium 0. Fl. 9 • Sepala 5-7 iuaequalia, persistentia et ali- 
qiiantum accreseentia. Ovarium globosum yel leviter 3-lobum; 
styli 3, filiformes, erecti, intus stigmatosi. Oyula in loculis 
solitaria. Capsulu demum 3-cocca; cocci a triquetra columella 
decidui, deliiscentes, setis crassis spiculiferis vel tuberculis operti. 
Semina subglubosa laevia, testa tenuiter Crustacea; hilum latum; 
raphe linearis; carunculus 0. Albumen carnosum. Cotyledones 
magni, orbiculares, subeordati, plani, tenues. Folia subverticil- 
lata, rarius alterna v, subopposita, breA'iter petiolata, oblanceo- 
lata vel obovata, acuminata, basi cordata, integerrima. 

Sjiecies 2, Indiae Orientalis incolae. 



X.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Mr. M. Yaedy, a memLer of tlie gardening staff of the Eojal 
Botanic Gardens, lias been appointed bj the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew, Assistant 
Superintendent of Agriculture, Grenada. 



Dr. Johx H. Ti'^iLsox.— It is with great regret that we have 
learnt of the death of this well-known agriculturist who, since 
1900, was Lecturer in Agriculture and Kural Economy 'in the 
dniversitj of St. Andrews. Some particulars of his life and work 
are given in the obituary notices that appeared in the '' Gardei.ers' 
Chronicle '' for 31st Januaiy, 1920, p." 59, and in '' Nature '' for 
22nd January, p. 539. Dr. Wilson was a native of St/ 
Andrew:s, and died there after a short illness on 13th January at 
the age of 61. He was the first Botanical Lecturer in the Univer- 
sity, and laid out its original Botanic Garden; he was also, for 
some time, Demonstrator in Zoology. His most important work, 
however, was directed to the improvement of the potato and other 
important food plants. Of the potato he was successful in raising 
several fine varieties which have become well-known. 

In the note on presentations to the library, published in the 
Kew Bulletin, 1913, p. 62, reference is made to a thick foolscap- 
folio volume of manuscript and printed matter relating to the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, once the property of John Smith, 
Curator of the Gardens from 1841 to 1864, who was the author of 
a considerable portion of it. The establishment is indebted to Dr. 
Wilson for this interesting accession, which was the subject of a 
note by Dr. Hemsley in the Bulletin for 1914, p. 85. 



70 



Taiwania cryptomerioides, Hayata.—K. healthy young plant 
of this new and very interesting conifer was received m December 
last from the Arnold Arboretum. Il is one of a few living plants 
introduced to that institution by Mr. E. H. Wilson during his 
recent visit to Formosa. Seeds also were collected by Mr. AVilson 
ajid widely distributed by the Arboretum, but of those received at 
Kew not one germinated ; nor have we learnt that any better result 
has been obtained elsewhere. It seems, therefore, that the plant 
just received will represent the first introduction of this tree in 
a living state to Britain. 



Taiwania cryptomerioides was originally described by Hayata 
in the Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. xxxvii. p.' 330 



(1906), plate xvi. It appears to have been first discovered 
on the western slope of Mount Morrison in Formosa, at about 
6500 feet elevation. There are some very good cone-bearing shoots 
preserved in the Kew Herbarium, collected in 1912 by Mr. W. E. 
Price. The tree has two distinct types of foliage— juvenile and 
adult. The young plant at Kew has nothing but the former, the 
leaves being awl-shaped, flattish but slightly thickened up the 
middle, f - i inch long, j^r inch wide at the base, tapering 
gradually to the slender, sharply-pointed apex. Several lines of 
stomata on each surface give the leaves a greyish tinge. At tliis 
stage the leaves in shape and arrangement strongly suggest Cryp- 
tomeria. On the adult, cone-bearing shoots the leaves are quite 
difterent, and m shape, size and arrangement are very like those 
of Athrotaxis laxi folia; they are only \ inch long, stout, keeled 
at the back, incurved and bluntish at the apex. The cones are 
^^'^^ f - 2 ^'^^^ longT the scales roundish-obovate, \ - x\ inch 
wide. In structural detail Hayata observes tliat the cones 
most nearly approach those of Cunninghamia. In external 
appearance they suggest small cones of Tsuga. 

According to a note in the Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 
vol. 1, p.^ 66, the Taiwania is the tallest tree in the world outside 
California and Australia and is, in its young state, one of the 
most beautiful of all conifers. It will have to be grown in the 
Temperate House at Kew, and is only likely to be hardy in this 
country m the south-western counties, the Scillv Isles and 
similarly mild localities. 



W. J. B. 



g 



—I he first section of T^lufP and Fingerhuth's Compendium ed 1, 
coniprismg the Phanerogams, appeared in 1825, under the auspices 
of C. G. and Th. Fr. Nees ab Esenbeck,* and in spite of rather 



criticism t seems 



receiYed sufficient support to warrant tlie publication of a second 



edition. 



The second edition, edited by Bluff, C. G. Nees and Schauer, 
appeared m 1536-8, and was very favourably noticed, the reviewer 

* Flora, 1825, i. Beilage, pp. 90-93. 
\ lb., ii. pp. 714-718. 
I lb., ii. pp. 640, 686. 



73 



M 



the only one arranged according to tlie Lmnean system. 

In 1837, however, AY. D. J. Koch published his Synopsis Florae 
Germanicae et Helveticae, which at once became the standard 
work on the subject, passing through three Latin and three 
German editions, the latest of which appeared in 1892-1907. 

The second edition of Bluff and Fingerhuth's Compendium was 
thus immediately superseded, and passed into oblivion. As show- 
ing how little it was consulted by botanists of the day, it may be 



me 



date of his death. 

Though the immediate success of Koch's Synopsis was due 
mainly to its high intrinsic merits, it was undoubtedly helped by 
his ademption of the Candollean system of arrangement in prefer- 
ence to the Linnean, which had at that date, become obsolete, 
except for the purposes of a clavis, for which it still has its uses.t 

The second edition of Bluff and Fingerhuth^s Compendium does 
not appear to have been consulted during the compilation of the 
Index Kewensis, which consequently does not contain the follow- 
ing names proposed by Bluff, C. G. Nees and Schauer. These will 
be included in the sixth supplement of the Index. 

Xames published IX Bluff et FixGERiiuxii, Comp. Fl. Germ., 

En. 2, WITH their ^EODERX EQUIVALEiS^TS. 

Ahine haiiatica, Lc. i. pars 2, p. 99 (1837) ^ ilinuartia setacea, 

var. banatica, Hayek, 

Ahine gra mini folia. I.e. 96 = Arenaria graminifolia, Schrad.^ 
Armoracia austriaca, I.e. ii. p. 27 (1838) - Nasturtium austria- 

cum, Crantz, 



gjastifolia, Lc. 26 - Cochlearia glastifolia, Linn. 
Ave7ia CavanilJedi, I.e. i. pars 1, p. 143 (1836) = Trisetum 

Cavanillesii, Trin. 

Ctitavnts ammoides, I.e. 513 = Ptjchotis ammoides, Koch. 
Critamus Jatifolius, I.e. ii. p. 751; index, p. 46 (1838) = Fal- 

caria latifolia, Koch. 

Diijlotaxis arvensis, I.e. ii. p. 103 = Moricandia arvensis, DC. 
Eleocharis alpina, I.e. i. pars 1, p. 92 (1836) - Scirpus alpinus, 

Schleich. 

Eleogeiius Lereschii, I.e. ii. p. 746 (1838) - Scirpus atropur- 

pureus, Retz. 

Enanthus strictus, I.e. i. pr.rs 1, p. 105 (1836) - Enanthus 

Hostii, Griseb. 

Erucastriim halearicum, Lc. ii. p. 101 (1838) = Brassica 

Eobertiana, /. Gay. 

Uolepis austtalis, I.e. i. pars 1, p. 82 (1836) = Scirpus Holo- 

schoenus, var. australis, Koch. 

Isolepis exserens, I.e. SI = Scirpus Holoschoenus, var. aus- 

tralis, Koch. 

IsoUpis filiformis, Lc, = Scirpus Holoschoenus, var. filiformu-, 

Aschers. et Graehn. 



* Flora, 1839, i. Intelligenzbl. p. 43. 

t Prain, Bengal Plants, i. pp. 21-164 (1903) 



74 



Liolepis Linnaei, I.e. 82 = Scirpus Holosclioeuus, var. Linuaei, 
Ai-chers. et Gniebn. 

_ _ (jetale. I.e. i. pars 2, p. 92 (1837) = Spergiilaria 

segetalis, Fenzl. . ', 

Lobularia halimifolia, I.e. ii. p. 13 (1838) ru-e L. haUmihUa, 



um 



Steud. . (1841.) 



Mo 



Moeli- 



rmgia eiliata, var.. nana {Gaud.). 

Ranunculus calthaefolius, I.e. 295 vice R. nudicauUs, Eouv 

et Fouc. / -^ 

^ m - ■ 

Sorbus sudetica, I.e. 178 vice S. sudetica, 'iiijmau (1879). 



T, A. S. 



Flora of Sweden.*^'Under the autliorshlp of Dr. C. A. M. 
Lmdman, a useful ^yo^k on the flowering- phmts of Sweden has 
just come to hand. It is published in a practical form which 
should commend itself to students of the Scandinavian flora. A 
most useful feature is a large number of well-drawn and taste- 
tullj-arrauged black-and-white text figures which, used in con- 
junction with the keys to genera and species, should make 
Identification easy even to the inexperienced botanist. It seems 
a little quaint, though altogether charming considering the sub- 
ject to be confronted at the begimniig of the work with a family 
key based on Linnaeus' artificial sexual system. For instance, the 
figures^ musti^atmg the. genera of " Klass 2, Diandria, Mono- 
gynia associate such a motley of types as Veronica, Utricularia, 
Lepidhum, Coronopus, Lemna and Cypripedium. The families 
are arranged after Engler's system. Dr. Lindman has had the 
assistance of several specialists, whose names appear in the 
elaboration of such typical Scandinavian genera as Hieracmm 
^nd laraxacum, and in the case of Ruhus, Rosa, Salix and a few 
smaller genera. Compared with Rosa (by S. Almquist), 205^ 
species, and r«m.mct/m (by Dahlstedt), 99 species, the genus 
Hteracium (by. Dahlstedt) seems surprisingly small with only 
, oy species. ^ 



J. II. 



i lora arabica.t— In this compilation Father Blatter begins to 
bring together the citations, synonyms, and such collectors' 
records as were available of all the plants known in Arabia. 
Ihere has be^ii no complete Flora of the district puldished since 
1 . JO when Foi^kal s Flora Aegypto-Arahica appeared, and anyone 
deternrining plants^ from this large area had to undertake ^con- 
siderable research before the works of the various authors con- 
cerned could be consulted. Now we have the Flora brought up 

tL .fntlT l^"" ^PI"-^feh the subject with some confidence, as 
the work has been carefully done. 

V^ ,seq^ei^ce of orders and genera follows Bentham and 

l:tZli.^Srt2''''^^^^^^^^ V-rt dealing with 

OTingaceae. In the next part we are promised 



Fanerogamflora, pp. 639. Stockholm, 1918. 



+ F1^7« T ^'."'"'"^"' ^,^«"«V''"^''°^™"°''a' PP- ^-^y- Stockholm, 1918. 



75 



a uiaj) sliowiug the pliyto-geogvapliicnl divisions, ami the autlur 
lias notes ou tlie kistory oi botanical exploration in Arabia 
and a general sketch of the vegetation wliich he hopes to deal 

with at the end of the list. i ^ • 

In a country like this, where the months of liowornig and fruit- 
ing depend so much on the dates of the rare falls of ram, and 
where even rainless years occur, the author has nropeily included 
the years as well as the months in which each species Howered or 
fruited. s. T. D. 



The Flora of Madras, Part 111.— The issue of the first and 

second parts of the Flora of Madras has been already noticed 
in the Kew Bulletm, 1916, pp. 57 65, and 1918, pp. 222-2^b. 
The present contribution commences with a continuation of the 
Leguminosar begun in part ii, and closes with Caprifolinceac. 
This arrangement, though making the part a little smaller than 
those which preceded it, is convenient in leaving the next one to 
begin with the important order Ruhiaceae, and will probably 
enable botanists to have this and the Compositae complete in the 
same bound volume. The inclusion in this part of such important 
woody orders as Covibretaceac and Myrtaceae will render it of 
special value to foresters, The author's well-known acquaintance, 
with the trees of the district under forest conditions, added to, 
an exact botanical treatment of the subject, will make the pages 
devoted to such genera as Terminalia of great practical use. 

One of the most valuable parts of these local Indian floras has 
been the inclusion of good keys to orders, genera and species. 



Wl 



living plants, coupled with discretion and patience. 



s. T. D. 



Identification of the Economic Woods of the United 

States.* This work was originally undertaken with the view 

that it might be accepted as a text-book for forestry students and 
others interested in the study and identification of woods, the 
subject matter being selected by the author from the notes used 
by him in a series of lectures on Forest Products given at the 
Yale Forest School. The first edition appeared in 1912, and the 
present volume, while including all the salient points of the 
original work, brings up to date the knowledge of L^nited States 
woods gained since that time. As a ^ood deal of research work 
on the structural and physical properties of United States woods 
has been carried out in the intervening years, it necessitated re- 
writing and rearranging the key, whilst advantage has been 
taken of the opportunity of adding to the number of woods 
described, and of including references to literature on the subject 
which has appeared during the last few years. 



* Identification of the Economic Woods of the United btates including a 
discussion of the Structural and Physical Properties of Wood, by Samuel 
J Record MA., H.F., Professor of Forest Products, Yale Lniversity -Znd 
eiidon?r;v1;ed and enlarged. ^^ew York, John Wiley A Sons. Inc.; 
London, Chapman & Hall, 1919. Price 8s. 6d. net. 



7G 



1 

The preseut work is divided into two maiu parts. The first jnut 
deals with the more important structiiral and physical properties 
of wood, and includes a general description of a tree, then 
separate descriptions of different parts such as pith, bark, primary 
wood, cambium, vessels, tracheids, wood fibres, wood parenchyma, 
rays, resin ducts, pits, tyloses, pith flecks, growth rings, heart- 



Subjects sucli as grain and texture, knots, density and weight, 
water content, shrinkage, warping and checking, liygroscopicity' 
pei-meabihty, conductivity, resonance, colour, lustre, scent and 
taste are also discussed. 

The second part is devoted to a key which includes all the 
important, and some of the unimportant, woods of the United 
States. By means of this key it is possible to place a wood fairly 
correctly m its genus and into a group of species, but, except in 
the case of species with very distinct characters, it does not 
remove the difficulty of the identification of species by means 
of wood characters alone. This is recognised bv the author, for 
in Jus introductory remarks the words occur, '* in the woods of 
many genera the structural variations apparently are not suffi- 
ciently distinct and constant to assure specific identification. 
bood examples of this are aiforded by the woods of Pinu,, Quercus, 
liicona and Fo'pvha, where it is usually difficult and very often 
impossible to do more than separate them into groups. Accurate 
knowledge of the botanical and commercial range of each species 
will olten serve as a basis for further sub-division of a group in 
which other distinctions are apparently wanting." This em- 
phasises the_ necessity for definite information regarding the 
source of origin, together with common name and port of ship- 



ubmitted for identification. It 



also of great assistance m the identification of lesser-known woods 
-'-" specimens of foliage, flowers and fruit accompany the 



when 
specimens. 



Following the key is a long l>ibliography referring to " Woods 

am^Tmad " " '' ^r'' f '}' ^^^^^^ °* '^^ ^-^^^ States 

fJ^>tin;;?i ' i7 ^Pr.^"4^^ ,^^«l^^^^ more fully with various 

lit«th7re^r^r'Y?' JF\^?'^'^ ^' ^ ^^^•>' ^^^^f^^l ^^^^^"^-^^ +0 *1^« 

V luab le W Ir ^^t'^^tf^f' .«f ^Voods, and it will be found 



The Journal of Pomo1ogy..»_The cultivation of fruit was 
aUwVTob k1' """^r^^^'^X "^ *^- --ntiy as it is to-day and 
culHvftn/r,^ /•''* ^^ 1^"^^"'^ ^^^« ^* '^^^"^^ fi^^e^- i-esult , th; 

date Hil.% ""^^l^ '''■'^'* ^'"^'^ ^^^^" ^^11 «"PT'li«^l ^^ith up-to- 

date^iterature m his own special line, offered to him at any\ate 

Ma*iSne7'j;^ri \ ^'^^'^^F^ Edited by Edward A. Bunyard, F.L.S. 
Jlaidstone. George Bunyard & Co., Ltd. Published quarterlv. 



77 



in compact form. In tlxe liorticulturul piesj> it 16 but one of many 
interests tliat jostle for recognition, and all the great standard 
works on tlie subject are so old that they fail to meet the needs o± 
the student who would keep abreajst with the times and who needs 
something more than the ordinary manuals at present available, 
admirable as some ot them are. 

Mr, Bunyard's new publication, therefore, comes most oppor- 
tunely, and will be warmly welcomed. No one could possibly be 
better fitted for the editorial task tlian he. He has all the prac- 
tical knowledge Avhich comes to one born and bred in a great 
fruit nursery, he has a wide knowledge of ancient and moik^ii 
pomological literature, both native and foreign, and, as we knew 
before this new journal appeared, himself possesses an euA'iable 
literary gift. 

The Journal is of small quarto size, and the first number lias 
sixty-four pages excellently printed and illustrated by one plate 
and several line engravings. The opening article is one by Miss 
Ida Sutton, dealing with self-sterility in plums, cherries and 
apples, a very important question; it is based on work carried out 
at the John Innes Horticultural Institution, There is an article 
on Seedless Haisin Grapes, and another by Dr. H. E. Durham 
on the problem of recognising fruits. Mr. E. A. Bunyard him- 
self contributes a note on a congenial subject — an early eighteenth 
author and his book, Van Oosten and " The Dutcli Gardener '' — 
and another on the length of stem in pears and apples. Other 
items are reviews of current literature. News and Xotes, a Eepoi^t 
of the recent Pomological Conference at Metz, the whole con- 
stituting a most useful and interesting exposititjn of current 
pomological lore. w. j. b. 



Science and Fruit Growing.'*^A copy of this work has been 

presented to the Kew Library by the authors. It is a valuable 
summary of the experimental work done at the Woburn Emit 
Earm since its foundation in 1894. Erom time to time Eeports 
have been issued — sixteen in all, the first in 1897, the last in 
1917— and there is still one to appear. Some of these are now 
out of print and, in any case, it is a great convenience to have 
the results of this long series of experiments condensed in one 
volume. The book is of more than ordinary interest because the 
conclusions arrived at by the authors have in several instances 
run counter to ancient and accepted maxims. This is notably the 
case in regard to transplanting and manurine". In late years 
much interest has been aroused by the Woburn experiments show- 
ing the influence of grass on trees and the action of one j^lant on 
another. Probably all the conclusions of the experimenters will 
not be universally accepted, but even if they are not, their jmb- 
lication has led cultivators to ponder more earnestly than ever 
before on the why and the wherefore of various methods of 

* Science aud Fruit G-rowins- Being an account of the Results obtained 
at tJte Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm since its foundation in 1894. By 
tlie Duke of Bedford, K.G-., F.E.S., and Spencer Pickering, M,A., F.K.S. 

I-ondon, Macniillan. 



T« 



culture wiiicli had become simply matters of routine* Nothing 
but good can come from that. No section of the Woburn experi- 
ments has conferred greater benefit on garden practice than those 
dealing with insects and parasitic fungi, matters in which Mr. 
Pickering's knowledge of chemistry has been of the highest value. 
The book is copiously illustrated by reproductions of photographs, 
and is to be strongly recommended to all interested in fruit 
cultivation. - 

We understand from the preface that although it is no longer 
possible to continue the Farm on its original basis, the work will 
be carried on for the present on nearly the same lines and by 
the same managers as heretofore, but under the segis of the Board 
of Agriculture and the Development Commissioners, the funds 
being provided by Government. w. j. n. 



Wheat in East Africa. — Bulletin No. 4 of the Department of 

Agriculture, Nairobi, British East Africa, is a pamphlet of 16 
pages, by Mr, W. J. Dowson, M.A., F.L.S., giving a concise sum- 
mary of various reports and papers dealing with the cultivation 
of wheat in British East Africa. 

Wheat was introduced into the Highlands of East Africa more 
than 20 years ago by missionaries, but after a few years the crops 
were almost invariably destroyed by the '' Blar*k Stem Rust'' 
[Fucciiiia gvaminis). A wheat of Italian origin, known as 
*' Ifieti," was found to be a promising variety from the point of 
view of its resistance to rust, and was used as one of the parents 
in many hybridization experiments on Mendelian lines, which 
were commenced by Mr. G. W. Evans, and from 1913 continued 
by Mr. Dowson.^ Of more than 20 hybrids, only the following 
proved to be satisfactory — i.e., really resistant to rust in a high 
degree, and at the same time fair croppers of good milling 



gram : 



1, 

9 



Selections from Rieti crossed by T 
Selections from Early Eieti crossei 



lie w . 



sed by Tliew. 

3. Selections from Eieti crossed by Red Fife. 

4. Selections from Egyptian No. 3 crossed by Nut Cut. 

5. Selections from Egyptian No. 3 crossed by TLew. 

Three wbeat area? are designated as -(1) Nairobi, including 
Machakos, Nyeri and Tbika, yielding 2 crops in tlie year; (2) 
Njoro, including Nakuru, where wheat is at present only grown in 
the long rains ;. and (3) the TIasin Gishu Plateau and the Trans- 



most 



The 



methods of cultivation vary according to the district. In the 



crop 



are obtained both during the long rains and during the short rains. 
In the Njoro district wheat is usually grown in large areas even 

7' ^°}iS!^^ ^^^^^- ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^""^ Plateau usually not more 
than 200 acres of wheat are planted in any one block, and only 

one crop of it is sown and reaped each year. The rotation 

generally followed in all three districts is either flax, wheat, beans. 



^n 



79 



or maize, wlieat, beans. AVlieat must never immediately follow 
beans, since tliese add too much nitrogen to tlie soil. 

An interesting and useful table is given of tlie most important 
kinds of wheat groAvn in East Africa, with the districts in which 
the varieties are grown and remarks on their characters and 
economic value. A bushel of plateau wheat weighs between 60 
and 65 lbs., and the average yield per acre is 20 bushels, A 
bushel of ISTjoro wheat weighs between 55 and 60 lbs. and the 
average yield is 15 bushels to the acre. Calculations are given 
showing that on 500 acres of wheat a net profit ot from £1,250 



250 

Three species of rust fungi attack wheat in East 



rica 



common 



namely : Puccinia gravilnisy generally known as the " Black Stem 
Eust,''' F. glumarnm, or the " Yellow Rust,'' and P. iriticina, or 
the *' Brown'' or ''Leaf Eust." Of these, Puccinia gTaminis 
is the worst and the most destructive, and all parts of the plants, 
but particularly^ the stems, are attacked. P, glnmarum is not 

and is most often found on wheat of Egyptian 
origin.. P. triticina appears mostly on the leaves. The most 
practical method of combating the rust fungi is the breeding and 
selecting of resistant varieties. Thus by crossing Egyptian 
wheat, w^hich is very susceptible to the attacks of P. gluinarum, 
but highly resistant to P. graminis, with the Australian ** Nut 
Cut," which is almost immune to the attacks of P, glnmarum^ 
but susceptible to P. graminis, a variety was obtained, some of 
whose progeny were highly resistant to both forms of rust. 
lj\<tilago Tritici^ the loose-smut, is very generally^ distributed in 
East Africa, and Cladosporum herharum is also respsonsible for 

some damage to ripe wheat. 

The most serious insect pest of wheat in East Africa is the 
AVheat Aphis or Green Fly [Tthroptera gramimun). Natural 
parasites, introduced from Americti, have sei^ved to keep it m 
check since 1912. Large animals, such as antelopes, hares, and 
even elephants, sometimes raid or cross wheat-fields, but the most 
destructive of all animals to wheat are pigeons and small birds. 

W. B. T. 



Brazil Wood. — In the paper on this subject {K,B. 1916, 



209^: 



log of 



'' Braziletto '' (Haemato.rylon BrasHeito, Karst.), had been pro- 
mised to the Director from Colombia, with a view to determining 
the origin of '^ Peach ■\Vood," " Lima AVood," ''Nicaragua 



Wood " or Wood of SL Martha^ formerly an miportant article 
of trade about one hundred y^ears ago. The flowering and fruiting 
specimens, collected by 3Ir. M. T. Dawe, F.L.S. (Nos. 480 and 
575, Herb. Kew) reached Kew in March, 1917; but the log, 
althouo-h advised in September, 1916, as beincj read}' at Santa 
Marta for shipment, did not arrive until November, 1919. The 
delay may best be accounted for in the following letter from the 
British Vice-Consul, Mr. Philip H. Marshal, at Santa Marta, 
dated October 10th, 1919 : 'VAbout two years ago Mr. M. T. 
Dawe handed over to me for forwarding to you by first opportu- 



80 



nitj a sample log- of tlie dye-wood known as ' Braziletto/ and 
the restrictions imposed during tlie war and the later scarcity of 
ships between this port and Europe have made it impossible for me 
to carry out Mr, Dawe's recommendation until now. By s.s. 
* Barranca ' sailing for Bristol to-morrow I have consigned the 
log to Messrs- Elders and Fyiies, Ltd.^ with instructions to for- 
ward it to you upon arrival, and by first mail I shall advise Mr. 
Dawe in Bogota of this unavoidably tardy compliance with his 
request.'' 



M 



be 



Kew Museum of '^ Peach Wood'' (Gourlie), ^' Lima Wood" 
(two specimens/ Gourlie), and ''Brazil Wood" (Mexico, Paris 
Exhibition, 1900). 

'' Braziletto," '* Peach " and ''Lima'' Wood, as represented 
by these specimens, may well be the wood of the same species. 
The '' Brazil Wood " (Mexico) is very similar. 

The herbarium specimens place beyond all doubt that the 



Hae 



r. 



Boodle's examination of the wood also prove that as suggested in 
the earlier paper (p. 217) the Museum specimens of *' Peach " and 
'* Lima " A^'^oods referred to above are identical. 

Although there is no specimen of wood under the name 
"Nicaragua" or ''St. Martha" at Kew, it would seem to be 
quite safe also to include them under the same species and like- 
wise the Mexican specimen of '' Brazil Wood," 

3Ir. Dawe has. also contributed to the Museum photographs 
showing '' A Brazil Wood forest in Colombia," '' Carting Brazil 
Wood to wharf at Santa Marta," and of ''Brazil Wood await- 
ing export at Santa Marta." He reports " that the tree is found 
on the foot-hills around Santa Marta and appears to be fairly 
abundant. There is at present (letter to Director, dated Santa 
Marta, 30th September, 1916), lying here 300 tons fur shipment 
to Xew York, interest having been aroused locally by the circula- 
tion of an exaggerated account of its value in Xew York. The 
exporters are now trying to find a market for this consignment in 
France or elsewhere." 

^ It has been pointed out (I.e. p. 211) that there is now comparn- 
tively little or no demand for this wood or for any "Brazil 
Wood," and further in a recent report (Bull. Imp. Inst. xvi. 
1918, p. 6), on a sample of " Braziletto " wood from the Bahamas 
{Caesalpinia baJiameiisis, Lam.), submitted to a firm of dye-stuff 
manufacturers it is stated that "they had compared ^he" 
Braziletto wood with commercial samples of '' Brazil Wood " 
and- Peach Wood '^ and that in their opinion it could best be 
utilised as a substitute for - Peach Wood/' although it gives 
rather brow^ner shades. They added, however, that thi^ wood was 
not of much interest at the present time." j. h. H. 




Printed under the Authority of Hig Majesty's STATio^rERY Office 

By Jas. Truscott and Son, Ltd., Suffolk Lane, E.G. 4. 



[Croivn Copyright Reserved. 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



OF 



MISCELLANEOCS INFORMATIOX 



No. 8] 



[1920 



XL— TROPICAL AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE IN 

THE WEST INDIES. 

The proposal to establish a Tropical Agricultural College in 
the "West Indies, which has been under consideration for some 
time, is dealt with fully in the following paper. 

CoLO>'iAL Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 



Downing Street, 

2-tth February, 1920 



Sir, 



I am directed to transmit to you printed copies of the Eeport 



ttee 



tary of State's despatch sending the Eeport to the Governments ot 
the"^West Indian Colonies for consideration. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

G. Geixdle. 



DoW>-ING St£.EET, 

27th January, 1920. 



Sir, 



In mv despatch of the 11th September I informed you that 
I had appointed a Committee to consider whethex it was advisable 
to found an Agricultural College in the West Indies, and, if in 
the Committee's opinion the answer to this question was m the 
affirmative, to make recommendations m regard to the situatiou. 



affirmative, to ... .^^ ^. .^^. , „ ,, 

constitution, management, scope, finance, buildings, and an^ 
other matters which required to be considered in connection witli 
the foundation of the proposed College. 

2 It will be observed that I was fortunate enough to secure 
for 'the Committee the services of many of the most eminent men 
in the field of tropical agriculture, and of leading members of tlie 
West Indian commercial community in this country. 

(SrS.) m. 135-47. 1,125. 1/20. J. T. & 8., Ltd. G. 14. Sch. 12. 



82 



3. I now have the houour to transmit to you the Eeport of the 
Conimitteej who were unanimously of the opinion that steps should 
be taken at an early date to found a Tropical Agricultural College 
in the British AVest Indies. 

4. The Committee refer to the Agricultural Colleges which 
have been established in Porto Eico, Hawaii, and Louisiana. 
They draw attention to the fact that the establishment of the 
proposed College is a matter of concern to the Empire at large, 
and of special interest to the other tropical Colonies and to the 
United Kingdom. 

As regards the site of the College, the Committee recommend 
that Trinidad should be chosen if the Colonial Government is 
prepared to aiford adequate support and other reasonable facili- 



ties. The Committee regarded Jamaica as in many respects the 
most suitable Colony for the purpose, but they came to the con- 
clusion that considerations of inter-colonial transit would make 
it very difficult to place the College there. 

The Committee make recommendations in some detail for the 
constitution of the College and contemplate that it should be 
administered by a governing body meeting in London, comprising 
representatives of the College itself, the contributing Colonies, 
the contributing industries, academic institutions in the United 
Kingdom, and the Secretary of State. They suggest a staff of 
ten professors and two lecturers, and a curriculum comprising 
junior and senior courses of instruction, an advanced course, and 

■angements for post-graduate studies of special subjects. They 
strongly recommend that a Sugar School should be provided and 
equipped with a complete plant on a small but working scale. 
They also suggest that, if the College were established in Trini- 
dad, a branch for Oil Technology should be added. 

As regards finance, the Committee propose that a fund of 
£50,000 and upwards^ should be raised by private subscriptions 
for the establishment* of the College and that its maintenance 
should be provided for by contributions from the West Indian 
Colonies on a suggested basis of i per cent, of their revenues, 
and by the Imperial Government on the basis of a grant of £1 
for every £1 contributed by the Colonies, with a maximum of 
£15,000 a year, apart from fees and voluntary contributions. 

The Committee regard it as essential that the Imperial Depart- 
ment of Agriculture should be closely associated with the College. 

5. In my opinion the scheme propounded by the Committee is 
worthy of the most careful attention of the people of the AVest 
Indies. _ They have already had considerable experience of the 
economic value of agricultural science. Among the most striking 
examples are the improvements which have been effected both in 
the^ amount of sugar contained in canes and in the proportion 
which it has been possible to extract, and the history of the Sea 
Island cotton industry and of the measures devised to combat its 
pests. Much more may be expected from the establishment of an 
institution which^ will receive students from every West Indian 
Colony and provide a steady stream of men equipped with the 
most recent knowledge in the science of tropical agriculture and 
technology. It must not, of course, be supposed that college 



83 

training, even of the most practical land, can supply the place 
of actual experience on plantations and in factories; but it can 
make men far better fitted to profit by that experience. Such 
men will bring a wide outlook to their work in field or factory, 
will be constantly on the watch for improvements in current 
practice, and, when they have gained experience, will be quali- 
fied to cope with insect pests and fungous diseases and to intro- 
duce new meChods and staples without imprudence when the occa- 
sion requires it. 

The proposed College offers advantages, direct or indirect, to 
every section of the community : to the students themselves by 
increasing their mental resources and economic value : to the 
planters, by providing them with qualified assistance: to the 
peasant proprietors, by placing skilled advice within easier reach 
and by improving the market for their produce: to factory 
owners, by supplying the chemical and other knowledge which is 
now so difficult to obtain : to the labourers, by rendering it ps- 
sible for them to receive higher wages,: to the general community, 



bv the increase of trade and wealth and, not least, by supplying 
a means likelv to mitigate the severity of those periods of economic 
depression which will, I fear, long remain inevitable m the future 
as in the past. Moreover, it is likely to attract students, some oi 
them men of experience, from all the tropical parts of the Empire; 
and the West Indies, in common with the British communities 
of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific, will no doubt benefit from the 
relations which will be formed and the ideas which will be 

exchanged. 

G Accordingly it seems to me that the people of the VVest 
Indies have now'^au opportunity, which mightwell mark an epoch 
in their economic history, of founding an mstitutmn which would 
at present be unique in the Colonies, and that, m their existing 
relative prosperity, their resources are such that they may well 
hope that it ma/ e(jual or even surj^ass m scope and usetulness 
any similar institution on foreign soil. 

7 It may be of interest if I somewhat amplify the reference 
which the Committee make to such foreign institutions, and add 
a few remarks upon similar institutions m the Indian Empire 



some 



proposed College. * ,, ^ n pa • 

Tlie Island of Porto Eico already possesses a College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts ^ associated with the irmversitj of 



Porto Rico. 



mFin ^buil^S^i^nished at a cost of thirty ^ouW dolla. 
by the Governmeirt of the Island, working under the Morril and 
A-Plson Fund provided by the Government of the Fnited States. 
Th Fund amounting t'o fifty thousand dollars, is the same as 
that furnished to similar Colleges m the United States. \\ ithin 
a y ar 0? ts foundation, the College ta/in attendance over one 
hundred students from all parts of the Island of Porto K^^O' ^n^ 
s dSct cl^rant from the insular Government, ovct and above 
Z sum sSpplied by the Fnited States Government, w.s^s^x^^^^ 
one thousand dollars for the financial jear 1913-14 In addition 



to the priiuary 



practi 



a2 



84 



Mava 



tutioii has from tlie outset undertaken tlie important task of aiding 
the ordinary teachers of Porto Eico in their effort to relate school 
training to the daily avocations of the people. It is not dear to 



me 



work other than the teaching of agriculture to its students and 
the training of ordinary school teachers in the subject. I am 
aware that the College was located at Mayaguez so as to benear 
the Agricultural Experimental Station which was established 
there seventy years before the College ; but if there are published 
papers indicating activity on the part of that College in the 
investigation of unsolved problems they have not been brought 
to my notice. 

The Sugar School in Louisiana is, however, known to undertake 
the tasks both of imparting and of advancing knowledge. The 
proposed College in the British West Indies should be able to do 
for their people all, and more than all, that the Louisiana Insti- 
tution does for the people , of the United States. The College 
would certainly be intended to give due attention to every one of 
the agricultural industries and interests of the Colonies, not only 
as regards instruction but also as regards investigation. _ In this 
respect it should come to deserve comparison with the singularly 
well equipped Tropical Eesearch Institute created by the Netlier- 
lands Government at Buitenzorg in Java, and with the similar 
Institute at Pusa in Behar on behalf of the Indian Empire. 

At Pusa one of the most important duties to be fulfilled is that 
of the education, during a prescribed period and with regard to 
Indian conditions, of the recruits engaged for service in the 



agricultural departments of the various Indian Governments? 



who have received tlieir agricultural training at Universities and 
Technical Colleges m the United Kingdom. ^ At Pusa, too, are 
trained for such service those natives of India who are selected 
with a view to filling agricultural posts under the Government 
of India itself. It may he assumed that the new College will do 



lion 



India. 



matter 



rest of the Empire. At present the men who are selected to fill 
the various scientific agricultural posts in the tropics of south- 
eastern Asia and Africa, just like those selected for seiTice in 
India, have received their agricultural training in chemistry, 
botany, plant pathology, or general agriculture in the Univer- 
sities or Colleges of Great Britain, Canada, the Union of South 
Africa, Australia or New Zealand. Sound and extensive though 
this training undoubtedly is, the fact remains that it does not 
really amount to a complete introduction to the specialised pro- 
blems which confront the agricultural officer in tropical countries. 
The training imparted in a temperate climate affords the neces- 
sary groundwork on which to build up tropical experience. But 
much time and labour are required before the newcomer can, 
unaided, adapt himself to conditions that are strange and pecu- 
liar, and is in a position to make use of his gradually acquired 
experience for the good of the community whose Government he 



85 



serves- India lias discovered this elementary truth and lias taken 
steps to overcome the difficulty. Other tropical dependencies and 
Colonies have realised it too, but have been hitherto unable to 
apply the only rational remedy. 

Besides the institution at Pusa, it has been found desiiable to 
establish no fewer than seven agricultural Colleges in the various 
Provinces of India. These are for the most part occupied in the 
training of the sons of Indian landed proprietors. 

8. As regards the site of the College, I agree with the Com- 
mittee that the most suitable Colonies are Jamaica and Trinidad, 
and I think that in the present condition of steamship communica- 
tions the balance of advantage lies with the latter. But it is not 
impossible that, before it becomes necessary to decide this question 
finally, a link may have been provided in tlie form of a steai))ship 
connection between Jamaica and the Lesser Antilles. 

9* While I am in cordial agreement with the substance of the 
report, I do not feel able at j^resent to accept it in all its details. 
I am doubtful about the suggestion that a branch of the College 
might be established for Oil Technology, but this is evidently 
a collateral question which forms no essential part of the scheme. 
I feel more serious difficulty about the proposal that the Imperial 
Government should be asked for financial assistance. I readily 
admit that the proposed College is of ^reat importance to the 
United Kingdom and to the Empire at large. But there are many 



om 



nly 



few cases that the latter make any contribution. The considerable 
measure of prosperity which many of the West Indian Colonies 
are now enjoying further weakens the case for Imperial assistance, 
I shall defer further consideration of this point until I have the 
views of the Colonies, but if Imperial assistance is not forth- 
coming it will evidently be necessary to raise the suggested rate 
of Colonial contribution. 

I note that the report does not refer to the provision of courses 
of instruction suitable for teachers in elementary schools,^ but I 
sbould hope that the proposed College would find it possible to 

undertake this work. 

10. I request that you will give the widest publicity to this 
despatch, and will communicate copies to the Legislature and 
to the agriculturol and commercial institutions in the Colony, 
and that, when you are thoroughly informed of local inihlic 
opinion on the various points raised, you will furnish me with 
n full report in the matter. 



I have, etc. 

(for the Secretary of State), 

L. S. Amert 



8G 



EEPOET OF THE TROPICAL AGEICULTUEAL COLLEGE 

COMMITTEE. 
To tlie Right Honouhable Viscount Milner, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., 

Secretary of State for tlie Colonies. 
My Lord, 

Tlie Committee appointed by your Lordship on August 25th, 
1919, to consider the desirability of establishing a Tropical Agri- 
cultural College in the British West Indies, and maTters connected 
therewith, beg leave to submit their Report as follows. 

2. The Committee comprises the following members : — 

Dr. A. E. Shipley, LL.D., Sc.D., E.R.S., Chairman, 

Master of Christ's Colleo-p rnrnKiirTrvf. tivrl 11^^,,+,. tt,'^^ 



Chancellor. 



M 



Deimty-Chairman, Director of t 

dens, Kew. *" ^" 

Sir K^orman Lamont, Bart., Member of the Legislative 

Council of Trinidad and Tobago. 
The Hon. Gideon Murray, M.P., late Administrator of 



St. Lucia, 



M.G.. M 



Sir Heniy Frank Heathy ^ _ 

ment of Scientific and Industrial Research," 

Sir Francis Watts, •K,C,M,G., D.Sc, Imperial Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture for the West Indies. 

Sir Edward Davson, President of the Associated Chambers 
of Commerce of the West Indies. 

Dr. C. A. Barber, CLE., Sc.D., F.L.S., Sugar-Cane Ex- 
pert for India, 

Mr. Robert Rutherford, Chairman of the West India Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Henry Alexander Trotter, Deputy-Chairman of th 

West India CoTnTrn'ttpp 



Mr 



W 



Dr J. B. Farmer, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., Professor of 
Botany, Imperinl College of Science and Technoloo-v 

Captain A. W. Hill M.A., Sc.D., F.L.S., Assistant Direc- 
toroi the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

n Y' n • ^^^^W. General Mannger of the British 
l^otton Growing Association. 

Mr. J. W, McConnel, Member of the Empire Cotton Grow- 
ing Committee, Board of Trade 

Mr. G Moody Stuart, West Indian Estates, Proprietor. 

Mr. Algernon E Aspmall, C.M.G., B.A., Hon. Secretary, 
Secretary of the West India Committee, 

Sir Henry Frank Heath, E.C.B., was unable to attend any of 

BarbT cTf' ^"b ^Tf q '^^ ^^ ^^- ^^- ^^^°**- ^'' cf A. 
Committe ' ' """"^ "^^'^V^^^ a member of the 



8T 



3. At the first meeting of the Committee, held on September 
16th, Dr. A. E. Shipley, LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., and Lieut.- 
Colonel Sir David Prain, C.M.G., C.I.E., F.E.S., were ap- 
pointed Chairman and Deputy-Chairman respectively, and Mr. 
Algernon E. Aspinall, C.M.G., B.A., Honorary Secretary. 

4. The terms of reference to the Committee are set out in your 
Lordship's letter of August 25th, 1919, to the members of the 
Committee as follows : 

'.' To consider whether it is advisable to found an Agricultural 
College in the West Indies, and, if in the Committee's opinion 
the answer to this question is in the affirmative, to make recom- 



men 



laiions in regaru lo uut; sxiuutiuu, uuiioti.Lui,j.uii, imiiii.g^iJiv-'^"^ 

scope, finance, staff, buildings, and any other matters^ which in 
the opinion of the Committee require to be considered in connec- 
tion with the foundation of the proposed College." 

5. Desirability of Establishing a College.— The Committee 
desire to state at the outset that they are unanimously of the 
opinion that steps should be talvcn at an early date to found a 
Tropical Agricultural College in the British West Indies. 

6. The need for such an institution has for some years been 
increasingly apparent. In order that our Colonies and Possessions 
may be placed in a position to compete successfully with foreign 
countries in the production and marketing of the staples of the 
tropics, it is of paramount importance that their young men 
should be afforded opportunities for instruction in the principles 
of agriculture, and in the cultivation and preparation for market 
of tropical produce of every kind, including especially sugar and 
its by-products rum and molasses, cacao, cofiee, cotton, coconuts, 
rice, citrus and other fruits— notably bananas, and dye-woods, 
many of which commodities constitute the raw materials em- 
ployed in the manufactures of the Mother Country. _ 

7. Equally important is the need which exists of making full 
provision for the prosecution of research, and for the^ training 
of scientific investigators in matters pertaining to tropical agri- 
culture amid suitable surroundings, and for creating a oody of 
British expert agriculturists well versed in the knowledge ol the 
cultivation of land in the tropics, and of scientific advisers possess- 



mer 



.^^ an intimate knowledge of the means of combating pests and 
diseases the control of which is fundamentally essential to the 
successful development of agriculture m the tropics. 

8. It has been brought before the notice of the Committee that 
An.v;n.,Ui,ral Colleges have been established successfully ml'orto 

„_ Hawaii, besides a University in Louisiana which pos- 
sesses, moreover, an unrivalled Sugar School at Audubon Park 
^ew Orleans, and they would regard it as a reproach if (rreat 
Britain were to remain behind the United States m this matter 
Tbe Committee desire especially to emphasize the fact that tue 
establishment of a Tropical Agricultural College m the West 
Indies is a matter of Imperial concern. Such a college would be 
of no less importance to the Mother Country than to the Coloni^ 
immediately concerned, having .regard to the present nece^i^J 
of developing production throughont the Empire to the utmost 
extent, and to the opportunities which it would afford to students 



88 



trained in agriculture at Universities in the United Kingdom to 
continue their training as post-graduates in the tropics. 

9. Situation of the College, — Sir Leslie Probyn, K.C.M.G., 
Governor of Jamaica; Major Sir John Chancellor, K.C.M.G., 
D.S.O., Governor of Trinidad and Tobago; Mr, T. A, V. Best, 
C.IM.G., C.B.E., Colonial Secretary of Trinidad and Tobago, 
and Mr. P. C. Cork, C.M.G., late Colonial Secretary of Jamaica, 
attended before the Committee and submitted evidence regarding 
the claims of their respective colonies to selection as the head- 
quarters of the proposed College, The Committee also had the 
advantage of perusing a valuable memorandum submitted by 
Sir Sydney Olivier, K.C.M.G., C-B., late Governor of Jamaica, 
who, as Secretary of the Eoyal Commission in 1897, visited all 
the West Indian islands and British Guiana, and thus has an 
intimate knowledge of their conditions and requirements. 

10. After carefully considering the matter in all its aspects, 
and with special reference to the geographical position and 
grouping of the various West Indian islands and British Guiana, 
and to the general desire that the college should be closely asso- 
ciated with the Imperial Department of Agriculture, the Com- 
mittee recommend that the Tropical Agricultural College be estab- 
lished in Trinidad, provided that the Government o'f Trinidad 
and Tobago is prepared to afford it adequate support and every 
reasonable facility. 

11. In arriving at this decision the Committee were influenced 
by the fact that Trinidad possesses a wide variety of industries 
and is easy of access by steamer communication to residents in 
the neighbouring islands and British Guiana. 

12. Tlie Committee recognise that the claims of Jamaica have 
great weight, this Colony having a population approximating to 
tha:fc of the rest of the West Indian islands, and a still wider 
variety of industries than that possessed by Trinidad. They 
feci, however, that difficulties of intercolonial transit would form 
a serious obstacle to the transfer of the Imperial Department of 
Agriculture to Jamaica if, as is so much to be desired, the islands 
of the Lesser Antilles are still to derive immediate advantage 
from the work of tliat useful body. 

13. Mr. E. A. de Pass strongly urged the claims of Jamaica: 
butthe Committee reluctantly feel that, owing to its geographical 



must 



unit in this matter. 



view 



that igland's agricultural interests there should, in their opiuiou, 
be intimate co-operation between the Jamaica Agricultural De- 
partment and the Imperial Department of Agriculture, and the 
Committee believe that it would be of advantage to Jamaica to 



ee 



tion at present existing in Jamaica for agricultural training and 
research might be extended by a modification in the case of that 
t^- -^ financial proposals contained in a later paragraph 

of this Report, so that Jamaica's contribution and the proportion 
of any Imperial grant added thereto might be divided between 
the funds of the proposed College and a local Agricultural School. 



89 

The claims of Barbados were also closely considered, Lut could 

not be entertained owing to tlie smaller range of that Island's 
products. 

14. Incorporation, — It being obviously desirable that the 
Tropical Agricultural College should, from its inception, be estab- 
lished as a legal entity, the Committee have had under considera- 
tion the various means by which this could be effected. 

15. They are strongly of opinion that it would add materially to 
the standing and influence of the College if it were to be incor- 
jjorated by Royal Charter. They are advised, however, that it 
will be better to defer petitioning the King lor tlie grant of a 
Royal Charter until the College has been successfully established 
with every prospect of permanency. 

16. Whilst, therefore, advocating that it should be the ultimate 
object of the Governing Body of the Tropical Agricultural College 
to petition His Majesty for the grant of a Eoyal Charter of In- 
corporation, the Committee recommend that, at the outset, the 
College be incorporated in the United Kingdom as a Company 
limited by guarantee, and that application be made to the Board 
of Trade for a licence, under Section 20 of the Companies (Con- 
solidation) Act of 1908, whereby the word ''Limited'' may be 
omitted from its name. 

17. They append to this report documents marked A and B* 
showing what procedure should be adopted in this connection. 
In recommending the Incorporation of the College in the United 
Kingdom, the Committee have not lost sight of the question of 
possible liability to Income Tax, etc. They are advised, howeyer, 
that in view of the fact that the objects of the College would be 
a charitable purpose within the meaning of those words as used 
in the Income Tax Acts, it would be entitled to exemption from 
taxation in respect of income derived from any investments repre- 
senting an endowment fund, and that monies received for expen- 
diture on general purposes would be similarly exempt from 
Income Tax. 

18. Constitution,— Wiih regard to the Constitution of the pro- 
posed College, the Committee desire to make the following recom- 
mendations:— 

(1) They regard it as highly desirable that an intimate rela- 
tionship should be established between the Imperial Department 
of Agriculture and the Tropical Agricultural College. 

After careful consideration, the Committee recommend that in 
the first instance the Imperial Commissioner oi Agriculture be 
the Principal of the College, and that, when occasion arises for 
a new appointment, tlie trustees and Governors (to be consti- 
tuted as hereinafter provided for) nominate a Principal and, m 
consultation with the Secretary of State for the Colonies, arrange 
that such Principal also holds the position of Imperial Commis- 
sioner of Affricultnre should the Secretary of State desire to 
appoint him - 

(2) The Trustees and Governors of the College should be a body 
composed of (a) ex-officio, [h) nominated, and (c) co-opted mem- 

* The«e documeni:> Iiave been omitted in this reprint. 



90 



bers, and sliould constitute a Governing Body whose meetings 
should ordinarily be held in London. 

The Governing Body should administer the aiffairs of the 
Tropical Agricultural College, should hold and expend all monies 
belonging to the College, and should appoint and /or dismiss 
all officers o£ the College. They should appoint from their own 
body a Finance Committee whose meetings should ordinarily be 
held in London, and should also appoint from their own body 
an Executive Committee whose meetings should be held in the 
Colony in which the Agricultural College is situated. 

The ex-officio members of the Governing Body should be two 
in number, namely : 

(a) The senior Financial Officer for the time being of the 
Colony in which the College is situated, 

(h) The Principal of the Tropical Agricultural College. 
The nominated members of the Governing Body might vary 
in number, and should include: — 

(a) Two members appointed by the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, of whom one might ordinarily be able to serve as a 
member of the Finance Committee and the other as a member of 
the Executive Committee (to be constituted as hereinafter pro- 
vided for). 

(?j) One member appointed by the Academic Board of the 
Tropical Agricultural College who should ordinarily serve also 
on the Executive Committee. 

(c) A group of members nominated by the contributing 
Colonies, The number of such Trustees and Governors might 
vary, but the Committee anticipate that the number migEt be 
six, viz., one each nominated from Barbados, British Guiana, 
Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, the Leeward Islands, and the 
Windward Islands. 

{d) A group of members nominated by contributing industries. 
In this case, again, the number of such Trustees and Governors 
might vary, but the Committee consider it possible that the 
number might be five, viz., one each representing the cacao, 
cotton, coconut, fruit-growing, and sugar industries, respectively, 
(e) Three members nominated by and representing Academic 
Institutions in the United Kingdom. The Committee regard 
such representation as a matter of the highest consequence, and 
suggest that, for purposes of nomination, those institutions deemed 
suitable by the Governing Body be placed on a roster and invited 
to nominate representatives in such order as they may determine. 
The Committee further recommend that the three Academic In- 
stitutions first invited to nominate each one Trustee and Governor 
be the University of Cambridge, the University of Glasgow, and 
the Imperial College of Science and Technology of London. 

The co-opted members of the. Governing Body should be four 
in number, of whom two should ordinarily be invited in respect 
of ^ their ability to serve also as members'^ of the Finance Com- 
mittee, and the other two in respect of their ability to serve also 
as members of the Executive Committee. 

The Finance Committee should be composed of such Trustees 
and Governors as the Governing Body determine, and the duties 



91 



of the Finance Committee should be defined from time to time 
by the Governing Body. 

The Executiye Committee should include the t\\'0 ex-otficio 
Trustees and Governors of the College, and such other Trustees 
and Governors as the Governing Body determine, provided always 
that any member of the Governing Body should be at liberty to 
attend any meeting of the Executive Committee, and in the event 
of his being present should be entitled to vote. The duties of 
the Executive Committee should be defined from time to time by 
the Governing Body. 

The two ex-officio Trustees and Governors should remain mem- 
bers both of the Governing Body and of the Executive Committee 
so long as they continue to hold the offices in virtue of whicli they 
respectively serve. 

The four co-opted Trustees and Governors shouhl continue in 
office for a period of four years only; but it should, nevertheless, 
be competent for the Governing Body to re-appoint a co-opted 
member at the expiration of his period of service. 

The several nominated Trustees and Governors should continue 
in office for a period of four years only, subject to the proviso 
that the odd numbers of those first nominated as Trustees and 
Governors should be appointed to serve for six years. Except 
in the case of Academic Institutions in the Untied Kingdom 
invited by the Governing Body to nominate representatives, it 
should be competent for each nominating authority to re-appoint 
a nominated member at the expiration of his period of service. 
In the case of Academic Institutions permission to this effect 
might be granted by the Governing Body. 

The normal composition of the Governing Body as sugge;5ted 
mav be summarised as follows : — 



<« «•* *•• ••• 



A. Ex-officio members (also ex-officio members of the 

Executive Committee) 

B. Nominated members : — 

Ee2)resenting the Secretary of State for the 



2 



Colonies 



94*" ••• ••« ••• 



2 



1 



Representing the Academic Board of the Tropical 

Agricultural College 
Representing the Contributing Colonies, possibly 6 
Representing the Contributing Industries, possibly 5 
Representing Academic Institutions in the United 



Kingdom 



m t ¥99 '■»■ ••• 



« 9 



C. Co-opted Members 



3 
4 



Total ... •■• ••• 23 



(3) Tlie Academic Board sliould be composed of tbe Principal 
and tbe Professors of tbe Tropical Agricultural College, and 
should bare cbarge of tbe Students of tbe College, and be respon- 
sible to tbe Governing Body for tbe discipline of the Students and 
for the details of tbe instruction imparted to them. 

(4) The Staff of tbe College should consist of tbe Principal, 
and of such Professors (ex-officio members of tbe Academic 



92 



s 



Board), and Lecturers (who sliould not be members of tlie 
Academic Board), together with other assistants, as the Govern- 
ing Body from time to time appoint to serve. The Staff should, 
from the inception of the College, include teachers with the statu: 
of Professors in the following subjects : 

1. General Agriculture ; 

2. Mycology; 

3. Entomology; 

4. Agricultural Chemistry; 

5. Organic Chemistry; 

6. Agricultural Bacteriology; 

7. Agricultural and Physiological Botany; 

8. Genetics; 

9. Sugar Technology ; and 

10. Agricultural Engineering and Physics : 

and teachers with the status of Lecturers in the two subjects : 

11. Stock and Yeterinary Science; and 

12. Book-keeping. 

19, In connection with the Staff, the Committee beg to recom- 
mend strongly that one of the duties delegated at the outset by 
the Governing Body to their Finance Committee be that of devis- 
ing a suitable scheme of pensions for the members of tbe College 
Staff; and that one of the duties delegated to their Executive 
Committee be that of arranging that provision be made for the 
granting to members of the Staff of periods of Study-leave in 
addition to any furlough to which, as teachers in the College, 
they may be entitled. 

20, Curriculum. — Though they have recommended (see Sec- 
tion 18 (3) above) that the details regarding the instruction to be 
given to Students of the Tropical Agricultural College should be 
settled by the Academic Board which it is proposed to set up, the 
Committee submit the following suggestions as to a curriculum, 
put forward by Sir Francis TTotts, K.C.M.G., D.Sc, with the 
general principles of v/hich they are in agreement : — 

(a) A junior course of instruction in tropical agriculture ex- 
tending over two, or possibly three, years. This course 
should be arranged to meet the requirements of youths 
leaving the Secondary Schools of the colonies who intend 
to follow ordinary agricultural pursuits, probably in the 
colonies from which they come. There should be some 
educational standard of requirement for admission to the 
course. _ This might be an examination of the College, 
or certain recognised examinations might be accepted in 
substitution, such, for example, as the Senior Local 
Exammation of Oxford or Cambridge, or other similar 
examinations. This course of instruction should em- 
brace general agricultural science and agronomy, 
together with such practical instruction in the elements 
of field agriculture as the equipment of the College 
permits. 

(6) A senior course of similar instruction extending over not 



<c 



ic 



legs than four vears. 



93 



** (c) A course of two years' instruction in more advanced tropi- 
cal agriculture for students who liave undergone a course 
of instruction in general agriculture in a recognized 
institution^ sucli as a University, a University College, 
or an Agricultural College. This course would practi- 
cally coincide with the final two years' teaching of the 
last-named course (b). 

'* (d) Post-graduate study of special agricultural subjects in 



their tropical application, as, for example, Entomology, 
Mycology, Chemistry, Plant Breeding, and the general 
study of special crops such as sugar, cacao, cotton, coco- 
nuts, rice, and a variety of others, to be arranged to meet 
the requirements of individual students. These studies 
would be carried on through the College, in association 
with the Imperial Department of Agriculture, and, by 
arrangement with the respective Governments, through 
the medium of such Local Agricultural Departments 
and Experiment Stations as appear to be particularly 
suited for the work. It is probable that facilities in 
connection with these studies may be offered by the 
owners of sugar and other factories and by the owners 
of plantations, and that courses of instruction to meet 
the needs of individual students may be arranged by the 
Academic Board to meet special cases." 

21. Sugar School, — Eeeognizing the urgent need which exists 
for the provision of scientific and technical training in sugar 
manufacture, the Committee strongly recommend that a Sugar 
School equipped wdth a complete plant on a small, but working, 
scale he established in connection with the Tropical Agricultural 
College. They believe that the leading sugar machinery manu- 
facturing firms would be willing to contribute different portions 

of this plant. 

22. Oil Technology. — In view of the growing importance of 
the oil industiy of Trinidad, it has been suggested to the Com- 
mittee that, in the event of it being decided to establish the 
Tropical Agricultural College in Trinidad, a technical branch 
might be added to that institution, where men could obtain prac- 
tical training in oil technology and the control of oilfields. 
Students would have exceptional opportunities of acquiring know- 



ledge, inasmuch as they would be able to visit the oilfields 
periodically, while the presence in the island of many fullv 
qualified engineers, geologists, drillers, etc., would permit of 
lectures being given from time to time on all subjects associated 

with petroleum. ' ^ • i? 

23. Financial Arrange rnen^ts, — In approaching the question ot 
way and means, the Committee have had constantly in view the 
fact that though the Tropical Agricultural College would be 
located in the West Indies it would be, to a great extent, Imperial 
in its scope and activities, it being expected, for example, that 
the senior students would be post-graduates of British Univer- 
sities and Colleges and that manv of the students trained m the 
College would be available for service throughout the Empire. 
Apart from this, thev would point out that, as stated m an earlier 



94 

paragraph of their report (Section 8), it would be manifestly to 
the benefit of the Mother Country that production should be 
extended in the British West Indies on scientific and remunera- 
tive lines. They would emphasize, moreover, in this connection, 
that, of the American Agricultural Colleges to which reference 
has already been made, that of Porto Eico, at any rate, is sub- 
sidised by the United States Government. In order to provide 
the requisite ways and means for the establishment and main- 
tenance of the West Indian Tropical Agricultural College, the 
Committee recommend that : — 

(1) Eor the establishment of the College a Fund of £50,000 

and upwards should be raised by private subscription.' 

(2) For the maintenance of the College — 

(a) Annual contributions should be invited from the 

various West Indian Colonies on the basis of the 
equivalent of, say, i per cent, of their average revenue 
during the preceding three years, and each Colony, in 
return for its contribution,' should have the right to 
nominate a representative to sit on the Governing 
Body of the College and to enjoy special privileges in 
respect of its students; it being understood in this 
connection that the constituent Islands of the Wind- 
ward Islands group should be regarded as one Colony. 

(b) Annual contributions should be invited from the Im- 
perial Government as grants-in-aid, on the basis of 
£1 for every £1 contributed by the Colonies, the 
liability of the Imperial Government, however, not 
to exceed £15,000 in one year. 

(c) Voluntary contributions should he invited from indus- 

trial organisations and individuals interested in 
tropical industries. 

The Committee feel very strongly that the claim for Imperial 
assistance would be fully justified by reason of the Imperial 
nature of the work to be undertaken. 

They also feel that, if their recommendations meet with your 
Lordship's approval, it would greatly facilitate the collection of 
contributions from those interested in tropical industries if your 
J.ordship would yourself issue the appeal. 



24. College Buildings.— The Committee consider that the ques- 
tion of College Buildings is one which should be remitted to the 



Governing Body when duly constituted. They would however 
express the liope that the Government of whidiever West Indian 
colony may be selected as the site of the Tropical Agricultural 
College will meet the Trustees and Governing Body in a liberal 
spirit m this connection, and they desire to record that they have 
already received a generous offer of accommodation on a substan- 
tial scale from the Governor of Jamaica. It need hardly be 
added thai the Committee attach the greatest importance to" the 
hy ienTw^ '"^ liealthy surroundings and on thoroughly 

25. Imperial Department of Agricultiire.-IIaxms regard to 
their recommendation that the Tropical Agricultural College 



95 

slioiild be closely associated witli the Imperial Department of 
Agriculture, the Committee consider it as within their terms of 
reference to emphasize, as they desire most earnestly to do, the 
importance of establishing that Department on a more permanent 
basis after the expiration of the present Imperial grant. 

^ 26. The Committee wish in conclusion to express their obliga- 
tion to Mr. Algernon E. Aspinall, C "" 
as their Honorary Secretary, and fc 
he has gi^'en them in their work. 



M 



We have the honour to be. My Lord, 

Youi^ Lordship's obedient servants, 

A. E. Shipley (Chairman). 

D. PHAIN. 

NORMAIS^ LaMO^'T. 

Ermine Mukeay (for Gideon Murray). 
Owen Philipps. 
Feancis Watts. 
Edavaed Davson. 

A. Abbott (for Sir H. Frank Heath). 
C. A. Baeber. 

R. EUTHEREOED. 

H. A. Trotter. 

r 

E. A, DE Pass. 

J. Bretland Farmer. 

Arthur W. Hill. 

W. H. HlMBURY- 



JOHN W. McCoNNEL. 

Geo. Moody Stuaet. 



Algernon E. Aspinall, 



Hon, Secretary^ 



22nd October, 1919 



After this report had been approved the Committee held a 
further meeting to consider the following cablegram received on 
November 5th, by Mr. E. A. de Pass, from Mr, A. W. 
Farquharson, Chairman of the Jamaica Imperial Association : — 

'' Financial majority Elected Members agree support 
initial grant £50,000 and £5,000 annimlly towards ilie 
Agricultural College if Jamaica made headquarters Imperial 



_ ^j 



Department of Agriculture. — FARoriiAESOiS'. 

The Committee, M-hilst adhering to the recommendations con- 
tained in their report,, suggest that, in the event of Trinidad and 
the Windward and Leeward Islands not seeing their way to sup- 
port adequately the proposed Tropical Agricultural College — -a 
contingency which the Committee hope may not arise— the possi- 
bility of establishing the College in Jamaica may again be con- 
sidered. The question as to the site of the Imperial Department 
of Agriculture does not come within the terms of reference to 



9G 



the Committee, althougli they have found it necessary in the 
course of their report to refer to this important aspect of the 
question. 



Alge-ris^on E. Aspii^all, 



25th November, 1919. 



Hon, Secretary, 



XII.— THELLUNGIA, A NEW GENUS OF 

GRAMINEAE. 

0. SxApr. 

■ 

About a year ago Dr. Thellung*, of Zurich, submitted to Kew a 
grass which had sprung up among the wool refuse of the worsted 
mill, Derendingen, near Solothurn (Switzerland). It was first 
obserA^ed in 190T, in some young specimens which floM'ered only 
imperfectly. One of these was submitted to Professor Hackel, 
who very hesitatingly suggested that it might be a species of 
Ectrosia. As such ('' Ectrosia? mutica^ Hackel ad int/') it was 
enumerated by Probst in his paper '' Die Adventiv- und Huderal- 
flora von Solothurn und Fmgebung '^ in Mitteil. naturforsch. 
Ges. Solothurn, 5. xvii. Ber. 1911-1914, p. 1G4 (1914), but 
without a description being given. An attempt made then 
by Drs. Thellung and Probst to grow it in a pot failed, and it 
was not until 1918 that good flow^ering specimens presented them- 
selves in the same locality where the plant had been found 
oi'iginally. The piecediug summer (1917) having been very hot 
it is not improbable that the grass was thereby stimulated to 
more active growtli and ample flowering. 

The rich alien flora around the Derendingen mill includes 
numerous grasses of Australian origin. An analysis of the grass 
soon showed that it could not be an Ectrosia, nor did a prolonged 
search among the Australian grasses lead to its identification. 
Argentina and South Africa were suggested as likely native 
countries, but w^ith no better result. Fortunately the condition 
of the specimen was good enough to allow of a very complete 
examination of the floral structure, which was found^o be verv 
like that of a Sporobolus, but distinguished by the presence of 
several (mostly three and sometimes four) florets in each spikelet. 
Moreover the disposition of the spikelet^ in the inflorescence 
proved to be dilTerent. The very close relationship of Sporoholus 
and ^Va^fro^^/^ demanded comparison with the latter, and some 
of its closer allies as LeiytocMoa and Diplachne; but the strictly 
1-nerved delicate valves coupled with the free pericarp of the 
grain excliided those genera and led again back to Sporoholns. 
JNow bpoToboius, as we understand it at present, is a well defined 
and uniform genus w^hich although rich in species h^ practi- 
cally no synonymy that would throw doubt on it^ homogeneity. 
One of its salient characters is the presence of only one floret in 
each spikelet and the discontinuation of the rhachilla above it. 
As to the latter, we know at present only of one clear exception, 
VIZ. b. subtilis, a ALadagascar species, and as to the increase in 



97 

tlie number of florets tlie cases quoted in Bentham and Hooker's 
Genera Plantarum (>S'. coviyressus and S. serotina) and in 
Martius's Plora Brasilliensis (S. ramoslssima) concern only 
individual spikelets in otherwise normal inflorescences and seem 
to be^ altogether rare. I myself hare seen 2-flowered spikelets 
only in a specimen of S. compressus which was attacked by some 
fungal disease. Instances of a similar exceptional addition of 
florets occur in Panicum^ A?idropo(/on' and Oryza, genera with 
an otherwise perfectly stereotyped number of florets, and they 
have never been considered to alfect the character of those genera. 
However close the spikelets of the Derendingeji grass may 
approach those of Sporoholus in the structure of the parts, they 
contrast so decidedly in the number of florets that to include the 
grass in Sporoholus would vitiate our well established conception 
of that genus. This contrast is moreover enhanced by the 
grouping of the spikelets in pairs on the somewhat distant spike- 
like and themselves spicate branches of the inflorescence, a 
disposition not known in Sporoholus. Thus the Derendingen 
grass appears to represent a type concording in many ways with 
Sporoholus^ yet clearly and discontinuously detached from it in 
other respects, and this condition will be best expressed by con- 
ceding generic rank to the new type and placing it next to 
Sporobohis/ The fact that it grew among a considerable number 
of aliens of Australian origin renders it highly probable that this 
grass too came from the same source. The following is a 



technical description of the new genus and of its only species. 
The genus lias been named Thellungia in acknowledgment of the 
excellent work Dr. Thellung bas done in connection with the 
adventitious flora of Europe. 



Thellungia, Stapf [Gramineae-Sporoboleae] gen. nov. ; affine 
SporohoJoy sed spiculis 3-4-floris bene distinctum. 

Spiculae lateraliter compressae, per paria in ramis brevibus 
paniculae fere spicam compositam referentis subsessiles, imbri- 
catae, continuae cum pedicellis; rhachilla tarde clisarticulata supra 
glumas et inter anthoecia^ glabra, paululo ultra basin anthoecii 
summi producta. Antlwecia 3-4, omnia ^. Glumae 2, delicate 

membranaceae, subaequales, 1-nerves, tenuiter carinatae- Vulvae 
gluniis simillimae, nisi superiores breviores, Valvulae quam 
valvae conspicue breviores, tenuiter 2-carinatae, inter carinas 
subplicatae, Lodicxdae 2^ late cuneatae, carnosae/ Stamina^. 
Ovarium glabrum ; styli perbreves, terminales; stigmata plumosa^ 
brevia. Caryopsis libera, nuda cadens ut videtur; pericarpium 
tenue, siccum semini adpressum, humefactum expansum, semeji 
more utriculi circumdans. Semen a latere compressum, sectione 
transversa cuneatum; hilum punctiforme, basale. Emhryo ad 
medium semen attingens. — Gramen gracile, perenne; foliorum 
laminae angustae, vernatione convolutae; ligulae ad marginem 
ciliolatum redactae. Inflorescentia angustissima; rami solitaria, 
e basi floriferi, axi communi subadpre^si et eius internodiis paulo 
longiores vel superiores breviores et magis appressi. Spiculae 
nitentes, mediocres. 

Species unica, verosimiliter Australiensis. 

B 



-v-* 






98 



T. advena, Stapf. Gvamcn glabeiriinuui, iuflorescentia in- 
clusa ultra 5 din. altum; miLovationes intra vaginales, basi 
paululo bnlboso-iiicrassatae et pallitlae, 5-6-foliatae. CaxiJes 
tenues teretes, circa 4-nodi, nodis exsertis, Foliorum Taginae 
teretes^ arctae, tennissinie striatae ; laminae aiiguste lineares, 
longe apicem versus attenuatae, acutae, ad margines superne 
scaberulae, caeterum laeves, pallida virideSj ad 12 cm. longae, 
ad 2-5 mm. latae, summa basin inflorescentiae louge excedens, 
costa nervisque lateralibus approximatis tenuibus. Inflorescentia 
fere epedunculata, basi in vagina summa inclusa, tota ad 25 cm. 
longa; rami infra medium siti circiter l-T-l-l cm. longae, superi- 
ores sensim breviores. Spiculae plerumque 4 mm. longae. pallida 
virescentes, hincinde leriter purpureo-suffusae, imperfecte 
apertae; una uniuscuiusque paris brevissime, altera longius pedi- 
celatae vel utraque subsessilis ; rbacbilla flexuosa. Ghtmoe 
liyalinae, albidae, perangustatae, lineari-lanceolatae vel lineares, 
inferior acute acuminata, superior obtiuscula, utraque superne 
in carina viridi asperula. Valvae glumas paulo excedentes, 
glumae inferiori simillimae, nisi inferne paululo latiores et minus 
acutae, sursum descresceutes, 4-2-5 mm. longae. Valvvlae 
valvae | aequantes, in dorso curvatae, carinis viridibus superne 
minute scaberulae. Lodiculae 0*25 mm. longae. Antherae 
breves, oblongae, 0-3-0-4 mm. longae; filamenta 0-6 mm. longa. 
Styli 0-2 mm. longi ; stigmata 0-6 longa. Caryopsis oblonga, 
stylopodio j)aulo incrassato coronata, ad 1 mm. longa, albo- 
viridula. Sevien pallidum, 0-8 mm. longum, 0-3-0-35 mm. 
latum, 0-15 mm. crassum. Ectrosia? mutica, Hack, ex Probst 

in Mitteil, d. naturforscb. Ges. Solotliurn, 5, xvii. Ber, 1911-1914, 
p. 169 (1914), nomen tantum. 

Switzerland. An alien gro-^-n from wool refuse at 
Derendingon Mill, near Solotburn, Probst, 1918. 

As the filaments grow never beyond tbe stigmas, tbe small 
antbers are more or less in contact with them, and as moreover 
the florets appear to open very imperfectly, autogamy would seem 
to be ensured, and even cleistogamy may occur; but I have seen 
the tips of stigmas protruding laterally from the florets, so that 
xenogamy is not altogether excluded. The pollen grains 
measure about 25 fx in diameter and may be seen sendintj- out 
their pollen tubes among the stigmatic hairs. '^ 

While this article was going through the Press a copy of Dr 
Probst's Zweiter Beitrag zui Adventiv- und Euderal-flora von 
Solothurn und Fmgebung (in Mitteil. naturf. Ges. Solothurn 6 
xvni. Ber. 1014-1919) was received, containing a leproduption of 
an excellent photograph of the grass in } nat. size. Tl.is shows 
the grass forming a compact tuft and about 5 dm. high including^ 
the inflorescence Tins agrees with the specimen examined. On 
l.lvlo'i/^''^*^^^ inflorescences sl,own in the photograph are 
onlj 12-14 cm. long with the branchlets tightlv appressed to the 
axis forming a false spike of not more than 3 mnV in diameter, 
whilst the largest of the leaves is 18 cm. by 4-5 mm. The illusl 
tration is intended to accompany the enumeration of ThcUungia 
advena, btapf, gen. et spec. nov. on p. 17. 



99 




3 X. 



1. Inflorescence and barren shoot (nat. size), 2. Branch of inflorescence, 

3- Spikelet, 4. Lower glume. 5. Upper glume. 6. Upper floret 
(one half of valve removed). 7. Flower with one half of valvule. 
8. Lodicule, 35 X. 9. Ovary, after flowerinjs^. 10. Grain, cut open, to 

show the loose seed inside. 11. The same, cross section. 
X 15. 



All other figures 



b2 



100 



XIII.— QUERCUS AEGILOPS, 



C, C- LACAITA. 



The generally recognised identity of Quercus Aegilops L. witli 
tlie Vallonea*, or Yalouia, oak of Greece and the Levant has 
recently been doubted for the reason that Linnaeus calls the leaves 
glabrous and assigns Spain, where the Yallonea does not grow, as 
the habitat of his species. The latter doubt derives some addi- 
tional support from the fact that the two sheets in the herbarium 
marked Aegilops in Linne's own hand are unquestioiiably 
Q. faginea Lam., and at least one of the two was sent by Baron 
Alstroemer from Spain, as appears from the letter A written close 
to the specimen by Linnaeus. But he did not receive these speci- 
mens till long after the publication of the Species Plantarum in 
1753; so they do nol account for the habitat " Hispania." 

I am afraid that we shall have to admit that Linnaeus never 
saw the Vallonea oak, whether alive or in herbarium specimens, 
and that in compiling an account of the species — more sxio — from 
earlier writers he overlooked the admirable description in Tourne- 
fort's Voyage and even that in Miller's Figures of Plants, whilst 
copying an earlier mistake of Miller's and adding one of his own 
as to the glabrous leaves. Nevertheless, there is good justification 
for using the name Quercus Aegilops L. as a comprehensive term 
for the oak which supplies the Vallonea of commerce, without 



more 



of the trees that furnish that article, such as Q. macrolepis 
Kotschy, Q. graeca Kotschy, etc., whatever may be the systematic 
value of those forms, for the simple reason that neither Linnaeus 
nor the earlier authors were aware of these distinctions, and that 
Linnaeus did not have any one of them before his eyes. 

The interpretation of Linnean names in the Species Plantarum 
is based on several elements: — 

(1) The diagnosis and observations. 
'"^ synonyms 



(3) The habitat assigned. 

(4) The specimens in the Linnean herbarium. 

(5) His own earlier work : the Hortus Cliffor 



Muse 



* Vallonea, usually spelled Valonia by English authors, is the trade name 

under which the acorns and cups of this onk come from Albania, Greece and 

the Levant. The oriorin of the name is disputed. I am inclined to think 

that the form Valonia is derived, as usually supposed, from ^akavo^, the 

old Greek word for acorn, "which in modern Greek has hecome l^aXdvt or 

iSaXavtSc (the tree being (iaXaviBid or jieXavihcd), names which appear 

as Velani and Velanida etc. in the accounts of western travellers. On the 

other hand Parmigiani, Vocab. Etimol. della Lingua Italiana, rejects any 

connection of the name Vallonea with j3aXaTO9, and in that form it more 

probably comes from the Albanian town of A^aUona, which is a centre of 

export. The Vallqnea oak is plentiful in the district and is called Vallanit. 

It is tempting to connect the name of the town also with jSaXavos: but this 

will not do, for Vallona is only the Italian corruption of Avlona, the ancient 

name being Anion {Av\a>v) not Apollonia, as supposed by Eay, Hist. 

p. 1387. Apollonia was a different place, also in Albania, but inland, some 



distance north of Vallona, at a spot now known as Pollona or Pollina. 



101 



In tlie present case nos. 5 and 6 fail us for there is no reference 
to Q. Aegilops in the Hort. Cliff. The definition in Sp. PI. (1753), 
p. 996, is Q, foliis ovato-ohloiigis glahris serratO'Te/Mndfs, repeated 
in ed. 2 (1763), p. 1414, with the alteration of serrato-repandis to 
serrato-deiitatis. In both editions follows '^ nascitnr cnlyce 
masinio." The habitat assigned is Hispania. The synonyms are 
in ed. 1 ; (1) Quercus calyce echinato, glande majore. Bauh. Pin. 
420; (2) Cerri glans Aegilops aspris Banh. hist. i. -q. 77 jvuctus. 
It is important to note that the reference to J. Buuhin's IListoria 
is limited to the fructus. The second edition, whilst repeating 
these two synonj^ms, adds Mill. Diet. t. 215 to the diagnosis, as if 
that diagnosis were Miller's, whereas it is Linne's own, inolnding 
the alteration to serrato-dentatis . 

Now although the diagnosis by itself is utterly insufficient for 
any possible identification, the observation "calyce maximo '^ at 
once narrows the field to the Yallonea and some similar oaks, 
excluding all oaks that grow in Spain, but agreeing with the 
s^'nonyms, which, as will appear, undoubtedly refer to the \ al- 
lonea. On the other hand, '' foliis glabris " either excludes the 
Vallonea, or must be neither more nor less than a mistake on the 
part of Linnaeus. The leaves of Yallonea oaks, though glabrous, 
or almost, on the upj^er surface, are invariably T)ubescent beneath. 
Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. vii. (1759), says '' leaves on their under side 
a little downy " and in Eig. PL (referred to by Linnaeus for the 
figure), y covered on their under side with an almost imperceptible 
lioary down." These remarks should hare called Linne's attention 
to the matter in his second edition, though of course they were not 
before him when he wrote '^glabris'' in the first. Martelli in 
Xuov. Giorn. Bot. It. xx. p. 428 (1888) suggests that Q. Lihani 
Olivier, which has glabrous leaves, and esj^eciall}' its var. callicarpa 
Kotschy, should be regarded as the type of Q. Aegilops L. But 
there are fatal objections to this proposal; there is no evidence 
that Linnaeus had ever seen or heard of the Lihaiii oak; it does 
not remove the difficulty of the supposed Spanish habitat; and the 
ordinary Yallonea acorn or cup of commerce, on which the earlier 
synonyms of Linnaeus were based, comes from countries where 
Q. Libani does not grow. I have failed to trace any passage in 
the earlier authors which could have suffcrested to Linnaeus that 



oo 



unfortunate ''foliis glabris," and have little doubt that he was 
only speaking of the upper surface and did not m 1T53 know any- 
thing about the lower surface. 

The reference to Miller's Figures of Plants is all-important. 
Tlie plate in question, drawn by his brother-in-law Ehret, bears 
the date of 21st February, 1758, though the title-page of the 
volume is dated 1760. It is qiiite a good representation of the 
Yallonea oak with unripe acorns. Xo doubt the sharply serrated 
leaves of this figure were what induced Linnaeus to alter his 
description of him in Sp, PL ed. 2. The text, vol. ii. p.^ 143, states 
clearly that the tree grows in the Levant, and is practically iden- 
tical with the account of it in Gard, Diet, ed, vii. (1T59), repeated 

almost verbally in ed. viii. (1768). 

Miller knew this oak well. He declares (Fig. PL loc. eit.) that 
the greater part of the trees then in England had been raised m 



102 



mis 



tlie Clielsea Garden in 1748. It appears in tlie first edition of the 
Gardener's Dictionary of 1731 as Quercus (no. 5) calyce echinato, 
glande majore C. B. P., and is alleged to have been originally 
brought to England from Spain. This, of course, is a mere 
mistake of Miller's. He 
origin of seeds he received. He adds, '* this is preserved by such 
as are curious in the collecting the several kinds of trees," words 
which seem to imply that he did not himself possess it at Chelsea 
at that date ; therefore we cannot be sure that Alton, Hort. Kew. 

iii. p. 359 (1789), and Smith, Eees' Cyclop, xxix. (1819), are 
correct in their statement that Miller had grown the Yallonea in 
1731, a statement which seems to rest on this passage in the 
dictionary. The identical words of the 1731 edition are repeated 
in all subsequent edition* up to and including the sixth of 1752, 
which is the latest that Linnaeus could have seen before the 
Species Plantarum of 1753. 

Linnaeus probably adopted from Miller's e.irly editions the 
grave error as to the native country of Aegilops, which, in addi- 
tion to the " foUis glahris," led to^his false determination of the 
(fruitless) specimens in the herbarium, but it is strange that he 
should not have also followed Miller in the correction of the mis 



take, which was made in the interval between the first and second 



editmnsof the Species Plantarum, for in the seventh edition of the 
Gardener's Dictionary (1759) all is changed. Xo. 5 of the earlier 
editions becomes no. 9, " Que re us foUis omto-ohlongis glahvis 
serrato-repandis Lin. Sp. Plant. 99G. Q. calyce echinato, glande 
majore C. B. P. 420. The ninth sort grows naturally in the 
Levant, from whence the Acorns are annually brought to Europe, 
where they are used for dyeing; these are called Velani, and the 
tree T elanida by the Greels. It is one of the fairest species of oaks 
in the yorld .... The Acorns have very large scaly Cups, 
which almost cover them; the Scales are ligneous and acute- 
pointed, standing out a quarter of an inch ; some of the Cups are 
as large as middling Apples. The leaves are stiff, of a pale green 
on the upper side, and on the under side a little downy."* No 
allusion to Spam ; no apology for the previous mistake, possiblv 
out of regard for Lmnaeus, who had fallen into the same error. " 
How, then, came Linnaeus to overlook this admirable account in 
tiis second edition, where he actually quotes Miller's figure ^ 1 
can only suggest that he had just received the specimens from 
Alstroemer, who was in Spain between 1760 and 1764, and having 
labelled these, m the absence of fruit, Aegilops, took them al 
evidence that Aegilops really grows in Spain. 

nn^th !*i"^f^*^^ "^^"'""^ i^T ^""^ ^^Pe^i^ens to Q. faginea, writing 
on the sheets, more sua, "Nequaquam; faginea ex descr. Willd 



r. *m T^?i"i,'''"^*^'^^*^^' '^ *^^ ^'^'^^ «f *^i« description Eouy Fl Fr xli 
B.ct ;d S no'F Tn 7'''^ "" ^^''""^ mistake as to quote " Q ie^^Min. 

£a P«6e7ce^^W^' IJar^fro" t?rw?o^'/-^^ 

that the 7th edition TZll}L::^^V^ti^!r^^^^^ seems unaware 

which were not adopted bj Millerbefore the 8^h .T^nPT-^T bmom.als, 
cariQot have looked at the DictionLv iwi; L f' ""^ }'^^- ^- ^'^^Y 
this the only instance of l^F^S:::^rt:^J:, ffit^ '^ ^"°*^ '' """ ^^ 



103 



no. G8.'' He repeats tliis deteiiuinatiou in Eees' CyclopseJiu 



Q. faginea. One of the specimens is figured by Loudon in 
Alb. & Frut. Brit, iii., p. 1926; fig. 1816, to represent Q. jaginea 
Lam. They seem to correspond admirably with Cavanilles' plate 
of Q. valentina, Ic. ii. t, 129 (1793), identified by Willkomm in 
Prodr. n. Hisp. i, p. 240, with Q, faginea Lam. (1783). This 



the Vallonea, 



/ 



The eighth edition of the Gardener's Dictionary (1768) merely 

repeats what had been said in the seventli, only adopting the 

Linnean hinoxaindlQuercus AegiJops and altering den tat o-repa ?hU.^ 

to dentatO'Serratis in accordance witli the second edition of the 
Species Plantarum. 

Ail modern authors who carry weight, such as Smith in Rees' 
Cyclop, xxix, Ilooker in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxiii. p. 384 (^' On three 
Oaks of Palestine'"), and Boissier, Fl. Or. iv. p. 1171, adopt the 
identification of Q. Aegilops L. with the Vallonea without discus- 
sion or reference to the herbarium specimens. A. de Candolle, 



Q. graeca Kotschy, as well as Q 



Q 



Kotschy of the Taurus ; all these producing the Tallonea acorns 
of commerce, but he is wrong in e:5:cluding from this interpreta- 
tion the old synonyms relied on by Linnaeus. Solander, too, in his 
MSS. in Mus. Brit., vol. xix., p. 317, in a description of the 
species remarks, '' Q, Aegilops Sp, PI. 1414 exclusis synonimis 
praeter Milleri." Probably this hesitation as to the old synonyms 
(which can mean nothing else than the Tallonea) was due to the 
fact that the early avithors, and especially Jean Bauhin, though 
not Caspar, mixed up the Vallonea and the Turkey oaks as forms 
of '*Cerrus Plinii.'' Linnaeus probably adopted the name 
Aegilops from our old botanists rather than directly from Pliny. 
It is a transliteration of the aljlXo)^ of Theophrastus, the 
identity of which neeA not be discussed here, because it is from 
Pliny, not Theophrastus, that our early botanists, ignorant of 
Greek, took their notions, often misunderstanding even Pliny^ as 
they seem to think that he speaks of Aegilops as a kind of Cernis. 
He does nothing of the sort. What he says is (Hist. Xat. xvi. 8), 
" Glandem .... ferunt quercus, aesculus, cerrus, ilex, suber .... 
glans optima in quercu .... cerro tristis, horrida echinato calyce, 
ceu castaneae." The comparison of the chestnut shows that his 
Cemis was Q. Cerris L., and could not be, or include, the Vallonea. 
Pliny evidently knew these five acorn-bearing trees as natives of 
Italy, but Aegilops is only introduced later in the same chapter 
in the words of Theophrastus, '' excelsissima autem aegilops, 
incultis arnica,'* without being connected in any way with the 
five previously mentioned acorn-bearers ; indeed, Pliny only seems 
to have known it through the Greek author. In c. 13, speaking of 
parasitic growth, he returns to Aegilops only to translate that 
author's account of the lichens that alytXco^jr bears. 

The earliest account of the Vallonea (Aegilops) and Turkey 
(Cerris) oaks as distinct seems to be in Lobel, Stirp. Obs., p. 584 
fl576) where the two woodcuts very fairly represent the differ- 
zi«/.fi IT. f>in nnnrrt^a "Kill +Tip Iaavps of both are shown as laenticai. 



104 



The same woodcuts, as usual with all those that issued from 
Plantin's Antwerp press, are repeated in Lohel's later books, in 
Dodoen's Pemptades (1583), and even in Parkinson's Theatruni 
(1640). Dodoens follows Lobel's distinction of tlie two oaks, but 
Dalechamp, Hist. Plant., p. 6 (1587), again confused them— 
although Lob el says that he had been taught by Dalechamp— 
as " Aegilops Idaeorum, Latinorum Cerrus, Italorum Cerro, 
Gallis ignotum arbor." 

To come to the two Bauhins : Caspar in 1623 (Pinax, p. 420) 
distinguishes quite clearly between his Quercus vi. and his 
Quercus rii. No. vi. is " echinato glande majore " with 
synonyms " Cerris Plinii majore glande Lob." and "Aegilops 
sive Cerris majore glande Dod.", and the remark, " hisce glandi- 
bus ad pannos atro colore inficiendos gallorum vice utuntur " 
which fixes the species with certainty as the Vallonea. No. vii. 

calice hisj)ido glande minore = Aegilops minore glande Dod". = 
terns Plmii minore glande Lob. = species quae in Etruria Parnia 
Oaesalp. is with equal certainty Q. Cerris L., the Turkey oak. 

Jean, on the contrary, Hist. Plant, i. pt. 2, p. 77 (1650),*'again 
mixes up the two trees, repeating Dalechamp's, not Lobel's, wood- 
cut and remarking that he cannot quite understand the passage 
in Lobei. But the single acorn, which alone is relied on by 
Linnaeus, who has so carefully said '^fructus' in quoting this 
authoi-^, IS plainly that of the Vallonea. It is, theief ore, clear 
that the Bauhm svnonyms should not, any more than that of 
Miller, be excluded from those of Q. Aegilops L. 

Tournefort seems to be the first western traveller who has 

'qq. ?.^i~?7'i^^''''.^^ 0^^ i^ i*s native country. He says (Voy. i. 
p. 334 (171 0), that m the island of Zia (Ceos) ' on recueille beau- 
coup de Fe/ani (which name he derives from iidXavo, ) ; c'est ainsi 
qu on appelle le fruitd'une des plus belles especes de Chene qui 
soit au monde," and ^ives a full and excellent account, quoting as 
its name Quercus calyce echinato, glande majore C. B. P. The 

DTern f J'^rf -^^r ^^^"^^ ^« mentioned by Pococke, 

PpZf ?*\°°^^^, ^?0i)' ^^' a good plate (Atlas tab. xiii.) by 
Pedoute of a branchlet and acorn. In vol. i. p. 254, he says " les 
Grecs mcdernes nomment velani (de (UXavo, g^and) et les 
botanistes Quercus Aegilops le chene qui fournit la velanide 

pla1e\'o ^^2 r'^Vf 'T 1 ^'''^^^'^*"^^^ 1271, whose 

plate no. 322 shows the Aegdops at Lyndon Hall, Rutland the 

finest m England, give statistics of the export of Vallonea from 
Greece and s ate on the authority of Mr. Wood, for many jelTs 
British Consul at Patras that in that district only the^u^is sen 
when the acorn is ripe, but that " camata " and - camatina " '?e 
unripe fruits esteemed for their colour. Mr WonHnri.;.'!': 
f.!lT;„^^^^ll°"^^- ^-*^er details. The word 



a i_ J> 



derived fxon. ;,.-,„™ fV.«^ I^ liter y and t nd^nt oTeekT" on 

diminutii "ca>n. n»''. ?. i",lf"i'??^ ^'T 'l« .t^-- 1 The 



from tte tree af-ai, earlier st^Tp ' -T f" g:atDered 

hisher nrine hltZ^, S ?^' V" "?'"''» "> *'"'"Je commands a 
nigner price, being more effective for dyeing and tanning. The 



305 



value of Vallonea, which at one time varied between £20 and 
£25 per ton, fell to such an extent during the years before the war 
that export — from Patras, at any rate, had almost ceased, but 
during the war the price rose again. 

Lobel, loc. cit., fancied that he had seen the Vallonea oak in 
central Italy; *'hujus sj^eciei observasse luemini publica via qua 
itur Pesaro Romam/' His memory deceived him; he can only 
have seen the Turkey oak there (or possibly Q. pseudo.nfber), as 

is pointed out by the accurate Ray, Hist. ii. p. 1387 (1688), who 
knew that tree in Italy, whereas he had only seen the acorns of the 
Yallonea at Venice, imported from Vallona. 

The only spot in Italy where the Vallonea oak has any claim to 
be indigenous is near Tricase, in the extreme lieel, where a fine 
group on the steep coast of the Adriatic has every appearance of 
being native, but as it is quite isolated, one cannot feel sure that 
it was not planted of old. 



XIV. 



THE GENUS ROSMAKINUS. 

AV. B. TUKRILL. 



The genus Rosmarinus is limited to the Mediternmean Region, 
where it occurs in the southern parts of the European countries 
bordering this sea, in North Africa and as far east as Cyprus, the 
Troad, and also Cilicia, according to Boissier, Flora Orientalis, 
vol. iv. p. 63G. Most systematists have limited the genus to one 
species, namely, Rosmarinus officinalis^ L., although about twelve 
plants have been given specific rank by various authors. The 
following revision of the genus is based mainly on the excellent 
material preserved in the Kew Herbarium. 



Rosmarinus, L,, Gen. PL, ed- v. p. 14, n. 38 (1T54); Benth. 



Gen. et Spec, Labiat. p. 314 et in 




Prod- vol. xii. p. 360; 



Benth. et Hook, f.. Gen. Plant., vol. ii. p. 1197; Briquet inEngler 
u. Prantl, Pflanzenfam., 3 A. p. 216. 



Hosmarinus officinalis, L,, Sp. PL, ed. 1, p. 23 

Briquet, Les Labiees des Alpes Maritimes, p. 179 (1891). 



(1753); 




This species is the conunon rosemary and 
may be subdivided as follows : 

var. geniiina, T^irrill, var. nov, Frufe 



erectus, usque ad 6-10 dm. altus, ramosus. 
Folia liuearia, saepissime circiter 2-3 cm, 
longa, margine revoluta, subtus tomentosa. 



entae vel 



1-2 em. longae, pulverul- 
subtomentosae vel subglabrae ; 
bracteae lanceolatae vel laneeolato-ovatae; 
pedicelli circiter 3 mm. longi. Caly:r cam- 
panulatus, circiter 5 mm. longus, glandulis 
sessilibus instructus, puberulus vel breviter 



E^ 



major 



106 

Distr. Portugal, Spain, Balearic Islands, Soiitli France, Italy, 
Sicily, Malta, Dalmatia, Croatia, Istria, Switzerland, Greece, 
Crete (ex Halacsy, Conspect. Fl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 491), Mace- 
donia (probably an escape from cultivation), Canaries, Azores, 
Madeira, Cyprus, Troad, Cilicia (ex Boissier, I.e.), Tunis, Egypt 
(ex Muscliler, Man. Fl. Egypt, vol. ii. p. 829 — var. piihescens, 
Pamp. ?). 

forma erectus, Pasq, ex Beg. in Fiori e Paoletti, Fl. analit. 
d'ltalia, vol. iii. p. 14 (1903). Suffrutex erectus. 

Distr. As for the var. genuina, 

forma humilis, Ten,, Syl. FL Neapol. p. 16 (1831); forma 
•procumhens^ Pasq., Fl. Yesnviana, p. 79 (1869); var. prostratuSy 
Pasq. in Cat. del Eeal Ort. Bot. di Xapoli, p. 91 (1867); var. 
rupestrisj Pasq. ex Beg. I.e. Siiffrutex prostratus, ramis diffusis. 

Distr. Italy, and probably elsewkere. 

forma albiflorus, Beg. I.e. Corolla alba. 
Distr. Italy, and probably elsewhere. 

var. rigidus, Car, et Saint-Lag.^ Etude des Fleurs, p. 657 
(1889) ; Pony et Fouc, Fl. de France, xi. p. 249 (1909). R. rigi- 



dus, Jord. et Four., Brev. pi. nov., fasc. i. p. 43 (1866). Suffrutex 
robustus, caiilibus rigidis, ranais erectis, foliis plus minusve 
erectis virentibus, corolla grandiuscula. 

Di.<itr, Soutbern France, Italy, Spain. 

vor. angustifolius, Guss,, Syn. FL Siculae, vol. i. p, 20 
(1842): i?. angustifoJias, Mill., 'Diet., ed. 8, no. l(1768);vnr. 
angustlssimvsj Fouc. et Mand. in BtiU. Soc. Bot. Fr., vol. xlvii. 
p. 95 (1900); Eouy et Fouc. I.e. 72. tenitifolius, Jord. et Four., 
I.e. Sufl[rute:5: erectus, foliis patulis tenuibus cireiter ] mm. latis 
obscure virentibus, corolla grandiuscula. 

Distr. Soutbern France, Italy, Corsica. 

var. latifolius, Beg. I.e. R. latifolius. Mill., I.e. no, 2; Eouy et 
Fouc. Lc. R. fieniosus, Jord. et Four., l.c, p. 44. Suffrutex 
caulibus ^ flexuosis, ramis patulis contortisque, folii? patulis 
latiusculis niargine vis revolutis. 

Distr. Southern Finance, Italy, 

var. pubescens, Pamp. in Bull. Soc. Bot. It., 1914, p. 16 et Pi. 
Tripolit., p. 16 (1914). I have not seen this plant, but the original 
description is as follo^vs : Inflorescentiae dense pubescenles, nee 
puberulae ut in typo et varietatibus nonnuUis nee tomentoso- 
rillosae ut in var. lavandulaceo [R. lavandnlaceus). 

Distr, Tripoli: Mesellata, Tarhuna, Gariau (ex Pampanini). 

forma roseus, Pamp., I.e. Flores rosei. 

Distr. Tripoli : Tarhuna {ex Pampanini). 

Rosmarinus laxiflorus, de Noe in Balansa, PI. d'Algerie, in 
)i Q^^N^'^'^i nf"^'*^ P^^^ted Latin description) ; Lange, Pug., p. 178 
f! S ' ^^'^i'^.'^'^ ^* I^^^g^> P^od- ^1- Hisp- vol. iL p. 419 



610). R. officinalis, var. laxifl 
34: ed. 2. 1866 r^ 07. "Ra^*' 



k\g 



107 



Stiff rut ex prostiYitiis, ramiis plus iniuusve 
coutortis. Folia liiiearin, eirciter 1-6 cm. lon^a 
et 2 lUHi. lata, inargine revoluta.- In f ores- 
cetitiae 2-3 cm. longae, laxifiorae ; bracteae 
oA^atae, apice acuminntae, 1'5 mm. longae; podi- 
celli 5 mm. lougi, Caly.v campanulatus, 4 mm. 
longus, leyiter i^uberulus et glandulosus. 
Corolla 7-8 mm. loiig-a. 

Distr. Algeria: Santa Cruz^ Oran; Djebel- 
Santo, Oran. 

Spain; Cordoba; Cartagena (ex "Willkomm 
et Lange, I.e.). 

Rosmarinus lavandulaceus, de yoc in Balansa, PL d'Algerie, 
1852, no. 444 (with printed Latin description); Debeaux in Mem. 
Assoc. Franc, avanc. sci. Oran, 1888, p. 312. U. officinalis, var. 
lavandulaceus, Munby, Cat. PL Alg., 1859, n. 24; ed, 2, 18G6, 
p. 27; Battandier et fnibut, Lc, p. 690 (1890); Debeaux, FL de' 
la Ivabjlie, p. 293 (1894). 




Svffnitex prostratus (?). 



Folia 1*5 cm, longa vel 



minora, 



1 mm, lata, valde revoluta. Inflorescentiae conlpactae, multi- 
florae, 2'5-3'5 cm. longae; bracteae subrotundae, 2 mm, longae, 
acutae; pedicelli usque ad 3 mm. longi. Calyjc tubulosus, 4 mm. 
lougus, dense albo-tomentosus et pilis longis tenuibusliaudglandu- 
losis instructus. Corolla 1 cm. longa. 

Distr. Algeria : plain of Andalous, near Oran ; Cape Falcon, 
near Oran; Arzew, east of Oran; Colesh. 





R, lavandiilaceus. 



i?. Tourne/oriii. 



Rosmarinus Tournefortil, de Xoe ex Battandier et Trabut, FL 
de LAlgerie, p. 690 (1890), nomen; R, officinalis, var. Towrne- 
fortit, de IS'oe in Billot flor. gall, et germ, ex^ic. no. 2124; Eos- 
imarinus eriocaU^t, Jord. et Four,, Brev. PL Xor., fasc. L p. 44 

(1866). 

Suffrutex subprostratus, ramis contortis. Foliu l'5-2 cm. 
longa, 2 mm. lata, margine valde revoluta, Inflorescentia^u^qxie^d 
3"5 cm. longae, breviter pubescentes et pilis lonsris apice glandu- 
losis instructae; bracteae lat« ovatae, apice obtusae vel abrupte 
breviterque acuminatae, 3 mm. longae; pedicelli usque ad^5 mm. 



10^ 



mm 



loiigus, breviter pubescens et 
pilis disiinctis temiibus glanduloso-capitatis praeditns. Corolla 



longi- 



cm 



Distr, Algeria : Sidi-bel-Abbis, near Oran ; Selidon, near 

Oran; Mettili. 

According to Captain Hilton-Simpson tbe Arabic name for tbis 

plant is Khlil. 



XV.— DECADES KEWENSES 

Pla^^tartjm Novarum in Herbario Horti Regii 

Con SER VAT arum. 

DECAS XCVI. 

951. Miliusa dolichantha, Craih [Anonaceae-Milinseae] ; a M, 
Roxhwrghiana^ Hook. f. et Thorns., foliis subtus molliter pnbes- 
centibus, alaba^tris elongatis angnstis distinguenda. 

Ramuli primo densins brnnneo- vel piirj)ureo-brunneo-pubes- 
centes, mox puberuli, demum glabri, cortice striato-reticulato 
cinereo obtecti. Folia plenimque oblonga vel oblongo-lanceo- 
lata, apice longins acuminata, acumine ipso acuto vel obtusins- 
culo, basi parum inaequilatera, cnneata vel rotundata, 6*5-20 cm. 
2'8-7-4 cm,, chartacea, supra in costa densins pnbescentia, 
cetervim glabra, snbtus praecipne in costa nervisque molliter 
pubescentia, nervis 9-12 supra inconspicnis subtus prominentibus, 
venis transversis longis subtus prominulis, petiolo circa 3 mm. 
longo suffulta. Flores plerumque gemini, axillares (saepissime 
ex axillis foliorum delapsorum), pedicello et calyce et petali 



exteme ferrugineo-pubescentibus, pedicello 7-8 mm. longo paulo 



supra medium bract^a 8 mm, ionga lineari-lanceolata basin 
versus bracteola minore instructo. Sepala aperta, anguste lanceo- 
lata, 1 cm. Ionga, 1*5 mm. lata, acuta. Petala exteriora sepalis 
similia nisi paulo breviora, interiora valvata, in alabastro vix 2-5 
mm. Ionga. Stamina 6-7- seriata. 

Eastern Hi:malaya. Abor Hills : Ringing and liotung ; 
450 m.; flowers in December, Burkill 36606, 37593, 37674. 



ra 



952. Vatica Shlngkeng, Du7ui [Dipterocarpaceae-Vaticeae] ; 
V. lanceolatae, Blume affiuis, sed foliis longe acuminatis et 
sepalis 2 auctis differt. 

ArhoT elata, glabra. Cortea: crassus, griseo-brunneus, 
lenticellatis. Folia alterna, lanceolata, longe acuminata vel 
caudata, basi rotundata, a-18 cm. Ionga, cbartacea, nervis 

6-paribus ascendentibus trabeoul 

subtus prominulis, petiolis 0-6-1 cm. longis. Flores ignoti. 
Capsula tarde dehiscens vel indehiscens, 2 cm. Ionga, globosa, 
breviter acuminata, in caljce persistente aucto patente insidens, 
sepalis 2 exterioribus ovatis obtusis striatis 3 cm. longis, interior!- 
bus 1-1-5 cm. longis. Semina angulata, pauca. 

Eastern Himalaya. Abor Hilts: Rengging to Janakmukh: 




109 



iorming pure forests of considerable size; Abor uame Sbing-keiig. 

Burkill 36254, 36615, 37311, 3H53. 

* 

953. Rubus (§Malachobatus) Burkillii, Rolfe [llosaceae- 

Rubeae] ; species distincta, e serie Pacatorum^ Focke, raniis et 
petiolis aciileatis, foliorum lobis rotimdatis, et floribus saepe 
eorymbosis distinguenda, 

Friiticosxis, ramulis et petiolis aculeatis et cinereo-villusis. 
Folia suborbicularia, breviter 3-5 lobulata, basi cordata, breviter 
inciso-creuata, puberula, nervis reticulatis primariis parce aculeo- 
latis, 5-9 cm. longa, 5-8 cm. lata; petioli 1-3 cm. longi; stipulae 
angustae, laciniatae, 5-7 mm. longae. Flares terminales et 
axillares, saepe corjmbosi, 3-7 conferti. Pedicelli 5-7 mm. longi, 
pubernli. Calyx campanulatus, circiter 1 mm. longiis, 5-lobus; 
|obi deltoideo-ovati, acuti, lateribiis filamenis binis bubulatis 

instructi. Petala obovata, 5—6 mm. longa. Fila- 
3-4 mim,* longa. Drupae paiioae, siibsiccae, rugosae; stj'li 



mm 



2 mm, longi. 

Eastehk Himalaya. Abor Hills: Kibo, Biirkill 37005. 

A very distinct species of tke section Malachobatus, and appa- 
rently belonging to Focke's small series Pacatiy whicL Las 
liitlierto only been known from China. It cannot be placed in the 
series Pufi from the character of the pubescence, and no very 
closely allied plant has been found at Kew, 

954. Eugenia aborensis, Dimn [Myrtaceae-Myrteae] ; E. 

formosae, Wall, similis foliis subsessilibns cordatis, sed foliis 
floribusque duplo minoribus longe distans. 

Arbor glabra^ 10 m. alta. i^oZz^ oblongo-lanceolata, aeuminataj 
snbsessilia, basi cordata, saepe amplexicaulia, 14-23 cm. longa, 
membranacea, Integra, nervis miiltis gracilibns approximatis intra 
marginem anastomantibus infra prominulis, glandulis crebre 
punctata. Flares in cymis paneifloris terminalibus axillari- 
bus vel lateralibus dispositi, 2 cm, diametro. Calyx late urceo- 
latus, 8-9 mm. diametro, dentibus 6 latis brevibus. Petala 
rotundata, 6 mm . diametro . Stamina 5 mm . longa . Stylus 
1-3 cm. longus. Fructiis immaturiis^ globosus, 1 cm, diametro. 

Eastern Himalaya. Abor Hills: Balek and near Kebang; 
700 m. ; flowers in December and January. Abor name Ponkar. 

BurMl 36433, 36633, 37245, 37118. 

955. Begonia aborensis, Dunn TBegoniaceae] ; affinis-^. siUiC- 

tenstj C. B- Clarke, sed habitu robustiore, floribus bis majoribus 

distincta. 

Herha dioica (?), acaulis. RMzoma repens. Folionim petioli 
ad 80 cm. longi, lineis mnltis albis notati, iit nervl primarii, lami- 
narum paglnae inferiores, pedunculi, sepala, capsulaeque molliter 
mbropilosi ; laminae nitentes variegatae, oblique cordato-ovatae, 
acummatae, ad 30 cm. longae, buliatae, obscure sinuatae, denti- 
culatae, supra glaberrimae. Pedunculi ad 20 cm. longi. Flares 
lucide rosei, 4-5 cm. diametro. Flares (f multi, rotundati,^ um- 
bellati ; bracteae oblongo-ovatae, 2-3 cm. longae ; pedicelli 
4-5 cm. longi ; sepala 2, rotundata vel ovata, 2 cm. longa ; petala 



110 



paiilo breviora, angustiora; stamina indefinita, libera, 7 mm. 
loiiga, antheiis 2 mm. longis. Flores 9 1-3- ui ; sepala et petala 
ut in cT ; »tyli 3, '^asi coaliti, 7 mm. longi ; stig-mata ramosa. 
Fructus globosus, 1'8 cm. diametro, 4-lociilaris, fissuris multis 
irregulaiibus verticalibus deliiscens. 

Eastern Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills : frequent on old 
overgrown clearings and extending Just on to the plains as far as 
Lokpur; rarely in the forest, flowering in January; above 
Eotung, 300 m. ; above Babuk, 1200 m. ; between Kebang and the 



36225 




36825 



Mr, Buiklll sent living material of tliis species to tlie Lloyd 
Botanic Garden at Darjeeling^ when the plant was discovered. It 
grew there and produced flowers, specimens of which preserved in 
formalin Avere recently sent by the Curator, Mr. Cave, to Kew. 
These consisted of a large cluster of leaves interspersed with male 
flowering stems in all stages of development. * The species is 
probably dioecious. 

956. Begonia BurkiHi, Dunn [Begoniaceae] ; affinis B. 
Rod'hurgliiij A. DC, sed flores multo majores. 

Herha acaulis, omnino glabra. Rhizoma repens. Foliorum 
petioli 7-12 (-13) cm. longi; laminae maculis nigrescentibus 
saepe notatae, oblique cordato-ovatae vel lanceolatae, acuminatae, 

_ ie,sinuato-dentatae vel saepius integrae. Floruvi(^ 
4r-15 cm. longi, superne ramosi, 3-8 flori ; pedicelii 
graciles, 3-5 cm. longi ; bracteae membranaceae, oblongo- 
caudatae, 1-2 cm. longae; sepala 2, pallide rosea vel alba, obovata 
vel oblanceolata, acuta, 3-4 cm. longa; petala angusta, duplo 
breviora; stamina indefinita, libera, 7 mm. longa, antheris 2 mm, 
longis. Flores <^ solitarii, in scapis gracilibus 4-5 cm. longis; 
sepala et petala ut in (j^ ; styli 2, basi coaliti, 8 mm, longi, ramosi. 
Fructus rhomboideus, utrinque acutus, 2 cm. longus, 1'5 cm. 
diametro, 4-locularis, cornubus duobus parvis in medio ornatus. 

Eastern Himalaya. Abor Hills: frequent on rocks by 
streams in the outer hills; 300—1000 m. Burkill 36121, 36315, 

36910, 37121, 37139, 37375, 37455, 37706. The $ flowers are 

said to appear about three weeks after the rf. 



957. Begonia indescens, Dunn [Begoniaceae]"; affinis B. 
Grifflthn, Hook, f,, sed foliis majoribus, breviusque petiolatis 
distincta. 

Herba monoica, acaulis. Rhizonia breve, erassum. Folia 



ma 



argenteis elongatis inter nervis nofata, oblique late ovata. 



20-^5 cm 



supra sub^labra, subtus viridia, venis venulisque brunneo-tomen- 
tosis; petioli breves, 3-8 cm. longi, brunneo-hirsuti. Flores (f 
et 9 m pedunculis (&-) 6-12 (-43) cm, longis superne copiose 
ramosis ut sepalis fructibusque parce nibro-hirsutis ; bracteae 
raultae, squarrosae, lanceolatae, 5 mm. long:,e; sepala rosea 
r ? cm. longa, ovato-oblonga, obtus^n. superius saepe oucullatum; 
petala breviora, spathulata; stamina numerosa, 3 mm. lonrra. 



Ill 



erecto, libera, antLeris 1"5 mm. longis; styli 2, basi coaliti, 
srqjerne ramosi. Fmctus biloculaiis, ala una lineari, 1 cm. louga, 
a stjlis distaiite et de eis directa, valvis lateraliter dehiscentibus. 
Eastern Himalaya. Abor Hills : very plentiful about 
Eengging- and in the Lalik valley; growing fiat against rocks or 
on the ground in deep shade, 500 — ITOO m. Flowers in January. 

BurUn 36111, 36246, 36247, 36270, 36673, 36831, 37315, 3733G. 

The stamens are said usually to be directed upwards under the 

hooded sepal, 

958, Begonia scintillans, Dunn [Begoniaceae] ; B. Regiy 

Putzeys, affinis, sed repens et foliis superne iiispidis. 

Rerha monoica, acaulis. Rldzoma longum, gracile, ex nodis 
fasciculos radicum fibrosorum et saepe etiam folia 1-3 et pedun- 



culos emittens, ubique ut petioli paleis rubidis vestitum; inter- 



nodiis plerumque 4r-5 cm. longis. FoUorum petioli 5-l'0 cm. 
longi; laminae saepissime maculis parvis albis inter nervis aggre- 
gatis pulcherrime ornatae, oblique rotundato-cordatae, aoumi- 
natae, 6-10 cm. longae, minute dentatae, supra virenies, pilis 
bulbosis crebre vestitae, subtus coccineae, rarius pilosae. Fiores 
in pedunculis 3-12 cm. longis.saepius terni, 2 cf , 1 $ , extus 
sparse pilosi; pedicelli graciles, 2-3 cm. longi; bracteae lanceo- 
latae, acutae, 5 mm. longae. Fiores (f : sepala inaequalia, ovata, 
o1)tusa, ma^'ora 2 cm. longa, corallina ; petxila concoloria, duplo 



minora; stamina libera, numerosa, 3 mm. longa, antheris 1 mm. 



longis. Floruin 9 



d 



stjH 3, basi coaliti, 4 mm. longi, s+i^matis tortuosis. Fructus 
immaturus rliomboideus, utrinqiie obtusus, 1 cm. longus, 6 mm. 

diametro, 3-alatus. 

Eastern Himalaya. Abor Hills: plentiful about tbe moun- 
tain of Bapn, both on the south face and towards Eotung: 1200 — 



2000 m. 



36928 



959. Sadiria Boweri, Dunn [Mjrsinaceae-Myrsincae] ; S. 
Griffithii, Mez affinis, sed glabra petiolisque longioribus. 

Frutcx ramosus, glaber, ramulis gracilibus quasi herbaceis. 
Folia OTata, apice acuminata, basi obtusa, inte^errima vel undu- 
lato-dentata, 10-14 cm. longa, glandulis nibris praecipueprope 
marglnem conspersa, nervis 12-13-paribus subtus prominulis, 
petiolis saepe 1-5-5 cm. longis. Fiores in cjmis_ brevibus 
1-5-2 cm. longis deflexis axillaribus densis aggregati, deorsum 
directi. Sepala 5, basi breviter coalita, triangulaHa, margme 
serrulata, 1-1-5 mm. longa, aperta. Petala 5, Integra, per 
I lun"-itudinis in tubo coalita, lobis cqutortis ovalibus, incarnata. 
Stamina 5, petalis paulo breviora, filamentis brevissimis petalis 
basi affixa. Ovarium globosum, st\-lo graciH petala paulo exce- 
dente; stigma punctif orme ; placenta ovata, uniseriatim 5-ovtilata. 

Fructus ignotus. 

Eastern Himalaya. Abor Hills: summit of Bapu; 2000 m., 

BurMl 36929. ^^ . ^ 

Named at Mr. Burkill's request m honour of Major-benerai Mr 
Hamilton Bower, K.C.B., who planned and carried out the expe- 
dition to the Abor Hills on which these plants were collected. 



112 



960. Aruudineila intricata, Hughes [Gramineae-Ainu- 
dinelleae] ; affinis A. hrasiliensi, Eaddi, sed panicula minore 
niagis contracta, axibiis ad angulos deuse et mauifeste ciliatis, 
glumis latioribus magis aLrupte aciitis, gluma iuf eriore | spiculae 
aeqiiilonga, aristae coliiinna pleruiuque breviore differt. 

Ferennis, dense et intricatim caespitosa. Cuhni erecti ybI 
geniculati, 30-60 cm. alti, stricti, glabri, 4^10-nodi, supra basin 
ramis foliosis erectis. Foliorum vaginae firniae, apertiusculae, 
laeves, striatae, marginibus dense ciliatae, inferiores persistentes; 
ligulae brevissimae, truncatae, interdum in dorso dense fimbri- 
atae; laminae lineares, in acumen longe attenuatae, 0-5-2'2 cm. 
latae, planae vel involutae, rigidulae vel subflesuosae, glabrae tcI 
supra nonnunquam pilis paucis dissitis, in margine scabrae. 
Panicula orata vel oblonga, contracta, 6-5-12-5 cm. longa, 1-2 
cm. lata ; axis primarius acute angulosus atque sulcatus, angulis 
marginatis dense conspicueciue ciliatis ; rami solitarii vel 2- nati, 
maequaliter dispositi, paniculam dimidiam aequantes; pcdicelli 
0-5-2 mm. lon^i, ciliati, apice discoidei. Spiculae liiantes, 
4 mm. longae; giuma inferior ovata, acuminata, interdum setaceo- 
acuminata, 3 mm. longa, distincte 3-5- nervisj superior ovata, 
acuta vel acuminata, apice leviter recurva, 4 mm. longa, 5-nervis. 
Anthoecium injerum q^, raro ovario rudimentario addito; valva 
ovata, acuta vel acuminata, recta vel subrecta, 4 mm. longa, 
5-nervis; valvula ovato-oWonga, acuta, 3 mm. longa, carinis infra 
marginatis supra scaberulis, flexuris tenuissime ciliatis ; antlierae 
1-5 mm. longae. Anthoecium superum $ ; valva oblonga, obsolete 
bifida, 2'5 mm. longa, cbartacea, minutissime scaberula ; valvula 
anguste oblonga, 2 mm. longa, inter carinas scaberula. 

KiiAsiA Hills. Maosmai; 1220 m., Clarice 16588: Maliadeo; 
915 m., Clarle 155622: Am^ve; 1220—1525 m., /. D. Hooler : 
Boga-Panee; 1220—1830 m., /. D. Hooker 2001. 

Aeor CoTJXTEY. Dihang River; bank near Ritung; 30 m., 
Burkill 373. fe ' ' 

A grass wliicli makes tussocks, and in places quite clothes tbe 
bank above tlie river. It mats its tussocks togetber with its roots 
yhicb come out at tlie top of tbe soil as well as run all tliroueli 
it." (Burkill.) .^ 

Tliis was probably included in .4. hradliensis, Eaddi bv 
Hooker in his Flora of British India, p. 73, but he does not quote 
any of the specimens enumerated here. 



(( 



XVI.-MISCELLANEOUS NOTE. 

T ^-^- ^' ?-^^^-"?'' ^'^-S-' I^ecturer on Forest Botany and 
Indian Forest Trees m the University of Edinburgh (Z.5., 1915, 



225), has l>een 



lessor of Botany in the University of Aberdeen in succession to the' 
late Professor J. W. K. Trail P P Q 



Printed 'Pfer the Authority oi Hig Majesty's Statiosbrt Offich, 

Bj Jaa. Triiioott aid Son, Ltd.. tinffolV TaT,= v n. a '^'^'''^"• 



d Son, Ltd., Suffolk Lane, E-0. 4. 



[Grow7i Copyright Eesei'ved^ 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



OJ 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION^ 



J 



No. 4] 



[1920 



XVII.— ON THE SELECTION OF HEVEA 

BRASILIENSIS. 

In tke Kew Bulletin, 1919, p. 317, a review was published of 
the paper by Mr. Stafford Whitby on " Variation in Hevea 
bmsiliensis." The results of the investigations detailed in this 
paper cannot fail to be of considerable value in any attempts 
which may be made to improve the types of Hevea grown by 
means of seed selection. The following account dealing with th& 
selection of Hevea hrasiliensis in the Dutch East Indies has been 
very kindly prepared by Mrs. F. E. Durham from the paper 
written in Dutch by Dr. C. Heusser, the botanist on the staff of 
the Rubber Planters' Association, East Coast of Sumatra at 
Medan, Sumatra, the General Experiment Station of the 
A.V.E.O.S. (Algemeene Yereeniging van Bubberplanters ter 
Oostkust van Sumatra). Dr. J. G. J-. A. Maas, Agricultural 
Assistant at the same station, has also published a paper on the 



H 



(le Rubber- 



cultuTir ' iii. no. 7, a translation of wbich is given in tlie Tropical 
Agriculturist, vol. liv. no. 1, 1920, p. 2. In tliis paper tlie various 
methods of budding, grafting and striking by means of cuttings 

are described in some detail. 

Dr. Heusser's paper is reprinted from tbe ^ Arcbief voor de 
Rubbercultuur,' vol. iii. part 1, of July 1st, 1919, and is issued 
as a Eeport from the General Experiment Station of tbe 

A.V.R.O.S. Rubber Series, no. 21. 

In tbe year 1914 Dr. Cramer drew attention to tlie necessity of 
pplectinff Hevea. and urcred tbat furtber introductions of fresh 



ma 



suggestions on the experience gained in the cultivation of 



Cinchona. 



* Kubber Kecueil. Intemat 
Official Keport, p. 2*3. 



and 



135—47. 1,000. 5/20. J. T. fc S., Ltd. Q. 14. Scll. 12. 



114 

Bauer* in tlie same year explained the scientific principles on 
which the selection of Hevea should be based. He also advocated 
the introduction of fresh types from Brazil, in addition to selec- 
tion from among the Hevea plants cultivated in the East Indies. 
There are thus two points of view under consideration : — 

1. Selection from the trees at present in the East Indies. 

2. Importation of new types from Brazil. 

The first method would mean the improvement of the existing 
plantation Hevea, for a better stock of plants would be raised by 
the selection and cultivation of a healthy and high-yielding strain 
of plants. 

The prospects of selecting a good strain from local trees are 
encouraging. The variation in yield of latex between good and bad 
yielders is very great, and the latter predominate. Erom the statis- 
tics it appears that the greater part of the total yield of a planta- 
tion comes from the good trees which are in a minority. A striking 
example of individual variation in yield is afiorded by one of the 
selected trees, compared with its neighbours. The plantation is 
14 years old. In 1917 the selected tree gave on an average 
85 grammes of latex per day, and in 1918 the yield was 70 
grammes. (Average of 12 monthly observations.) This tree had 
been conspicuous even earlier by its high rate of yield. The 
highest daily yield in those two years was 150 grammes, the lowest 
42 grammes. Other trees of this same plantation yielded on an 
average 8 grammes per day, while many only gave 3-4 grammes, 
though grown under the same conditions as the selected tree and 
apparently equally as well developed. 

The yield of this tree is about ten times as great as that of an 
average tree in a good modern plantation, and it appears to be due 
entirely to some individual peculiarity of the tree. Trees yielding 
^0 grammes jier day may be seen on some ten-year old plantations 

fcf '-n \ ^''''f *^e average daily yield). Thus, as Stafford 
VVlntby showed, there exists among plantation Hevea trees 
good material for selection offering every chance of success. 

Two methods of selection may be adopted : — 

1. Generative Selection. Pure strains of high-yielders maybe 
gradually raised from the mixture of good and bad trees by 



crossing high-yielders during^- many generations. 

2. Vegetative Selection. The good qualities of hio-h-yielders 
may be perpetuated by grafting and by means of cuttfngs. 

Generative 8e!ection.-Seed selection is on the whole the 

better method; but it is essential that both the parents should be 
high la ex-yielders. The crossing of good-yielders can be carried 

til.^^"' ' °'' ^^^^^eries may be formed in isolated locali- 

ties Bauer recommends nurseries composed of trees araf tpd fron. 
good parent trees of both sexes g^^alted trom 

A good method of forminc, seed nurseries is by grafting hio-h- 
yielders on str on^^^ear^old_^tem^^^ 



115 




different higli-yielders sKould be planted as far away as possible 
from otber Heveas. Tke nursery would tben consist of two 
physiological individuals, and natural cross-fertilisation should 
result. A plantation of grafted trees from more than two female 
parents is not to be recommended — it becomes impossible to check 
the origin of the second generation, and the question of selection 
is unduly complicated. 

The seed from these nurseries will furnish a small percentage 
of descendants as good as, or possibly even better than, either 
parent. The best trees raised are then planted out in fresh 
nurseries. In each succeeding generation the quality of the seed 
will improve. 

A plan of the nursery is giv-en by Dr. Heusser, showing the 
trees grafted from the tw^o individuals in unequal numbers; so 
that should self-fertilisation occur, the fewer trees of one indivi- 
dual can be cut out without disadvantage. The plants are spaced 
9 m. by 9 ni. apart. 

Artificial crossing of good-yielders may be carried out in the 
lantation, if an isolated nursery cannot be made, and there is the 
urther advantage that the first nursery generation would thus be 
avoided. In practice, however, it is laborious. In order to reach 
the flowers of the female parent the erection of light scaffolding is 
generally necessary. Before the opening of the female flowers, 
the inflorescences must be enclosed in a gauze balloon. The 
flowei-s ahvays open about 1 o'clock, and those that have not 
opened by 4 p.m. will not expand until the next afternoon. In 
order to shorten the time of the unnatural confinement in the 
balloon, the latter is only applied late in the forenoon and fertili- 
sation is begun at 3 p.m. Jj'emale flowers that open before the 
balloon is applied must be pinched off. Fertilisation is effected 
by breaking off a stamen from the male blossom with a pair of for- 
ceps and applying the pollen to the stigma. Tins operation should 
be repeated once or twice with fresh stamens, to ensure that ripe 
pollen is applied to the stigma. Pollen may be taken from male 
flowers in bud as the anthers dehisce before the flower opens. 
After fertilisation the orifice of the flower is closed with a small 
plug of kapok, to exclude further pollen. The bristles of the 
corolla and a small quantity of escaped latex hold the plug in 
place. The plug is cast off with the corolla when the flower dies, 
and does not hinder the development of the fruit. 

Any remaining flower buds must then be pinched off and the 
twig marked with a zinc label. The fruits must be picked singly 
before bursting to prevent confusion, and to make certain that 
they are the product of one particular tree (see in this connection 

K,B,, 1919, p. 318). 

The main objection to selection by seed is the long waiting 
period before a highly productive strain can be established . 
Before a young Hevea reaches seed-bearing age some 3-5 years 
must elapse, and even then a tree cannot be relied on with any 

certainty. 

A second factor that may handicap the work of seed selection 

IS the manner in which characters are inherited. It appears that 
high latex production is the result of several factors, and that if 

a2 



116 



,bl 



nation of tlie necessary hereditary characters. The relative scarcity 
of high-yielders (1-2 per cent.}, and possibly tlie very gradual 
rang-e from these to non-yielders, lends support to this view. 

When once the stock has become more homogeneous, favour- 
able combinations will be more easily obtained, the isolation of 

any particular character could then be brought about by self- 
fertilisation. 

There is jet a third -difficulty, since Hevea is fertilised by 
insects and appears to be practically self-sterile. Petcli records a 
tree which stood entirely isolated and had never been known to 
bear fruit. A similar case, though not absolutely reliable, is 
known froin the east coast of Sumatra. Cramer reported in J 914 
that artificial self-fertilisation, as described above, applied to over- 
300 flowers of one tree failed completely. The fruit-setting was 
likewise poor (7 per cent.), after artificial fertilisation with pollen 
from other trees. This may be comparable to the facts well-known 
to fruit growers, that some trees, though they flower profusely set 
no fruit, while others are highly fertile. 

In the case of one of these fertile trees, four out of 95 self- 
fertilised flowers set their fruit, whilst of 78 cross-fertilised 
flowers 19 set fruit. Self-fertilisation, therefore, is possible in 
fertile trees as Mr. J. G. J. A. Maas demonstrated in 1917. 
Further trials will, however, be needed to prove that enough seed 
can be obtained by this method for selection on a large scale, and 
also to ascertain whether the descendants remain constant. In 
practice, fertilisation with foreign pollen must be under- 
taken, and nurseries must be so arranged that with favourable 
results one of the two individual trees can be removed. 

Propagation by seed is thus a lengthy process, but it must not 
be neglected, and should, if possible, be undertaken in experi- 
ment stations. . 

r ^^ 

1. Nurseries should be established with trees grafted from two 

female p^nrent trees, and natural cross-fertilisation should be relied 
Upon. 

2. Aitifieial cross-fertilisation (eventually self-fertilisation) of 
good-yielders should be carried out where it 'is not possible to form 
isolated nurseries. 

_ The same rules which apply to the selection of the character of 
high latex production may be followed for any other advantar^eous 
qualities, such as resistance to disease, thickness of bark etc in 
so far as these may be hereditary. • ' ' 

Vegetative selection.-A rapid improvement in the strain of 

Hevea as regards latex yield may be obtained by vegetative 
methods of propagation. '' ^ 

The stock of a high-yiekler may be multiplied by grafting or 
budding on less valuaWe stock. Technically it is ver^ easily ^^-" • 
there are several good methods, especially Eorkert grafting. ^ 

iJtlnlf7 ? '""^^ grafted plants, having a poor-vielder for 
their root-s tock ^mdj^good^ lder for their crowns, must be tested 

^n J^'l^^^^^l^T^^^^^^S^^^'''^' Archives for Rubber cultnre 



117 




by trial tai^pings. The results are said to be excellent where the 
latex is formed iu the stem and crown ; and also to be good where 
the latex is formed all over the tree;* but nil when it is formed in 
the root-stock. The observation that the latex vessels are rela- 
tively more numerous and larger in the tissues of the root than 
in the stem and branches leads to the conclusion that the roots act 
as reservoirs for the latex, and similar conclusions were come to 
by Arisz as the result of his experiments. 

Propagation hy cuttings [Ringhig or Mar cottage). This is the 
safer and more rapid method of obtaining a stock of plants from a 
good-yielding tree. 

Two objections are often raised against propagation 

cuttings : 

1. The difficulty of obtaining good stock for cuttings. 

2, The bad root development which it is alleged is found in 
cuttings, and often results in the loss of the tap root. 

While the difficulty about the roots is inconsiderable, the first 
point is a more serious one. 

This obstacle may be overcome by the establishment of nurseries 
for providing cuttings in which strong year-old trees may be 
grafted with scions from the best yielder in the plantation. A 
ten-year old tree would easily furnish 200-500 grafts. 

The shoots from these grafts, as soon as they have the thickness 
of a finger, are suitable for cuttings. The secondary buds of the 
grafts should be allowed to shoot, so that the tree ma^ become 
shrubby and so furnish a succession of material for cuttings. 

The striking of the cuttings may be done in the native manner 
known as '" Marcottage.^^ A ring of bark 2 cm. wide is removed, 
and the cambium is scraped off from the area so ringed ; the ringed 
portion is then wrapped up after being covered with earth and 

fibre. 

This method is easier to check and simpler to carry out, if a 
small bamboo basket without a bottom is placed round the ringed 
space and filled with clean fine sand and, if necessary, watered 
daily. If the ring is made more than 60 cm. from the ground an 
easily removable basket can readily be devised. 

According to the experience of planters the best place for ring- 
ing a branch is just below a bud, as roots are more readily 

produced at such a spot. 

Dr. Heusser considers the objections about the roots of the 
cuttings to be largely prejudice, and he figures a very well rooted 
eight-weeks' old cutting. The three chief roots produced by this 
cutting could no doubt develop into good tap roots, just as in any 
plant where the primary top root is broken off secondary roots will 
take its place. Tap roots always form where they are needed, and 
where the water-level permits it. On low-lying j^lantations there 
are always more trees without than with tap roots. The signifi- 
cance of the tap root for the plant diminishes with its age, and 
with the strengthening of the side roots. It is true that the 
stability of a tree, especially of a young tree, is greatly decreased 
hy the breaking off of the tap root, hnt in thp case of rubber each 



* See Bobiloff, Arcliives for Rubber Cnltnre, March, 1919. 
t Archives for Eubber Culture, July, 1918. 



118 



tree is of so much value tliat it is advisable to give the young 

trees some support. 

The cuttings should be severed as soon as the first two or three 



ma 



some five or six weeks. After removal of the cuttings the' cut 
surfaces must be covered with tar or paraffin, and the cuttings 
planted out either as bare stumps or with the majority of the 

leaves removed. It has been found that root growth is stimulated 
by watering with dilute lime water. 

Dr. Heusser goes on to say that this method of selection is 
limited by the physiological ''life" of the original tree. For 
the life period cannot be lengthened by grafting or by taking 
cuttings. However young a cutting may be, and however young 
may be the stock on which the graft is made, as soon as the parent 
tree reaches the end of its natural " life/* all its descendants will 
die as well. He adds that we have no certain information as to 
the physiological life of Hevea^ but that it is to be feared it is not 
a very long one.* 

The Choice oi Trees to be used for Selection. — 1. A high and 

constant yield of latex is the chief desideratum in a tree to be used 
for selection purposes. On the figures of the daily yield of latex 
taken for several months, and, if possible, on days when an 
abnoTniully high or low yield is not anticipated (not on rainy 
days), the first selection may be based. Further, the quality of the 
tree is judged by — 

2. State of Health, Trees giving abnormally high yields from 
disease must be neglected, or only eonsidered after recovery. 
Gnarled or twisted trees should not be used. 

3. Good Hereditary Qualities, It must be remembered that 

high latex yield depends not only on good inherited qualities, but 

also on such other factors, as soil, age, size, and the competition 

it may have with neighbouring trees. The yield must be judged 

in relation with that given by the trees growing under the same 
conditions. 

^ The second point in the programme of selection, tlie introduc- 
tion of new types of Revea from Soutli America, may be of great 
importance in the future. We know that our cultivated East 
India Hevea comes from the Tapajoz region on the right bank of 
the lower xVmazon. A better variety of Hevea brasiliensis is said 
to exist near the upper course of the Rio Punis and Rio Madeira .f 
Besides, more than 20 species of Hevea have been described, the 
value of which for cultivation is but imperfectlv known. Hevea 
hrasiliensis is justly regarded as the best of its kind. Our high 
producers, to use Dr. Cramer's expression, are veritable 
"Ledgerianas " (in Quinine culture G. Ledgeriana is the highest 
producer). 

It must, however, be remembered that ther^ mnv bp snemes of 



*V> hether Dr. Heusser's statement has any foundation in fact remains to 
be proved. The only plant in which sometMng of the kind is known to 
occur IS the Bamboo, but many cases are known in which trees o-rafted from 
some particular ' sport ' or seedling variety still exist in a healthy and active 
state of srrowth thouffh ilifi oricnnn ■■ ' • -• - — 




■Ed. 
rubber. See Cramer Pmbber Kecueil, 19U. 



119 



/ 



Hevea as yet untried, anj of wliicli may also liave its *' Ledger- 
ianas." Besides, it is wortk wliile to find out whether other 
advantageous qualities, such as qualities of the rubber, geogra- 
phical adaptability, etc., are present in the sorts which might 
give good results either by themselves or by crossing. 

The est-ablishment of a standard garden, containing every type 
of the genus Hevea, would place inexhaustible material at the 
disposal of the plant breeder, and steps in this direction have been 
taken by Dr. Cramer in the establishment of the selection station 
at Buitenzorg. 



XVIIL— GARDEN NOTES ON NEW OR RARE. 

TREES AND SHRUBS. 

W. J. Bkan, 
Cladrastis Wilsonii, Taheda [Leguminosae.] 

Two of the most interesting trees introduced by Mr. Wilson 
from China are two species of Cladrastis^ viz., C. sinensis Hemsley 
(see Kew Bulletin, 1913, p. 1G4) and C, Wilsonii. Both belong to 
the true Cladrastis — as distinct fi'om Maackia, which by Bentham 
and Hooker was united with it. Previous to the comparatively 
recent discovery of these two species and another Japanese one, 
Cladrastis was only known by a single species found in the Eastern 
United States, the well-known '" Yellow wood,^^ C, tinctoria, 
C. Wilsonii is fairly common in the moist woods of Western 
Hupeh, but rare in Kiangsi. Farther west it is replaced by C. 
sinensis. In cultivation C, Wilsonii is extremely rare, and we 
have but one plant at Kew; this was obtained from the Arnold 
Arboretum in 1910. It is possible that it may be in cultivation 
elsewhere under "Wilson^s number 11Q2. 

(7. Wilsonii is a tree 15 to 50 ft. high, the trunk up to 1^ ft. in 
diameter. Its leaves are deciduous, 9 to 13 in. long, pinnate, 
with nine to fifteen leaflets on each leaf. Leaflets ovate to 
elliptic, 1| to 3 in. long, \ to 1^ in. wide, the terminal one the 
largest- (On the wild specimens collected in China and preserved 
in the Kew Herbarium the leaflets are fewer on each leaf but indi- 
vidually larger, often 4 in. long and 2 to 2| in. wide.) They are 
dark green above, sub-glaucous beneath, and at maturity glabrous 
except on the short stalk. The flowers (not jei seen in. cultiva- 
tion) are white, about 1 in. long and borne on lax, terminal, 
many-flowered panicles 12 to 16 in. long. From C sinensis, this 
species is distinguished hj its densely pubescent ovary, large 
flowers, and broader leaves. Both have the axillary leaf-buds 
hidden and enclosed by the swollen base of the leaf stalk, a char- 
acter which gives a ready distinction between the true Cladrastis 
and ^laachia. 

New Magnolias, 



3iagnoIin conspicua var. pufpura!?cens, Maximoicicz; (M. 



denudata* var. purpurascens, Eehd. et "Wils.) fllagnoliaceae]. 



Amontrst the numerous trees and shrubs introduced to this 



120 



country from China loj Mr, Wilson, there are few which will 
attract plant-lovers more than his new Magnolias. In the size of 
their individual flowers Magnolias surpass all other trees or 
shrubs that we can grow in the open air, and it may be safely 
said of them all, even the least attractive, that they are well worth 
growing. 

For more than a hundred years, the yulan, or lily-tree, M. con- 

spicua, has been one of the most valued of our hardy trees, and a 
new form of it is sure to be greatly welcomed. First named and 
described by Maximowicz in 1872, it was not until about 1900 
that Mr. Wilson obtained seeds of the var, purpurascens. From 
them were raised plants in the Coombe Wood Nursery which are 
now well established in cultivation at Kew and elsewhere. The 
" Wilson-Yeitch '^ number is 688. It is evidently a big tree in 
Western Hupeh, for Mr. jWilson found it as much as 65 ft. high 
with a trunk 6|- ft. in girth. In the shape and leathery texture 
of the adult leaves it is very similar to the ordinary M. con- 
spicua. They are mostly obovate, much the broadest towards the 
apex, where is a conspicuous mticro, and pubescent on and near 
the midrib and chief nerves beneath. The flower is erect, very 
shortly-stalked, and at first clasped at the base with large, very 
hairy bracts- Mr. Wilson says the flowers, as seen by hin? in 
China, vary in colour from tosy red without to rose or pale pink 
within. On April 12th, 1919, I was fortunate to see this Mag- 
nolia in flower in the grounds of Caerhays Castle. There it was 
of a beautiful soft but glowing pink, distinct in shade from any 
other Magnolia I had seen, but approaching M, Camphellii 
probably more than any other. 



Magnolia Dawsoniana, ReMer et Wilson. 

There is very little to be said of this species at present, but as 
two grafted plants under the name have recently been received 
at Kew from Messrs. Chenault of Orleans, who had obtained it 
from the Arnold Arboretum, it may be worth while to put its 
introduction on record. Mr. E. H. Wilson discovered it in 1908 
in Western Szechuen, near Tachien-lu, at altitudes of 6500 ft. to 
7500 ft. There is, therefore, a good prospect of its being hardy in 
this country. It is a tree from 25 to 40 ft. high, glabrous in leaf 
and twig. The leaves are of firm, leathery texture, obovate or 
elliptic, ^ in. to 6 in. long and about half as much wide, shining 
green above, the leafstalk \ to 1^ in. long. The flowers are 
unknown, but the fruit is cylindrical, 4 in. long by l\ in. wide, 
with orange-scarlet coated seeds. 

This Magnolia is rare, and at present Is only known from the 
remote locality where Mr. Wilson collected it in 1908 and ?^^^"^ 
m 1910, He and Mr. Rehder suggest that it is most closely u...^^ 
to M, conspicua {M. cZenWate, De^rousseaux). Another species 
with the qualities of that wonderful tree would be a>reat 
acquisition. ° 



Ma 




Wilson 



Along with the preceding species, Kew is indebted for'this new 



very 



It was 



121 



/ 



discovered by Mr. Wilson in AYesfern Szecliuen at altitudes of 
7500 to over 9000 ft. It ought tlien to be perfectly hardy with 
us- It is a deciduous shrub or tree from 12 to 20 ft. high, the 
slender young shoots at first clothed with brown hairs, becoming 
purplish and glabrous the second year. The leaves are elliptic- 
oblong or slightly obovate, 3 to 5 in. long, 1^ to 2 in. wide, acute 
at the apes, broadly wedge-shaped to rounded at the base, glabrous 
and dull green above, slightly glaucous and at first sparsely hairv 
beneath, except on the midrib, which is deiiselv clothed with 
brown hairs; the petiole is slender and ^ to 1| in. long. The cup- 
shaped flower comes with the young growth and expands in June ; 
it is white, fragrant, 3 to 4 in. wide, the petals obovate, broad or 
even rounded at the apex and 1 in. wide; stamens red. The fruit 
is cylindrical, 2 in. long, seeds scarlet-coated. 

to Mr. Wilson, M^ N icliolsoiiiana is very rare in a 
wild state and is only known to occur in moist thickets and wood- 
lands on and around Wa-shan. It belongs to the same group as 
M. Wilsonii, but differs from that species in its tonger loaf-stalks 
and much less hairy leaves. It is named in honour of the loie 
George Nicholson, Curator of Kew, 1885-1901. 



Mr 



Magnolia Sargentiana, Rehder et T 

Judging by the statements made by 

observations of this tree as seen by him ^ ^ .. ,. 

Szechuen, it must be naturally one of the most magnificent of 
all Magnolias. He met with it frequently 50 to 65 ft. high, and 
one specimen he saw in 1903 near Wa-shan was over 80 ft. high 
with a trunk nearly 10 ft. in girth. Five years later, when he 
made a special journey to photograph this tree, he found, un- 
happily, that it had been cut down. The species annears to be 
most closely allied to the Himalayan M, CampbelUi, whose 
splendid blossoms are fairly well kno^s-n in the milder parts of 
the British Isles. The flowers have not yet been seen, or, at any 
rate, described, by any European, but Mr. Wilson was informed 
by the Chinese that they were rosy red to rosy pink and about 
8 in. across. The leaA^es are deciduous, obovate, tapered towards 
the base, 4 to 7 in. long, 2^ to 4 in. vride, smooth above, densely 
villose beneath. The fruit is apparently very handsome, being 
cylindrical, 4 to 5^ in. long, pink, with scarlet-coated seeds. 

M. Sargentiana was sent to Kew from the Arnold Arboretum in 
1911, at the same time as 3/, Wihoniiy but it does not thrive so 
well. Probably, as its native altitudes are 1000 to 2000 ft. lower 
than those of J/. Wilsonii, it may not be so hardy. It ought to be 
tried in the south-western counties, and is, indeed, succeeding 
very well at Caerhays. We find it can-be propagated by cuttings 
of half-ripened leafy shoots. 

3Iagnolia Wilsonii, Relider. 

In its general appearance, this 3Iagnolia has a consideraMe 
resemblance to M. 'parvifloTay and it promises to be equallv as 
beautiful a shrub in gardens. It was discovered by Mr. Wilson 
in 1904, in Western Szechuen, south-east of Tachien-lu,' at alti- 
tudes of 7000 to 8500 ft., but the plants in cultivation at Kew 



122 



were raised from seeds collected by him in the same region four 
years later. In a wild state it is nsually a shrub up to 10 ft. high, 
but is occasionally seen as a small tree more than twice as high ; 
the young wood is dark brown, clothed at first with pale brown 
hairs. The leaves are lanceolate to narrowly oval, slenderly 
pointed, rounded to broadly wedge-shaped at the base; 3 to 6 in. 
long, 1| to 3 in, wide, dull green and glabrous above, soft and 
velvety beneath, with a dense covering of pale brown, silky hairs; 
petiole I to 1| in. long. The fragrant flower is borne at the end 
of the young leafy shoot and opens in late May and June. The 
petals are pure white and, being incurved, give a flow-er of cupped 
shape. Each flower is about 3 in. in diameter, and is made addi- 
tionally attractive by the ring of bright red stamens in the centre. 
The flower stalk is 1 to 1| in. long, clothed densely with pale 
brown hairs and circled midway by a conspicuous scar left by a 
deciduous bract. Fruit, cylindrical-ovoid, 2 in. long by f in- 
wide. The species is well distinguished from M. parviflora by the 
greater hairiness of the leaves, leafstalks and flowerstalks; the 
leaves, too, of i/. parviflora are broader and less tapered at the 
apex, and the flowerstalk is nearly twice as long as in the present 
species. 

M, Wilsonii flowered for the first time at Kew last June. It 
appears to be perfectly hardy here, but has grown much more 
rapidly and reached the flowering state sooner in Cornwall, Mr. 
P. D. Williams sent a flower to Kew in 1917 from his garden at 
Lanarth in that county, and I believe it had flowered there pre- 
viously. The flower is pendulous, and this character, as Mr. 
Williams has observed, will be very attractive in specimens tall 
enough for the richly-coloured stamens to be seen from below. 



Q 



[Cupuliferae.l 



Altliougli introdnced to Kew as long ago as 1885, this interest- 
ing oak still remains perliaps tlie rarest of the cultivated ever- 
green species. It is a small tree, often a shrub, and is found wild 
on the mountains of Cyprus up to 500 ft., usually as underwood 
in pine forests. It is evergreen, its leaves very stiff and leathery, 
obovate or nearly orbicular, entire or (in young trees especially) 
sharply toothed; un cultivated plants they are usually li to 2 in. 
wide, but on wild specimens up to 3 in. The upper surface is dark 
glossy green, but on the lower one the leaf is covered with a rich, 
tawny golden tomeutum, a character which distinguishes this 
oak from all others in cultivation, and is only rivalled among 
hardy trees by the golden chestnut of Camorma—Castanopsis 
chrysophylU. The golden colour is most beautiful whilst the leaf 
IS young; with age it becomes yellowish-grey. The acorns are 
slender and somewhat truncheon-shaped, 1 to U in. long. 

The beat plant at Kew was, until recentlv, growing in the 
Temperate House, but it is quite hardy, and has been transplanted 
to the open air. It was originally raised at Kew from acorns sent 
by^Sir Eobert Biddulph, High Commissioner for Cyprus from 
1879 to 1886. It is very desirable that the species should be re- 
introduced, and if this should meet the notice of any one in a 
position to obtain acorns, tree-lovers in this countrv would be 



123 



gratified if the opportunity were taken to send some liome, Tlie 
tree is apparently not uncommon in Cyprus, for Kotschy states 
that the acorns were collected by the monks of the Greek monas- 
teries, dried, and used for mixing with the winter fodder of their 
domestic animals. 



Quercus cleistocarpa, Seemeru [Lithocarpus clelstocarpa, 
Rehder and Wilson.) 

In regard to size of individual leaf this is the finest of the oaks 
introduced from China. Acorns were sent home by Mr. E. H. 
Wilson in 1901, when he was collecting for Messrs. Veitch, and 
plants raised at Coombe Wood under his seed number 1204 are 
now in cultiTation at Kew and elsewhere. It is evergreen and 
apparently quite hardy. But how much it appreciates a climate 
milder than the average one of this country is shown b}^ a tree 
crowinsr in Mr. J. C. Williams' woods at Caerhavs, in Cornwall, 
as compared witli plants at Kew. Here it is a shrub, slow-growing 
and with leaves up to 6 iu. long only, whereas in Cornwall the 
tree has a slender erect stem and bears leaves well over 1 ft. 
long by 3 or 4 in. wide. All the leaves are perfectly glabrous, 
cuneate at the base, with an acuminate apex, and are rather grey- 
ish-green in hue. The acorn-cups are | to 1 in. wide, densely clus- 
tered on a stiff spike 2 to 3 in, long, the acorns almost entirely 
enclosed. It may be long before they are produced in this country, 
but as a fine-folia ged tree it is well worth cultivation in the 
milder counties. Wilson found it in Western Hupeh as a tree 
40 to upwards of 50 ft. high. 



Rhododendron hippophaeoides, Balfour fil. et W . W . Smith. 

[Ericaceae.] 

This charming Ehododeudron is one of Mr. Forrest's _ dis- 
coveries. He found it as a shrub 4 to 5 ft. high in open situa- 
tions in Alpine scrub on the mountains of Yunnan, China, at an 
altitude of 12,000 ft. From seeds presented by Mr. J. C. Williams 
in 1915, a good stock has been obtained at Kew. As represented 
by these young plants, the species is of erect, rather slender 
growth, the young branches furnished the whole of their length 
with leaves. The leaves are narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, 
1 to li in. long and i to f in. wide, tapered at the base, rounded 
but with a small mucro at the apex; they are dull, dark green 
above, pale greyish-brown beneath, both surfaces covered with 
scales. The leaf, when crushed, has a slightly acrid odour. The 
flowers are borne, seven or eight together, in terminal clusters. 
The corolla, f to 1 in. wide, with five rounded spreading lobes, 
varies considerably in colour. Mr. Forrest describes the flowers 
as "blue, drying a lavender blue," "pale bluish rose," and 
" deep purplish blue." On one plant at Kew they are pink. The 
calyx is pale green, scaly, distinctly five-lobed ; ovary scaly ; 
style glabrous ; stamens with a ring of pubescence near the base ; 

anthers brownish red. 

The species is thriving well at Kew, and flowers both m autumn 
id in spring. This year, the mild weather of February and early 



and in spring. 
March 



the first 



124 



■m 

♦ 

crop was cauffht by frost. It has produced flowers at Kew during 



m. 



ruary to May 



megalantha, C. H, Wright. [Liliaceoe.] 



cfiLed by Mr. Wright in tlie 



Keio Bulletin, 1895, p. IIS^ from material collected in Szecliuen 
by Pratt, and on Mount Omei by Faber. Mr. E. H. Wilson found 



Hup eh 



From seeds (No. 661) collected by 



March and De , 

him and sent to Kew the following year from the Arnold Arbore- 
tum, plants were raised which haA^e grown very well and are now 
established in the Bamboo Garden. As a foliage plant it promises 
to be the finest of all the hardy smilaxes in cultivation. It is a 
climber growing 10 to 15 ft, high, evergreen^ with leaves varying 
much in size and shape. The largest are as much as 9 in, long 
by 6 in. wide, broadly ovate, acute^ rounded at the base, firm and 
leathery in texture, conspicuously three-nerved, dark green above 
and slightly glaucous beneath. The smaller leaves are narrowly 
oblong to lanceolate, 3^ in. long by 1^ in. wide. According to 
Wilson the flowers are greenish and the fruit coral red. It 
promises to make a valuable addition to our rather scanty ever- 
green climbers, * 



?? 



XIX.— SETARIA OR CHAETOCHLOA? 

0. Staff. 

In the year 1897 F. Lamson Scribner (in U.S. Dept. Agr. 
Div. Agrost. Bull. iv. 38) proposed the name Chaetochloa for the 

3 of grasses generally known as Setaria. The reasons for 
;• so were stated to be that ^^ the name Setaria . . . which 
has been taken up by many botanists for a number of well-known 
weedy grasses with dense, spike-like, bristly panicles, was first 
applied by Beauvois (in Oware and Benin) to a species of 
Peiimsetuyn ", and secondly that '* at an earlier date the name 
was employed by Acharius to designate a genus of lichens. 
When working out the genus Setaria (Gramineae) for the Flora 
of Tropical Africa I had to decide which of the two names should 
be taken up, and for that purpose examine their history. 

It is quite true that the name Setaria was used for the first time 
by Acharius on p. 219 of his Lichenographiae Suecicae Prodromus 
(1798). But he proposed it to designate a '' Teibus " of the genus 
Lichen jLud not a distinct genus. At that date Acharius was still 
of opinion that the time for breaking up the Linnean genus Lichen 
into smaller genera had not yet come, as the organs of fructifica- 
tion on which a system of genera would have to be based were 
still unknown. '^ Sin exstierint hae fructificationis partes, baud 
tamen sufficientem earum habemus notitiam, sine qua, secundum 

rata atque confirniata fundamenta, diversa stotuere genera 



am 



! ma 



take his tribus for genera ('' quivis si placet, et\alidior subest 



125 

ratio, totidem fiuget genera"), but lie himself saw no reasoii (p. 
viii.J wliy he should not follow liis revered teacher (Linnaeus) in 
admitting only one genus, i.e., Liciien (" Me certe liuc usque nee 
propria mdagatio, nee aliorum demonstrationes impulere, quin 
devenerandi olim l^raeceptoris mei sententiam^ aost^ue omni 
partium studio, velut rectissimam sequar.") I have 
quoted thos*i passages because the fact that he actually makes 
binominal quotations combining the name of the " tribus " and 
the specific epithet and quotes the latter in the index under the 
" tribus " is ap't to create the impression that he meant his 
" tribus " to be after all " genera." Possibly he wished to pre- 
pare for the not improbable eventuality of the recognition of 
Jjichen genera, and in that case to have the necessary specific 
names ready. Pending that recognition he adhered to the 
Linnean system, not only enumerating and diagnosing the older 
species, but also describing his own new species of " Lichen." 
The combinations mentioned occur in each case after the 
diagnosis, heading the synonymy and in the case of Swedish 
species in the same line with the Swedish name, these names 
being his own invention (Nomina . . . suecana . . . passim a 
me ficta, p. vi.) and mere translations of the specific name, e.g. 
Lichen deustus . . . UmhiUcaria deiista. Svet. Svedlaf (sveda 



deurere; laf = lichen). 



It was, however, not long before Acharius admitted Genera in 
lichens. Five years later in his Methodus. (p. v.) he confesses 
" Quod autem in specie ad Lichenum distributionem in^plura 
Genera attinet, credo nemineni vel tantillum in eorum historia 



am 



I 



esse " and " Sic etiam Lichenes, me quidem judice, potius Fami- 
liam vel Ordinem Cryptogamiae Classis quam Genus solum con- 
stituere sat firmis argumentis probari potest." In this Methodus 
Setaria does not occur at all. Two of the three species of the 
"Tribus" Setaria, Lichen juhatus and L. chalyhaeiformis, 
appear under Parmelia, whilst the third, a doubtful lichen 
(Lichen hippotrichodes , Ach. Prodr. 220) is omitted. Nor is the 
name Setaria revived in Acharius' great Lichenographia Univer- 
salis, both "Setarias" being merged there -'n the new genus 
Alectoria with references to the Prodromus, but without the 

Setaria-binominals of that work. . ■, • 

There is, therefore, no reason to attribute to Acharius the 
authorship of a lichen genus Setaria; but if that is so, can Beau- 
vois' Setaria as the name of a genus of grasses be rejected on the 
ground adduced by Seribner? The species described and hgyed 
by Beauvois in hisFlore d'Oware et de Benin, ii. 80, tab. 110, f . 2, 
as Setaria longiseta, which is supposed by Seribner to be the tvpe 
of his genus Setaria, is clearly a Setaria in the sense m which 
that genus is generally accepted. It belongs to a group char- 
acterfsed by typically solitary spikelets arranged in loose panicles, 
each of them\suppor!ed by a single persistent bristle, more or less 
turgid with the fertile floret rather broad-backed and dorsaily 
much cur^-ed and br rather narrow leaf blades, not folded between 
the primory nervA as is \hB case in the section PtychophyUum. 
It is clear! V not a Pennisetum. I am proposing to name the 



126 



group '' Panicatrix'' in allusion to tlie habit of tlie panicle 
whicli is that of a typical Panicum. But whilst Setaria longiseta 
is no doubt a Setaria, it is not the '' type '' of Setaria. Beauvois 
kimself (I.e.) in the heading over the description of the genus 
quotes ''Setaria Ess. d'Agrost/' If we turn to his Essai d'une 
nouvelle Agrostographie, we find (1) on p. 51 the description of 
the genus '* Setaria nob./' and a list of species to be transferred 
from Panicum to Setaria^ then (2) on p. 178 (index) an enumera- 
tion of the new names under Setaria; (3) on p. 9 of the '' Explica- 
tion '' the explanation of the figure of Setaria viridis which is 
intended to illustrate the genus; and lastly (4) on tab. 13 under 
fig, 3 a good picture of a spike of Setaria viridis with equally 
excellent analyses. Several of the combinations on p. 178 are 
queried; of those without a sign of interrogation all but two are 
recognised members of the Eu-Setaria group, namely germanica, 
glauca^ italica^ setosa^ verticillata and viridis^ the latter of which 
was, as already stated, chosen by Beauvois to illustrate the genus. 
The two doubtful species are S. purpurea and S. sericea, both 
taken over from Panicum, Of these S, purpurea is probably a 
true Setaria^ whilst *S. sericea is evidently Pennisetum setosum. 

However that may be, there can be no doubt whatever that 
Beauvois meant his Setaria to include the species of the type of 
Setaria viridis, and this will have to be considered as the founda- 
tion of the genus, Scribner's mistake in taking Beauvois' Setaria 
longiseta, the only species mentioned in his Flore d'Oware et de 
Benin, as the ^* type '^ of the genus arose probably fi^om the mis- 
leading date on the title-page of the second volume of that work. 
This is given as 1807, that of the Essai d'une nouvelle Agrosto- 
graphie being 1812. The Flore d'Oware et de Benin was actually 
published in parts, those of volume ii. being spread over fourteen 



years (1808-1821). The dates of part 11 (pages 1-12, tt, 61-66), 



with which vol. ii, starts is 1808, of 12 and 13 (pages 13-32, tt. 67- 

78) 1810 (see Hallier in Jahrb. .Hamburg. Wissensch. Anst. 
xvii. 67), whilst it appears from a notice in Flora v. part i. (1882) 
Beibl. i. p. 4, that only seventeen parts had been published by 
1818.^ According to Hiern (in Journ. Bot. 1898, p. 495) part 17 
contained tt. 97-112. The date of the publication of S. longiseta 
is therefore six years later than that of the Essai d'une nouvelle 
Agrostograpliie- 

So far, then, Scribner's objections to the use of Setaria for the 
grass genus of that name cannot be sustained. Unfortujiately, 
however, the confusion does not eud here. In 1803 Frangois 
Andre Michaux in his Flora Boreall-Amerlcana, ii. 320-332, pub- 
lished an account of the Lichens collected by his father Andre 
Michaux; This account (i. p. ix.) followed the arrangement and 
nomenclature of the "recent" publication of Acharius (Lichenum 
ordinem et denomiiiationem suppeditavit recentior Acharius) by 
which Acharius' Lichenographiae Suecicae Prodromus (1798) 'was 
meant, and not his Methodus (1803). ^\liether the latter appeared 
before or after the publication of Michaux's Flora I do not know, 
but it is clear from internal evidence that it had no influence on 
It. In the section dealing with the lichens Michaux follows the 



127 



a 



plan adopted tlirougliout the work of introdnchig each, genus with 
a headline, giving the name and author and a diagnosis, after 
which follow the diagnoses and paragraphs with observations and 
a statement of the habitat. In the case of the lichens the diagnoses 
under the headlines are verbatim copies of the corresponding diag- 
noses of Acharius' ^' tribus/^ and the names in the headlines are 
those used to designate the 'Hribus," with the addition of '^ Ach." 
That Michaux actually intended to give Acharius' " tribus ^' the 
status of genera may be inferred not only from the typographical 
exposition which is in accordance with that adopted in the re- 
mainder of the work^ but also from the fact that he forms his 
specific ■ names by combining the specific epithet with the 

tribus^' name of Acharius, and not with the Linnean genus 
" lichen '' as Acharius did. Now, among the *^ genera '^ recorded 
there, we find on p. 323 Setar'ia and as sole representative of it 
S. tricJiodes, both of which have to be credited to Michaux. What 
this Setaria tricJiodes . which the elder Michaux collected in 
Canada was, is uncertain. Acharius, referring to it in a note in 
his Lichenographia, p. 594, says '^ utrum huius generis (i.e., 
Alectoriae) species sit an Alectoriae jubatae tantiim varietas, 
dicere non audeo,'' and Krempelhuber (Geschichte u. Literatur d. 
Lichenologie, ii, 551) omits it altogether from the list of new 
species described by Michaux in his Flora Boreali- Americana ; 
nor is it included in part vii. of Macoun's Catalogue of Canadian 
Plants which deals with the Hepatics and Lichens, In fact, the 
only reference to it seems to be in Tuckerman's Synopsis of the 
North American Lichens, part i. 44, where it is quoted as a 
synonym of Alectoria jubata var. implexa; but Tuckerman has 
evidently not seen it, as he quotes only Hall's (Rocky Mountains) 
and Richardson^s (Arctic America) collections, nor do Nylander 
or Fries, whom he cites for Alectoria and the variety tmplewa 
respectively, refer to it. Thus Setaria, Michaux, is reduced to a 
diagnosis taken over purely mechanically from Acharius, and an 
insufficient species description which is, as far as we know, not 
supported by any actual material in existence, and may cover or 
not cover a plant answering to Acharius' '" tribus '^ Setaria. To 
supersede the well-established name Alectoria on such slender and 
purely formal grounds will not serve any useful purpose, nor 
would it be in accord with the spirit or even the wording of the 
general rules governing botanical nomenclature. But if Setaria, 
Michaux, cannot stand for Alectoria nor as an independent genus, 
then the way is free for the admission of Setaria, Beauv., the 
grass genus. 

I should not have considered it worth while to deal with a mere 
question of nomenclature in so detailed a way if Scribner's pro- 
posal did not concern a genus with verv numerous species and 
entail consequently a great and very inconvenient change of 
names without consolidating or advancing our knowledge in any 

wav. 



128 



XX.— NEW ORCHIDS: DECADE XLVII. 

w 

431. Eulophia Huttonii, Rolfe; in Dyer FL Cap. vol. v. 
sect. iii. p. 52, anglice; affinis E. foliosae^ Bolus, labelli lobo 
intermedio liaud coucavo'et carinis ad apicem verrucosis differt. 

i?/ii2;oma validuni, nodis incrassatis. Folia 2r-'Sj erecta, elongato- 
linearia, acuta vel acuminata ^ crebre venosa, 15—30 cm. longa, 
Racerai densiflori, 2*5— 7*5 cm, longi. Bracteae lanceolatae, 
acuminatae, 0"6-l'2 cm. longae. PedicelU circiter 1-2 cm.' longi. 
Flares mediocres, brunnei vel rufi. Sepala elliptico-lanceolata vel 
oblongo-lanceolata, acuta vel subacuta, circiter 1'2 cm. longa. 

Petala elliptico-oblonga, subobtusa, sepalis paullo latiora. 
Labelluvi circiter 1*2 cm. longum, subaequaliter trilobum; lobi 
laterales subdivergentes, late oblongi, rotundati; lobus inter- 
medins late oblongus vel suborbicularis, medio ad apicem 3—5 
carina tus, carinis cristatis basi tenuioribus; calcar obsoletum. 
Columna clavata, circiter 6 mm. longa. 

South Africa. Stoctenstrom Div. ; Katberg, Huttoiiy and in 

numerous other localities in tbe Coast, Kalahari and Eastern 
Regions. 

The species has been confused with E, acideata, Spreng,, and 
E, foUosaj Bolus. 



432. Eulophia Boltonii, Haxv. et Rolfe; in Djer FL Cap. 
vol. V. sec. iii. p. 53, anglice; affinis E. joliosae, Bolus, labello 
multo breviore et obscure trilobo diffei-l. 

Rhizoma validum, nodis incrassatis. Folia 2-3, erecta, 
elongato-linearia, acuta, crebre venosa, 10-30 cm. longa, vaginis 
lanceolatis. Scapi^ laterales, erecti, 15-30 cm. alti, vaginis 
numerosis lanceolatis subimbricatis obtecti; racemi ovoidei vel 
oblongi, 2*5-5 cm. longi, densiflori. Bracteae lineari-lanceolatae, 
acuminatae, 0'8-l-2 cm. longae. PedicelU 8 mm. longi. Flores 
mediocres, virides, labello purpureo. Sepala ovato-lanceolata, 
acuminata, circiter 1*3 cm. longa, laterales paullo majores. 
Petala elliptico-lanceolata, acuta, sepalis multo breviora. 
Labellum late ovato-orbiculare, subtrilobum, 8 mm. loiigum; 
lobi laterales breves, late rotundati; lobus intermedins late ovatus^ 
apiculatus, brevis; discus 3-5-carinatus, carinis tenuibus laevibus; 
calcar obsoletum. Columns clsLVhta, 2 mm. longa, basi pede 
distincto instructa. ^ 

South Africa. Albany Div.: Featherstone Kloof; near 
trrahamstown, m grassy spots on the flat summit of the hills 

, MacOwan 681, Stockenstrom Div.; Katberg, 600 m.', 

species has been more or less confused with E. foliosa. 



H 



Bolus. 



433 Llssochilus JRehmannii, Rolfe; in Dyer FL Cap. vol. 



/ 



1 , IT , ^ f "TO '^- ^•^'^^'^^■'-t'jtiru, xteicno. I., simiiis, seci 

la belli calcare longiore et subcurvato differt 

Rj'^zo'ma et folia non visa. Sca^i erecti, subgraciles, circiter 
30 cm. alti, basi vagmis lasis obtecti: racemi laxi, circiter 



129 



10 cm. longi, multiflori. Bracteae oblongo-lanceolatue, acumiua- 
tae, 4-8 mm. longae. Pedicelli graciles, 1'2-1'4 cm, longi. 
Flares parvi. Sepala elliptico-oblonga, at^iita vel apiculata, 
0'8-l*2 cm. longa. Petala ovata vel orbiculari-ovata, subobtusa 
vel subaciculataj sepalis diij)lo latiora. LabeUum trilobum, 
petalis sublongius; lobi laterales breves, lati, truncati; lobus 
intermedins reflexus, obovatus, *truncatus, subundulatus, 6 mm. 
latus; discus basi ad medium carinis 7 approximatis elevatis et 
verrucosis instructus ; calcar obloiigum vel liiieari-oblongum, 
4 mm. longum, Cohunna late clavata, 4 mm. longa. 

South Africa, Transvaal; hills above Aapies Hivei'j Eeh- 
mann 4297; bills near Pretoria, McLea in Herb. Bolus 5819a; 
kopje at Pretoria, Miss E. Tennant 4040; Koodoos Poort, near 
Pretoria, Reck 1004. 



434. Lissochilus transvaalensis, Rulfe; in Dyer il. Cap. 

vol. V. sect. iii. p. 57, anglice; L. aequali, LindL, similis, sed 
labello petalis longiore et obscure trilubo dift'ert. 

Folia 3, elongato-linearia, acuminata, prominenter trinervia, 
20-30 cm. longa, basi conduplicata, vaginis spatbaceis imbricatis 
obtecta. Scapi laterales, erecti, basi nun visa, vaginis spatbaceis 
obtecti ; racemi laxi, 10-15 cm. longi, niullifiori. Bracteae 
ovatae vel ovato-lanceolatae, acuminatae, 2 cm. longae. Pedicelli 
graciles, 1'2— 1-6 cm. longi. Flares mediocres, Sepala subcon- 
niventia, late oblonga, apiculata, 1'4^1'6 cm. longa. Petala 
elliptico-obovata, abrupte acuminata, sepalis paullo breviora. 
Lahellum obscure trilobum, 2 cm. longum; lobi laterales breves, 
apice rotundi ; lobus intermedins ovato-oblon^us, undulatus ; 
discus medio fere ad apicem lamellis elevatis tenuibus crenulatis 
infra apicem tuberculatis ornatus; calcar late conicum, obtusum, 
4 mm. longum. Cohimna clavata, 1 cm. longa. 

South Afhica. Knlabari Region : Transvaal; Izaneen, 
Zoutspanberg, 830 m., Burtt-Davij 2900. 



435. 



?/ 



sect. iii. p. 65, anglice: jP. transvaalensi, Schlecbter, similis, sed 

labello et petalis longiore et obscure trilobo differt. 

Caules ^gg^e^gi^ti, erecti, cylindrici, 7—15 cm. longi, apice 
dipbylli, basi vaginis angustis obtecti. Folia oblonga, obtusa, 
coriacea, 5-7'5 cm. longa, 1-2-2 cm. lata, Scapi erecti, 5-7'5 
cm. longi, 3-5-flori, vaginis angustis obtecti. Bracteae 
triangulares, acuminatae, concavae, 3—4 mm. longae. Pedi- 
celli 6 mm. longi. Flares mediocres, olivacei vel brunneo- 
purpurei. Sepalum posticum ovato-oblongum, subobtusum, 6—8 
mm. longum; sepala lateralia late triangularia, subobtusa, 1*2 
cm. longa. PeiaZa anguste subspatbulata, apiculata, 6 mm. longa. 
Lahelhim spatliulatum, 8 mm. longum, late unguiculatum ; 
limbus late ovatus, subobtusus, subundulatus, 6 mm. longus; 
discus callo erecto quadra to ornatus. Cohimna lata, brevis, pede 
6 mm. longo. Capsiilae ellipsoideo-oblongae, anguIaTae, 2-5 cm, 
longae. 

South Africa. Eastern Region : N"atal: Eicbmond, 76^0 m*, 

Sanderson 823. 

B 



130 



436- Phalaenopsis (§Stauroglottis) latisepala, Eolfe: a P. 



denticidata^ Eeiclib. f ., sepalia et petalis latioribus et inagis 
ellipticis differt. 

Folia 3-4, late elliptica, oLtusa vel obscure biloba^ recurva, 



cm 



Scapus nanus, suberectus, circiter 
7 cm. lon^us, subteres, 5-6-florus. Bracteae patentes, ovatae, 
obtusae, coucavae, 3 mm. longae. Fedicelli r2-l-5 cm. longi. 
Flores mediocres. Sepalum posticum late ellipticum vel 
suborbiculari-ellipticum, obtusum, 1 cm. longum, 7-8 mm. latum; 
sepala lateralia suborbiculari-oTata, obtusa, 1'2 cm. longa, 1 cm. 
lata. Petala late elliptica, obtusa, 1 cm. longa, 7^ mm. lata. 
LabeUum 3-lobum; lobus intermedins angnste obovato-oblongus, 
obtusus, trigonus, 1-8 cm. longus, subcarinatus, prope apicem 
bispidus; lobi laterales lineari-oblongi, trigoni, apice bidenticu- 
lati, 5 mm. longi ; ^ discus medius appendiculo bicuspidato 
instructus, infra medium appendiculo lineari-oblongo incurvo 



mm 



u:nknown 



Columna clavata, 2 mm. longa. 



M. Roger Liouville, of Ma 



Ille^t-\ illume, France, in April, 1914, when it was sent for 
determmation tlirough Sir Frederick W. Moore, of tlie Eoyal 
Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, Tbe sepals and petals are greenisli- 



own 



purple apex. Tlie floTvers are said to be violet-scented. 



437. 



. ,„Stauroglottis) Micholitzii, Rolfe; P. 

tetraspidt, Eeichb. i., similis, sed scapis brevioribus et labelli lobo 
mtermedio longe birsuto difiert. 

Folia sessilia, obojato-elliptica, obtusa, circiter IS cm. longa, 
6-7 cm. lata, coriacea, basi cuneata. Scapus suberectus, 
llexuosus, pauciflorus (basi non visa). Bracteae ovato-oblongae, 
obtusae,^ cucullatae, 5 mm. longae. PedicelU circiter 2 cm. longi. 
I^ lores circiter 4 cm. lati. Sepalum posticum late ellipticum, sub- 
obtusum, circiter 2-3 cm. longum, 1 cm. latum; sepala lateralia 
OTato-elliptica, subacuta, 2-3 cm. longa, V2 cm. lata. Petala 
late elliptica, obtusa, 2 cm. longa, I'l cm. lata. Lahellum tri- 
lobum; lobus intermedins anguste obovato-oblongus, carnosus, 
i 1 T" ^°fg^^.' ^^si carinatus, apice longe birsutus ; lobi laterales 
tacato-oblongi,_ oblique acuti, 5 mm. longi; discus bicallosus, 
caJlo utroque bicuspidato. Columna clavata, 7 mm. Ibnga. 

Malaya. Without precise locality, W. Micholitz. 



W 



M 



cream 



Albans m the following year. The flowers are ..ca^-wxx.tt,' .u 
colour, and somewhat resemble those of P. tetraspis, Reichb f., 
but they have far longer and less numerous hairs on the lip. 

438 Angraecum (§Tridactylites) Hislopii, Rolje; A. tri- 

Fruticosus Cauks erectus, validus, 10 cm. altns vel major. 
Folta patentia, subteretia, obtusa, 5-7 cm. longa, circiter 3 mm. 



131 



longa 



Racenni axillares, circiter 2 cm. longi, liexuosi, 2-3-flori. 
5rac«eae patentes, ovatae, truncatae, amplexicaules,2mm. longae. 
jy^j.^^n. A __.. \oj^gi^ Sepalum posticum elliptico-oLlongum, 



cm 



obtusnm, 4 mm 

longa. Petala oblonga, subobtusa, 4 mm. longa. Labellum 
oblongum, supra medium tricuspidatum, 4 mm. longum; lobus 
intermedins obtusus, lobi laterales subacuti: nalcar snbfnsifnnnp.. 
O'9-l cm. longum. 



mm. long 



Tropical x\feica. S. Rhodesia, A. Hislop 



triden 



parts 



Natal, but larger in all its 



439. ^ Angraecum Bolusii, Rolfe; in Dyer PL Cap. vol, v. 

sect. iii. p. 73, anglice; ab A. tridentato, Harv,, sepalis ovato- 
lanceolatis et labelli angiitis subulatis differt. 

Caules subgraciles, subflexuosi, 7-12 cm. longi. Folia sparsa, 
semicjlindrica, gracilia, depressa, su^ra angnste canaliculata, 
curvata, 6-10 cm. .longa, vaginis striatis. Flares fascicnlati, 
pauci, breviter pedicellati, parvi, pallide flavi. Se^ala lateralia 
patentia, ovato-lanceolata, acuta, 3 mm. longa, basi subcordata, 
apice reflesa ; sepalum posticum ovatum, acutum, 3 mm. longum, 
recurvum. Petala triangulari-lanceolata, acuta, recurva, sepalis 
paullo minoribus. Labelluvi patens, oblongo-lanceolatum, 
circiter 3 mm. longum, apice trilobum, basi lobis oblongis patenti- 
bus instructum; calcar cylindricum, pendulum, 6 
Cohivina lata, brevis ; rostellum late ovatum, acuminatum ; 
pollinia spbaerica; stipes cuneato-rhomboideus; glandula ovato- 
elliptica. A. tridentatum, Bolus^ Ic. Orcli. Austr.-Afr. vol, i. t. 
53 (non Harv.). 

South Africa. Eastern Region: Zululand; near Esbowe, 
Maxwell in Herb. Bolus 6319. 

A more slender plant tban A. tridentatum , Harv., witli mueli 
broader sepals and a difierentlj-shaped lip. 



mm 



440, Brownleea Fanniniae, Rolfe; affinis B. Galpinii^ Bolus, 
floribus duplo majoribus et labello latiore differt. 

Herba terrestris (basi non visa). Caulis subgracilis. Folia 
caulina, sessilia, suberecta, lanceolato-linearia, acuminata, 6-9 
cm. longa, 5-8 mm, lata. Spicae ovoideae, 2'5-4'5 cm. longae, 
densiflorae. Bracteae ovato-lanceolatae, acutae, 1-1'5 cm. longae. 
Pedicelli O'8-l cm. longi. Floras pallidi, petalis sparse pnrpureo- 
maculatis. Sepalum posticum cum petalis in galeam connivens, 
8-9 mm. longum et latum, limbo late subpandurato subundu- 
lato calcare 6 ram. longo basi conieo deinde subgracili; sepala 
lateralia elliptico-oblonga, subobtusa, 8 mm, longa. Petala cum 
sepalo postico connata. Labelluvi parvum, latum, columnae 
appressum. Columna lata, 2 mm, longa; rostelli lobi cuneato- 
oblongi, tridenticulati, 2 mm. longi. 

SoiTTH Africa. Natal; Dargle Earm, Mrs. Fannin 98. 

Described from a specimen in the Trinity College Herbarium, 

B 2 



133 

Dublin, B. Galpinii, Bolus, Ic. Orcli. Austr. Mr. i, t. 42, fig. 
9-11, from tlie soutliern slopes ol Mount Currie, Griqualand East, 
at 1830 m., Tyson 1074, must be very nearly allied, but I have 
not seen a specimen. 



XXL-DECADES KEWENSES 

Plantaeum Rovarum in Herbaeio Hoeti Regii Conseevataetjm 

DECAS XCVII. 
961. Rubus (§Itfaeobatus) chambica, Rolfe [Rosaceae- 

Eubeae] ; a li. concolore, Wall, floribus minoribus saepe in race- 
mes laxos dispositis differt. 

Frutex, rami subteretes, glabriusculi, sparse aculeolati, 
1-1 '75 m. longi. Folia teruata vel rarius pinnate 5-foliolata, con- 
coloria, 15-2U cm. longa; stipulae lineari-lanceolatae, acumina- 
tissimae, 1-1-5 cm. longae; foliolus terminalis petiolatus, late 
elhpticus vel ovato-ellipticus, acutus vel breviter acuminaTus, 
crenulatus, interdnm irregulariter lobatus, 8-11 cm. longus, 
5-7 cm. latus; foliola lateralia subsessilia, oblique ovata, acuta, 
crenulata, 5-8 cm. lata; petioli puberuli, sparse aculeolati, 
7-9 cm. longi. Racemi terniinales et axillares, pauciflori vel 
laxiflori, pubescentes, parce aculeolati, 3-5 cm. longi. Pedicelli 
pubescentes, parce aculeolati, 1-1-5 cm. longi. Calyx 5-partitus; 
segmenta patentia, ovata, acuminatissima, pubescentia, circiter 
1-5 cm. longa. Petala obcordato-orbicularia, 07 cm. longa, alba. 
Stamina numerosa, glabra, 3 mm. longa. Carpella numerosis- 
sima, sparse hirsuta, 1 mm. longa; styli glabri, 3 mm. longi. 

Iiodia. Chamba State : Pangi ; Kagal Reserve, 2250 m.*! R.N. 
rarker. 

Said to be a shrub of moist undergrowth, with branches 3- 
6 ft. long, mostly but not always dying to the ground in winter. 



Wall 



Wall 



IS included imder the aggregate species R. niveus, Wall. 

9G_2. Brassaiopsis magnifica, Duan [Araliaceae-Schefflereael 
affinis B. aculeatae, Seem, in caule aculeato et racemis nutantibus 
sed tomento foliisque peltatis differt. ' 

Arbor 3 m. alta. CauUs brunneus aclculis deciduis spinisque 
conicis persistentibus dense tectus. Folia 6-7, coronam grandem 
super vertice formantia, peltata, 5-loba, 80 cm. longa et lata, lobis 
ovahs acutis caudatis ad 25 cm. longis, sinubu.? acutis, supra 
glabra infra praecipue m nervis ut inflorescentia aurJntiaco- 
tomentosa, margme ubique deflexo cartilagineo serrato ; . Qervi 
circum umbonem 22 cm. intra basin dispositum 12 stellatim 
radiantes, validi; petioli 50 cm. longi, glJbri. FhtVuh^- 
tra tantum visa) m peduncuhs racemosis 7-9 cm. longis 2-5 cm. 
umbellatim aggregati, rachi communi 30-50 cm. long^ sub foS 
Butante; pedicelli 1-5 cm longi basi bracteis 2 mm. longis 
interne glabris suffulti. Sepala et peMa 5, valvata rian^u- 
lana. Stamina 5. _ Ovarium 2 (-3) -loculare 3 rsV^^v. T^f ". 



133 



Fructus maturus ovoideus glater, 7 mm. lougns, stylo 2-3 mm. 
longo, stigmate capitato. Semina in quoque loculo singularia 
albumine ruminato. 

r 

Easterjs" Himalaya. Abor Hills : Janakmukli and' frequent 
elsewhere in high forest, 250-1000 m. Plowers in December and 
January. Burkill 37130. 



963. 



tifl 



[Rubiaceae-Hedyotideae] 



distinctQ. 

Herha perennis, basi lignosa^ lase ramosa, procumbens, praeter 
inflorescentiam glabra, 30-40 cm, alta. Folia lanceolata, sensim 
acuminata^ basi acuta, 10-15 cm. longa, papyracea, petiolis; 
3—4 mm. longis, nervis intra marginem arcuatis 6-8-paribus. 
Flores in cymas puberulas terminales aggregati, aibi apice rubri, 
sursum inclinati; pedicelli 3 mm. longi ; bracteolae minutae. 
Calyx cum ovario 2-5 mm, longus, dentibus 1 mm. longis 
distantibus linearibus. Corolla tubulosa, extus glabra, tubo 
8 mm. longo intra infra faucem annulo hirsuto ornato in 
forma longi styla basi paulo incrassato, dentibus 4-5 cm. longis 
revolutis. Stamina basi coroUae affixa; antherae in annulum 
versus basin, tubi coUectae. vel ultra faucem esserta. Stylus in 
forma breristyla in tubo inclusus, in forma longistyla ultra 
faucem exsertus. Fructus ignotus. 

Eastern Himalaya. Abor Hills : in the Lalik and Igar val- 
leys; south face of Bapu; Eengging and Eotung, 800-1100 m., 
always in deep shade, flowering in February and March. BurliU 

36116, 36616, 37334, 38158, 38171. Heterostylism occurs in other 
species of this genus. The ring of hairs assists the device and 
would not be expected to vary in the same species as does the 
length of stamens and style. 

■• r 

964. Psychotria aborensis, Dunn [Hubiaceae-Psychotrieae] 
P. calocarpae, Kurz affinis, sed foliis late ovati subtus in venis 

tomentosis distincta. 

Frutex 2 m. altus. Caules albi, cavi, fragiles. Folia late 
ovata, apice basique breviter acuminata, 20-24 cm. longa, char- 
tacea, supra glabra, subtus praecipue in nervis ut petioli stipulae 
pedunculi pedicelli calycesque breviter tomentosa, nervis 10-12- 
paribus in nervum intramarginalem pulchre anastomosantibus; 
petioli 3-5 cm. longi; stipulae spathulatae, caudatae, l-5-2'0 cm. 
longae. Paniculi fructiferi terminates, subsessiles, 5-7 em. longi. 
Pedicelli 1-2 mm. longi. Calycis dentes 1-2 mm. longi, lineares. 
Bacca ovoidea, 1 cm. longa, 7 mm. diametro; cocci dorso uni- 
costati, latere ventrali concavi. 

Eastern- Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills: Eotung; on the hill 
side over the Dihong in dense shade, 450 m. Fruits in December 
and Januarv. Bnrhll 37601. 

\X\^^ 965. Agapetes marginata, Dunn [Vacciniaceae-ThibaudieaeJ 
A, grandi florae, Hook. f. affinis, sed calyce ovarioque setosis et 

foliis obovatis distincta. 

Frutex epiphyticus. Radix tuberosa, fusiformis, 30 cm. longa. 



134 



J 8 cm, diametro. Folia obovata, breviter acumtQata, versus 
basin attenuata^ tandem rotundataj subsessilia, 20-24 cm. longa, 
8-11 cm. lata, coriace^i, glabra; nervi marginem appropinquantes 
20-22"pares, nervo valido intramarginali conjnncti, omnibus cum 
reticulo ixsiccitate praecipue subtus prominentibus. Flores in 
racemis abbreviatis ex nodis ramorum vetustiorum ortis; rachis 
2 cm. longa, bracteis parvis triangularibus; pedicelli 2"5-3 cm, 
longi ut ovaria calycesque setis glandulosis dense tecti, apice 
articulati, Calycis dentes 5^ ex tube brevissimo lineares, 1 cm. 
longi. Corolla tubulosa, medio paulo inflata, 4 cm, longa, extus 
in venis praecipue versuis apicem setulosa, dentibus 5 obtusis 
6 mm. longis. Stainina 10, corollae basi affixa^ apice paulo 

exserta, antheris granulatis subsessilibns 3 mm. longis, apice 
longissime bitubulosis. OvariiiTn globosum, 2*5 mm. diametro. 

Eastern Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills : in the oak forest above 
Upper Eengging Camp; 900-1700 m. Flowering in January. 
Burhm 36340. 



L 
L 

\^%^ 966. Agapetes nutans, Dunn [Vacciniaceae-Thibaudieae] 
A. linearifoliae^ C B. Clarke affinis, .sed foliis vix involutis 
pedunculisque 6-7 cm. longis distincta. 

Frutex epiphyticus. Radix crassa. Ramuli graciles. Folia 



sensim 



ea . Flores 



apicibus corollae exceptis glabri, in racemis axillaribus abbrevi- 



peduncul 



pilis 



brevibus crispis albis vestito; pedicelli 1'2 cm. longi; bracteae 
parvae lineares. Calycis dentes basi brevissime coaliti, anguste 
triangulares, 4 mm, longi. Corolla tubulosa 2'2 cm. longa, 3 mm. 
diametro, coccinea, 5-plicata, dentibus acutis 3 mm. longis apice 
viridibus. Stamina 10, basi corollae affixa; antberae in parte 
ollinifera granulatae, subsessiles, 6 mm. longae, apice longe 
itubulosae, paulo exsertae. Stylus aequilongns. Ovarium 
globosum, 2-5 mm. diametro. 

Eastern Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills: in bigh forest on a 
^'ra^or edge '* ridge between Serpo and Lalik; 1700 m. 
in January and February. BurJcill 36347. 




Flowers 



^^''967. Buddleia Candida, Dunn [Loganiaceae-Euloganieae] ab 

B. macrostachya, Bentb. foliis rugosis primo albo-tomentosis 
recedit. 

Frutex primo albo-tomentosus, ramulis tandem subglabris brun- 
neis. Folia lanceolat-a, apice basique sensim acuminata, crenu- 
lat^, rugosa, cbartacea, 12-17 cm. longa, 3-5 cm. lata, utrinque 
prime albo-lanata, tandem snperne subglabra; petioli lb cm. 
longi. Flores sessiles, 1-5-ni, plernmqtie 3-ni in racemos vel pan- 
iculas terminales 10-12 cm. longas collecti; bracteae lanceolatae, 
3 mm. longae, ut folia, calyces, corollaeque vestitae. Calyx 
tubulosus, 3 mm. longus, lobis 4 lanceolatis I'd mm. longis. 
Corolla Tiolacea, 6 mm. longa, tubulosa, lobis 4 paten tibus ovatis 
1 mm. longis. Antherae sessiles, paulo infra faucem insertae. 
Ovarium lanceolatum, hirsutum, 2 mm. longum; stigma clavatum 



135 

subsessile. Fructus capsularis, oblongus, 6 mm. longus, 
tomentosus. 

Eastern Himalaya, Outer Abor Hills : Sicli river moutli anJ 
opposite Yarabuug on tbe north side of tlie Dihong ; as low bnsbes 
scattered in tbe sward. Flowers in January » Burkill 37631. 

968. Aeschynanthus Monetaria, Dunn [Gesneraceae-Cyr- 

tandreae] ab omnibus speciebus Indicis foliis disciformibus rece- 

dit. 

r 

Caulis repens, primo puberulus, mos glaber, pallide bninneus, 
2 mm. diametro, ex nodis l"5-2'5 cm. distantibus fibros radicales 
folia pedunculosque emittens. Folia opposita, nummularia, I'l- 
1'2 cm. diametrOj crassa, evenia^ glabra, integra, petiolis 1-2 mm. 
longis, Flores axillares, solitarii; bracteae minimae; pedicelli ut 
sepala corolla eque pilis parvis albis articulatis spaz^se vestiti, 
1-2 cm, longi. Sepala libera, lineari-lanceolata, 4 mm. longa, 

1 mm. lata. Corolla splendide coccinea, 3—4 cm. longo, tubulosa, 
ciirvata, superne borizontalis, fauce 1 cm, lata; labium superum e 
lobis duobus apice rotundatis 4 mm. longis et 6 mm. latis consti- 
tutum; lobi laterales reflexi, 5 mm, longi, 3 mm. lati; lobus anti- 
cus patens, 4 mm. longus, 3 mm. latus. Filamenta 2 cm. longa, 
glabra, antberis 2 mm. longis. Ovarium 8 mm» altum, stipite 

2 mm. longo suffultum; stylus 3 mm. longus. Fructus ignotus. 
Eastern Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills: Janakniukb; abun- 
dantly all over tbe upper part of a tree on Bapu, at Eengging and 
at Edtuug 300-800 m. Flowers in December.. Burkill 36088, 

3T186. 



969. Rliinacanilius grandiflorus, Dunn [Acantbaceae-Justi- 
cieael a R. calcarato, Xees calyce campanulato et cymis densis 
sessilibus recedit. 

Frutex glaber, ad 1 m, altus, e nodis inferioribus radicans, in 
parte berbacea cystolitbis brevibus albis tectus. Folia ovata, 
apice basique subito acuminata, 13-17 cm. longa, ^ 5-8 cm. 
lata, cbartacea, nervis 8-paribus cum rete siccitate pro- 
minulis; petiolus 1'5"3 cm. longus. Cymi terminales, densi, 
sessiles; bracteolae parA^ae, triangulares, 1 mm. longae; pedicelli 
3 mm. longi. Flores ^Ihi, magni, eonspicui. Calyx campanula- 
tus, 2-3 mm. longus, dentibus angustis tubum aequantibus. 
Corolla 5-7 cm. longa; tubus cylindricus, l'5-2 mm. diametro; 
linibus 4-lobus, lobo superiore lineari caudato 1'5 cm. longo erecto, 
3 inferioribus obtusis in labium 2 cm. longum et latum coalitis. 
Stamina 2, ex parte tubi superiore orta ; antberae ex fauce breviter 
exsertae, apice basique muticae, loculis suprapositis, poUine 
lineis opacis et vinculis nodulorum longitudinaliter notato. Ca^- 
sula oblonga, 3 cm, longa, basi in stipltem solir 
Semina 4 (2 saepe abortiva) disciformia, rugt)sa, 5 mm., diametro. 

Easteex Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills: common In sbade of 
Sbingkeng and otber woods at Janakmukli and Ramidambang. 
Flowers in December, BnrTcill 37117, 36409. 

970. Gomphostemma aborensis, Dunn [Labiatae-Prasieae] a 
G. Tnicrocalyce, Prain foliis late ovatis distincta. 



um 



136 



Herh 



Caulis 



obtuse quadrangnilaris, in parte prostrata radicans. Folia late 
ovata.apiceobtusa, basi subito acuminata, 5-8 cm. loiiga, creuato- 
serrata, subtus reticulata ; petioli 2-3 cm. longi. Flores 4-8-ni, in 
yerticillis axillaiibus sessiles. Calyx anguste campanulata, 1 cm. 
longa; dentes tubum aequantes, anguste triangulares. Corolla 



mm 



la to 4-2j1o brevior; labium superius erectum, anguste ovatum; 
labium mfenus patens, tri-lobatum. Stamina superiora sub 
fauce mserta, inferiora paulo infra orta, antberis omnibus paral- 
lelise fauce breviter exsertis. Ovarium 4-partitum; stylus 
stamina paulo excedens. Nucula 1, carnosa. 

Eastern Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills: Janakmukh; very 
common, and at tbe mouth of tbe Tamne near Pongging-. Flowers 
m December. Burldll 37269. 



XXIL— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



Mr 



partment of . 

KoRMAN HaR 



for the Colonies, the latter on the recommendation of Kew, 

JJivisional Agricultural Officers in the Department of Affricul- 
ture, Ceylon. ° 



Messrs. F. W. Hall and G. T. Piiilpott, members of the 
gardening staff of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, have been 
appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, oil the 
recommendation of Kew, Assistant District Agiicultural Officers 
m the Department of Agriculture, Uganda. 



■y?^ '^'^^-'"^ ^-^^^^ TuTcHER.— The news of the sudden death of 
Mr. iutcher m Hongkong will be received with great retnet by 
his many friends in England. His loss to the English com- 
mutmy m the little Crown Colony in which he had lived for nearly 
thirty years will be keenly felt, and the Chinese staff of his de- 



partment 



for them. ^ i he example of unwearying attention to duties and 
his enthusiasm for botanical and horticultural enterprise in the 
colony was a splendid training for his subordinates. During the 
three decades of his work he has built up a lasting memorial in 
the affection of his Chinese and English friends as well as in the 
various gardens and ornamental spaces that he did so much to 
establish and to keep m fine orderly condition for the public of 
Hongl^oug. One of the works which fell to his lot was tte laying 
out of the golf course at Fanling , which has grown into one of the 
most beautiful places of recreation in the colony, thanks largely to 
nis skill and perseverance. ** *^ 



and 



^A,,^^i J J. J.1 -«r -, ' ""*" iicaj. jjiibtui xn j.oo<, ana 

educated at the Merchant Venturers School in that city. Vith 



137 

the teclinical scientific training tliere reeeiyed, and after five 
years' experience in good private gardens, lie came to the Eoyal 
iiotanical Gardens, Kew, in 1888, as a ''young gardener." His 
progress here was so satisfactory that two years later he was pro- 
moted to the post of snb-foreman, and placed in charge of the 
orchid department. In 1891 as an accomplished and reliable 
young man, he was recommended to the Secretary of. State for 
the Colonies as Assistant Superintendent to Mr. Tord in Hong- 
kong. Before leaving England he had married Miss Elizabeth 
Aikman, sister of Mr. John Aihinan, then and still assistant in 
the Director's Office at Kew, thus further cementing an associa- 
tion which he was destined to maintain as long as he lived to the 
mutual advantage of his new department and the one he was 
leaving. 

Mr. and Mrs. Tutcher were very happy in Hongkong and very 
busy. His free days were nearly always spent in botanical ex- 
ploration of the island, and for many years he might be seen on 
almost any fine holiday tramping off to Mt. Parker, from whose 
guUeys and ravines he usually returned about nightfall and 
emptied out on the herbarium table his miscellaneous spoils. A 
glance at the list of additions to the Hongkong flora during his 
time gives some idea of the success of his outings. 

In 1915, he published as a supplement to his report an account 
of an expedition to an area on the IS". Hiver, which had not been 
previously visited by a botanist. To do this he took advantage 
of four consecutive holidays and returned with examples of five 
new species as well as of a great many additions to the provincial 
flora. 

In 1904, he became a Fellow of the Linnean Societv, and 
attended the meetings at Burlington House on the rare occasions 
when he was on leave. In 1910 he became Superintendent of the 
Botanical and Forestry Department. In 1912 he published with 
his predecessor, Mr. S. T. Dunn, the Flora of Xwaugtung and 
Hongkong as vol, X. of the Additional Series of this periodical, 
to which he contributed the description of the Orchidaeeae (of 
which he had a special knowledge), as well as of most of the 
Monocotyledons. He had previously published a small work on 
Gardening in Hongkong. N'o one knew better than he the diffi- 
culties of the climate, and how they could be overcome, and his 
publication was greatly appreciated in Hongkong and neighbour- 
ing parts of China. 

The herbarium of his department contains, of course, the great 
bulk of Mr. Tutclier's botanical specimens, but several hundreds 
of them raav be seen in the Kew Herbarium, and in that at 
Manila (P. I.). 

The genus Tutcheria was founded by Mr, Dunn on a tree in the 
Hongkong Botanical Gardens which had been supposed to be 
Camellia reticulata, Lindh, until Mr. Tutcher pointed out its 
distinctive characters (cf Journ. Bot. slvi. 324). 3Iany new 
species discovered by Mr. Tutcher were at different times called 
after him. He himself published many novelties, including a 
new genus (Dunniay Tutcher, Ruhiaceae, Journ. Linn. Soc. 

' . 69) Quercus Eltzahethae, Tutcher, called after his wife 




138 



1 

(cf. Jouin. But. xlix. 273). Besides tliese articles Tut^her pub- 



tment durino: ins term 



Superintendeat, as well as on various occasions when lie was 
acting in tliat capacity. All tliese reports contain items of great 
botanical and economic interest, besides tlie records of tlie borti- 
cultural and forestry work of the colony. 



s, T. D. 



Aloe Specimens from Pretoria. — A valuable collection of Aloe 
specimens — eventually to be representative of the whole of 
Southern Africa — is being amassed at Pretoria, where the plants 
thrive in a naturally rugged setting round the Union Buildings. 
Of these Dr, I. B. Pole-Evans has recently forwarded a fine set 
of 56 named herbaiuum specimens, of which no less than 22 are 
new to Kew. These, retaining to a remarkable degree their 
colouring and bloom, form a marked contrast to the majority of 
dried succulents, and should prove an invaluable addition to our 
shelves. 



South African Aloes*.^ — Dr. Pole-Evans contributes a paper on 
the genus Aloe in South Africa, no less than 110 species being 
recorded. Of these as many as 60 species are in cultivation at 
Kew at the present time. (See below.) The paper lays stress 
upon the fact that certain Aloes of reputed South African origin, 
which have for centuries been under cultivation in Europe, are at 
present unknown in South Africa ; others, however, have in 
recent years been re-discovered in the land of their origin. A, 
succotrinay Lam., comes- under the latter category, for although 
it is the first South African Aloe known to be cultivated in 
Europe, being figured and described in Horti Medici ATusteloda- 
mensis as early as 1697, its actual home on the slopes of Table 
Mountain remained unrecorded until about fourteen years ago. 
Interest in members of the genus has been sustained and lucid 
notes are given on the parts played by Miller, Linnaeus, William 
Aiton, Haworth, Bowie, Salm-Dyck, Thomas Cooper, J. G. 
Baker, Sclionland, Marloth and others, while tribute is poid to 
the valuable monograph on the subject by Alwin Berger. A taste 
for the cultivation of Aloe rockeries has of late been created in 
South Africa and this should be fostered by the practical advice 
afforded by the paper, while it is evident' that Dr. Pole-Evans 
foresees that results valuable to science may accrue from the co- 
operation of an interested nublic. 



List of aloes mentioned lii " Our Aloes," by Dr. Pole Lvans, 
cultivated at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

Aloe actileata, Pole-Evans. A. arhorescens, Mill. 

A, africana, Mill. A. aristata, Haw. 

A. albispina, Haw. A. Bainesii, Dyer. 



Our 



Afr. Pt. Y, pp. 1U16 (1919). 



139 



A, Browniiy Baker. 

A, caesiuy Salm-Dyck. 

A. candelahrumy Berger. 

A. castaneay Sclionl. 
A. chloroleuca, Baker. 

A. ciliarisj Haw. 

A. coTUTnixtay Berger. 

A. Cooperi, Baker. 

A. Davy ana y ScIionl. 

A. drepanophyllay Baker. 

A. Dyeriy Schonl. 
A. feroXy Mill. 
A, glaiica, Mill. 

A. glohuligemrna^ 

Pole-Evans. 
A. grandidentata, 

Salm-Dvck. 

ft/ 

A. Greatheadiiy Sclionl. 

A. Greeniiy Baker. 

A, latifoUa, Haw. 

A. leptophylla, IST.E.Br. 

A. lineatay Haw. 

A. longibracteata, 

Pole-Evans. 

A. longiflora, Baker. 
A. TnacracantJia, Baker. 
.4, Marlotliiiy Berg-er. 
A, mitrifoTTnisy Mill. 
i4. nitenSy Baker. 



A. nobilisy Haw. 

A. obscuray Mill. 

A, parvibracteatay ScLonl. 

A. Pearsoniiy Sclionl. 

A. PegleraBy ScLonl. 

A. petricolay Pole-Evans. 

A. Picihaariiy Pole-Evans. 

A. platylepiSy Baker. 

A. pUcatiliSy Mill. 

A. phiTidenSy Haw. 
A. purpiirascenSy Haw. 

A. TubrO'Iuteay Schinz. 

A. Sahn-Dyckianay Scliiiltes 

A. saponariay Haw. 

A. sessilifloray Pole-Evans. 

A. Simiiy Pole-Evans. 

A. speciosa. Baker. 

A. spicatay L. 

A. striata y Haw. 
A, striatulay Haw. 
A. succotrina, Lam. 
A.suprafoliatay Pole-Evans. 
A. supi^alaevis y Haw. 
A. tenuioTy Haw. 
A. ThrasTtiiy Baker. 
A. variegatay L. 

A. virenSy Haw. 

A. ■pr2c/:€nm, Pole-Evans, 



Flora of Uitenha^e and Port Elizabeth.*— The Committee of 




see 



Kew 



tlie Botanical Survey of tlie Union of South. Africa 
Bull. 1920, p. 402), realising the importance of the^ linking of 
stages of progress by a periodical summing-up of data in the form 
of check-lists and local and regional flora-records, made provision 
for the occasional publication of *^ Memoirs of the Survey/' No. 1 
of which, entitled the " Phanerogamic Flora of the Divisions of 



Hit 



rvey 



is to be congratulated upon the publication of a paper which is 
so comprehensive in its treatment and which, at the same time, 
reveals the incompleteness of the present state of exploration. 
Dr. Schonland reports that large areas of the northern and north- 
western portions of the division of IJitenhafre are, from a botanical 

be 



known : this statement alone may 



re 



and it stands as a challenge to those who have the opportunity to 
contribute towards such an achievement. 

The region under discussion reaches from the Sundays to the 



bout 



m- 



* Botanical Survey of South Africa, Memoir No. 1. Phanerogainic Flora 
of the divisions of Uitenha^^e and Port Elizabeth, by S. Schonland..^ To be. 
obtained from the Librarian, Agricultural Department, Union Buildini^s, 
Pretoria. Price 2s. 6d. . 



140 



Zuurberg; Eanere, 

o o 



Mountains 



tlie 



4 ( 



for irrigation in 



the 



It is an area which constitutes an important 
phytogeographical boundary between the "Eastern" and the 
South-Western" Eegions, and this point is ably discussed in 
the paper. In this connection mention may be made of the 
practical way in which the plant list itself indicates the relation 
of the flora with that of the Cape Peninsula and Natal respectively, 
distinguishing signs being attached to species which the area 
holds in common with one or other of the regions to which it 
stands as a Luifer. Interesting details regarding the topography 
and geology of the Divisions are followed by careful climatic 
analyses which emphasise such points as : the effect of winds upon 
the dispersal of western types; temperature contrasts; the ap- 
proximate balance of winter and summer rains ; the parts played 
b;^ mists and by drought and the need 
Uitenhag-e division. 

A region, ' merging from a low coastal belt to an altitude of 
nearly 5000 ft. and traversed as it is by such a series of minor 
mountain ranges with alternating plateaux, may be expected to 
offer ample scope for the study of ecological problems, and Dr. 
Schonland touches upon the various types of "plant-life repre- 
sented by his list. There is the vegetation of the sand-dimes, 
and of the halophtlous meadows (notably the "fields by the 
Zwartkops River" mentioned by Ecklon and Zeyher), a record 
of the rare plants of the latter bei'ng given : on the Van Staden 
Mountain soutTi-western hill vegetation predominates, while 
the Coastal Plateau shows an interesting mingling of south- 
eastern and south-western types. Then Karroid Succulents are 
seen to prevail in the north-western parts, while mingled with 
tliese IS the Thorn Scrub, itself preponderating in the Addo 
Bush where it still forms a shelter for herds of elephants. Pure 
Grassland formation is found on the ZuurberP-. on t.b^ "Grass 

HiJge 
its 



east of Uitenhage and east of the Sundays River near 
month. Pure Acacia formation and Forest Patches also 
occur, m addition to which record is made of water and swamp 
plants and of phanerogamic epiphytes and parasites. 

The records are based on the specimens in the herbarium of the 
Albany Museum, collected mainly by Drege, Ecklon and Zeyher, 
^' i^^^^S' ^^^acOwan, Schlechter, Mrs. T. V. Paterson, Ro— 
r. ii. Holland and Kemsley. 



Gymnosperras... 

Monocotyledons 
Dicotyledons ... 

Tof als . . . 



Systematic Elemetits of the Flora. 



* « « 



t * 



Orders. 



3 

22 
104 



129 



Genera. 



3 

20-3 
510 



716 



Proportion of genera to species. 1 ; 3-2. 



Species. 



7 

637 
1,668 



2,312 




J> 



Monocotyledons to Dicotyledons, 1 : 2-tj. 



Non-native 

Bpecies. 



about 23 
„ 81 



f? 



104 



141 



The Flora wliiclL consists of 118 pages and a sketch map of 
the region includes a covering letter from Dr. I. B. Pole-Evans, 
Director of the iiotanical Survey of South Africa, to the Secre- 
tary for Agriculture and a commendatory Preface by Mr. P. B. 
Smith, Secretary for Agriculture. 

The publication of so useful a memoir hy the Govern^nent of 
the Union of South Africa affords welcome evidence of the en- 
lightened view held by that Government of the value of science 
and also indicates that they realise fully the need of acquiring an 
intimate knowledge of the resources of the country by the de- 
velopment and proper application of scientific method. 

Attention may be called to the only error we have noticed ; 
Aizoaceae on p, 52 should be placed above the g^enus Livieuvi. 



g 



Mr 



E. Thurston, C.PE., who lately presented his fine herbarium of 
Cornish plants to Kew (see K.B,, 1920, p. 44), collected an inter- 
esting sedge in the Gunwalloe Valley, Cornwall. After careful 
investigation it has been concluded that the earliest name applic- 
able to this plant is Carex riyaria, Curt. var. /? gracilis , Coss. et 
Germ., Flore de Paris, 1845, p. 605, where the following descrip- 
tion is given : ** Tiges presque lisses sur les angles. Feuilles 
souvent vertes. Epis males solitaires ou gemines. Epis femelles 
laxiflores, longuement pedoncules, souvent pendants. Utricles 
longuement depasses par les ecailles. Ecailles tres longuement 
cuspidees-aristees. — A. R. — Endroits marecageux ombrages. — 
Corbeil ! Mennecy ! La cour de France! etc." 

The variety is kept up by Husnot, ''Cyperacees de France,'' 
p. 54 (1905-06), but Rouy et Foucaud, FL de France, vol. 13, 
p. 486 (1912) make it a synonym of var. gracilescens, Hartm., ap. 
Anderss., sub-var. aristata, Rouy et Fouc. Career riparia, var. 
gracilescensy Hartm., has been considered by some authors the 
hybrid C riparia x vescicaria (see J. G. Laurell in AUg. Bot. 
Zeitschr. 1900, p. 197). The Cornish plant does not suggest a 
hybrid nature. Kiikenthal (in Engler, Pflanzenr., iv. 20, p. 73) 
apparently considers the var. gracilescens, Hartm. a mixture and, 
not having seen the still earlier description and name of gracilis, 
Cosson et Germain, he makes the new combination var. subgracil- 
iscens for wliat is apparently the same variety. 

In the Kew Herbarium a specimen from the Isle of Wight, 
collected by Tii\ Bromfield in a wet salt marsh, at the mouth of 
the Wootton creek between Ryde and Cowes,^ in May, 1846, has 
long peduncles to the female spikes and acuminate glumes longer 



et Germ. 



graci 
ffvnous 



Lastlv, a plant referred to in the Report for 1915 of the 



seme 



The following information is there given : " Carex ripcria, Curt. 
forma. Tickenham Moor, N. Somerset, v.- c. 6, Juiie 5, 1915. 
Growino* in an open rhine, free from shade." — Miss Ida 31. 
Roper. ° '' Remarkable for its very long lower peduncles and 
female flumes.'' — E. S. AlarshalL ''A curious and interesting 



142 



form of riparia^ exactly analogous to C. vesicariay L,, var. pen- 

dula, Uechtr. Herb. Cf, Asch. & Graeb. in Syn. Mitt. FL 212, 
190. It may be called f. pendula. — A. Bennett.'^ A specimen 



Jackson, A.L.S. 



Mr 

W. B. T. 



Forests, Woods and Trees.* — Professor Henry's book appears 

most opportunely. The depletion of Britisk forests consequent on 
tlie demands for timber during the war has created an interest in 
the subject of forestiy more genuine and widespread than has 
ever existed before. The major part of this book is given up to 
the consideration of the afforestation of the great water catch- 
ment areas of the United Kingdom, owned or controlled by muni- 
cipalities, and aggregating at the present time nearly one million 
acres. Although the mam purpose of the book is tree-planting 
regarded from its hygienic aspect, the possibilities of afforestation 
on so large an area as this is very important from the purely 
economic standpoint. Existing conditions in regard to ownership 
of land and timber production in this country make it unlikely 
that private enterprise alone will do much towards improving the 
general situation. It is fortunate, therefore, that over one-fifth of 
the total area of these catchment grounds is owned by public autho- 
rities, and encouraging to know that such large Corporations as 
those of Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds and Birmingham have 



esult 



factory. This subject, although the predominant one in Professor 
Henry's book, is far from being the only one. The question of the 
influence of forests on climate is fully discussed, and from the 
statistics given it would appear that their effects on rainfall are not 
so great as is generally supposed. Especially is this the case with 
forests occurring at altitudes of less than 300 ft. With regard to 
temperature their influence is to reduce the summer heat in the 
day-time and to keep it higher at night. ''Spring and autumn 
frosts are much less frequent and less disastrous in wooded tracts 
than in open country.'' Other chapters deal with the sanitary 
influence of forests and their value as sites for sanatoria. 

A matter of great interest and importance to urban and 
suburban dwellers is that of trees in parks and in streets- There 
is a singular lack of enterprise among municipal authorities in 
regard to this question. An ineradicable conservatism as a rule 
prevents them from planting any but the most ordinary things, in 
consequence of which the normal municipal park is extraordi- 
narily dull and commonplace. With such a marvellous choice of 



trees 



be 



^ n x?^* V^ ^^^^ places, for instance, can one find a 

good collection of magnolias, the most gorgeous flowerinj? trees of 
northern temperate regions, or of the finest cherries, crabs and 
such like,^ ihe same reluctance to experiment or depart from an 
ancient order of things is seen also in street planting. The two 
great defects m the planting of streets as practised nowaday 



s are 



Wood 



M.A., F.L.S., M R.I.A. Constable & Co., London, 1919. Price 18s. net. 



143 



that the trees selected are naturally too large and too spreading in 
habit, thus necessitating a ghastly system of pruning; also that 
they are too thickly planted. Professor Henry recommends a space 
of 40 ft. between each tree in the lines up each side of the street. 
This is little enough, but oftener than not street trees are not 
allotted so much. There are few things more dismal than an over- 
planted suburban street during a wet spell in late summer or early 
autumn, the paths transformed into cold damp tunnels of foliage. 
It is to be L-oped that Professor Henry's valuable chapters on 
these subjects will be read and studied by all those concerned. 
The book, in fact, is one that has a special claim to the notice of 
all municipal officials who control the planting of streets, parks 
and w^atersheds. 



* W. J. B, 



French Forests and Forestry * — This work is from the pen of 

Mr. Theodore S. Woolsey, Jr., lately of the United States 
Forest Service, and is descriptive of forests and forest conditions 
existing in the French Colonies, Tunisia, Algeria and Corsica. 
Each colony is treated separately and details are given of the 
general economic and social conditions prevailing in the different 
countries, and the steps that have been teken to secure a system of 
forest management beneficial to the country and acceptable to the 
inhabitants. In the early days following the inauguration of a 
system of forest management which placed considerable restric- 
tions upon the freedom of the people, particularly in the observ"- 
ance of regulations governing the pasturage of cattle, trespass, 
camping, avoidance of fires, and unlawful removal of timber, 
friction arose between the French forestry officials and the natives 
through the French copying too closely the methods of adminis- 
tration prevailing in France. By 1904 the difficulties of manage- 
ment had become so great that Governor Jonnart assembled a 
commission to study the cause of the dissatisfaction amongst the 
natives and to prescz'ibe remedies. In his opening address he 
made use of certain words which appear worthy of consideration, 
not only in so far as they apply to pioneers in French colonies, 
but also to other parts of the world. After eulogistic references 
to the forest officers and their services, he said, *^ I give them 
willingly the praise, but I blame them for keeping a little too 
much apart from the other Algerian service, for applying the 
regulations too uniformly, and for not having developed the 
flexibility and the means of adaptation so indispensable to an 
administrative organization, in a colony where it is unpolitic and 
often dangerous to try to follow at all times in the footsteps of the 
fatherland- . . . My desire is that a permanent * entente cor- 



diale ' be established between the Forest Service and the prefects, 
assistant ju'efects, and administrators of mixed communes, so 
that they may work together for the special needs of the popula- 

* French Forests and Forestry, Tunisia, Alsreria, Corsica. With a 
Translation of the Algerian Forest Code of^l903. By Theodore S, Woolsey, 
Jr., M.F., Assistant District Forester, U.S. Forest Service, 1908-1916, 
Lecturer, 1912, 1916-17, Yale Forest School. ISTew York, John Wiley A 
Sons, Inc.; London: Chapman & Hall, Limited. 1917. 



144 



tiouj tlie preventive measures to be adopted in view of conflagra- 
tions, and the figlit against the floods. I wish^ moreover, that 
formalities and administrative -red tape should not complicate 
things, as if for the sake of mere convention. I wish finally that 
the Jf'orest Service should never lose sight of the fact that the 
surest way to avoid fires is still to interest the natives in the exist- 
ence of the forests, and to associate them in their conservation, 
either by showing a greater leniency, so far as the pasturage of 
their flocks is concerned, or by granting them small individual 
felling areas. I could cite regions where the natives confined 
between the lands opened for settlement cannot move, one might 
say, without risking lawsuits/' The deliberations of the com- 
mission resulted in several administrative changes which did 
much to remove vexatious regulations and to reconcile the natives 
to a curtailment of what they had hitherto regarded as their 
natural rights. At the same time an educational system was 
established, whereby they were convinced of the necessity of 
good methods of forest management for the preservation of the 
country. The climatic conditions prevailing over a good deal ot 
Tunisia and Algeria are distinctly adverse to the establishment 
of forests, and the accepted methods of procedure in continental 
countries have undergone considerable modification in their appli- 
cation to these colonies. Long periods of brip^ht sun, with, in 
some districts, hot drying winds, prevail, whilst in the wet season 
there may be torrential storms. The methods adopted by French 
foresters to overcome the peculiarly trying conditions are worthy 
of close consideration by planters in other parts of Africa. The 
most useful economic tree of Tunisia is the Cork Oak (Quercus 
Suher), followed by^ Q, Mirheckii, and Pinus halepensis. The 
same trees are prominent in Algeria with Cedrus atlantica and a 
few others. In Corsica, Pinus Laricio, P. Pinaster, Quercus 
Ilex, Q. Siiber, Fagus sylvatica, and Castanea sativa are amongst 
the commonest trees^. The metric system of measurement is fol- 
lowed in the book with the equivalent in feet, etc., and here and 
there errors occur: thus on p, 43 the height of Indian corn is said 
to be 1-5 metres (7 yards), and on p. 47 the height of Mount Traras 
is given as 11,359 metres (3727 ft.). w. d. 



under the Authority of His Majesty's STATioirariT 
By Jas. TruscQtt and Son, Ltd., Suffolk Lane, E.G. 4. 



[6Vow7i Copyr'ujht Beserred. 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



or 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



No. 




[J 920 



XXIIL— A REVISION OF ISOPYRUM 
(RANUNCULACEAE) AND ITS NEARER ALLIES. 

J. E. Dbuj^imoxd and J. Hutchixson. 

Tile genus Isopyrum was established by tlie elder Linne in 1742 
(Genera Plantariim^ ed. II. p. 245). The generic description may 
be rendered into Ensrlish as follows : 



a 



Calyx none. Petals five, ovate, equal, spreading, deciduous. 
Nectaries five, equal, tubular, very short, placed within the 
corolla; the mouth of each oblique, undivided. Stamens in- 
definite, shorter than the corolla; filaments capillaiy; anthers 
simple. Ovaries two, ovate; styles sim^^Ie, as long as the ovary r 
.stigmas obtuse, as long as the stamens. Fruit a pair of recurved 
unilocular, crescent-shaped pods; seeds very many,'* 

A note is added: ^^ Hence neither of the genus Aquilegia nor 
of Helleborus, much less of Thalictrum, 

The above generic description does not fit the actual characters 
of diixj of the three species which its author subsequently assigned 
to his new genus (Species Plantarum, ed. 1753, vol. i. p. 557); 
and it appears to have been based on the accounts embodied in the 
works cited, and particularly on Boccone's illustration of Isopy- 
rum thalictroides in which the *^two leo^unies '' are inaccurately 
figured. 

The character '^ seeds very many" obviously belong^s to Isopy- 
Til m fu marioideSj described in Hortus TJpsaliensis in 1747 
(p. 157), and the only species represented in the Linneau Her- 
barium; and this is probably the only one seen by Linnaeus. 

Early in 1753 Haller published a criticism of ''Isopyrum 
fumarioides, Linn. Fpsal. p. 157 '^ in his Emimeratio Horti et 
Agrl Gottingenensis, p. 97, remarking that it '' belongs, just as 



TroUius does, to Helleborus " : — but he omitted to point out the 



G 




character, the ''legumes" in the European plant being at most 

(979.) Wt. I35~r. 47. 1,000. e;20. J. T. &S.,Ltd. G. 14. Sch. 12. 



146 



three-seeded, while the ^^ polyspermous '' follicles of the Siberian 
weed are usually more than half a score* 

Possibly on account of Haller's remark Linnaeus placed his 
^* polyspernious " Isopyrum fumarioides in the front rank (in the 
first edition of the Species Plantarum) : — in the next following 
(fifth) edition of the Genera (No. 621, p. 244), he revised the 
description of the '' Pericarp " as follows, ^^ Capsulae plures lunu- 
latae recurvae uniloculares," though the follicles in 7. fumari- 
^oides are neither definitely '^ recurved'^ nor ^^ crescent-shaped ^^i; 
'the ** observation '^ was at the same time modified to ^^most 
.-akin to Heileborus, but very different in habit/' 

In the sixth (1T6T) edition of the Genera (p, 282, Xo. 701) the 
.misleading " semina plurima '^ reappeared, but Haller again 
failed to recognise its significance, though, having meantime 
.received specimens of 7. thalicfroides from Jacquin, he noted 
(1768) in the Historia (ii, 58) that the Austrian plant appeared 
to differ from the Siberian in choracter, and recorded certain 
marks in the European species which certainly support his view. 

This state of matters was due to the efforts to identify the 
■original samples of Dioscorides, a task which, as Sprengel points 
out (Dioscorides ii, 626), was particularly hard in the case of 
Jsopyron — ^^erutu difficillimum est/' Sprengel hazards Cory- 
dalis claviculata, Persoon — an identification which, as he says, 
is at least no worse than ^^Dodoens' hallucination" in favour 
of the Bogbean (Menyanthes). Cesalpini guessed Lathy rus; 
while Fabio Colonna opens his Phytohasanos (1592) with an 
argument supported by a really fine illustration to show that 
Dioscorides' ** flame-like^'' plant was the familiar Columbine; 
but, supposing that he was right, Linne was none the less justi- 
fied in appropriating the name for his new genus, if only as a 
partial safeguard against Mattioli's device (Comment, p. 328 
and 493, ic. 4), who tacked root-leaves of Anise to the stem and 
flower ol a NigelJa, with the plea that Dioscorides had employed 



these for comparison with the corresponding parts in Isopyron 
Colonna's arguments failed to convince Sprengel: — but Isopy- 
rum, once it was fixed by Linnaeus in his binomial system, auto- 
matically retained its attachment. 

Unfortunately it was not furnished with an adequate or certain 
'Connotation. In Species Plantarum ed. i. (1T53) p. 557, three 
species are discriminated, the first being 7. fumarwides, and the 
^second I,tlialictroides, the latter founded on the Ranunculus 
praecox ii tJialictri folio discovered by Charles de TEscluse in 
glades near Vienna and described in the Historia at p, 233 (1601). 
The history of Linne's third species 7. aquilegioides is contained 
in a tract published at Basle in 1776 by AVerner de Lachenal, 
who had traced in the Bauhin Collection the actual specimen 
which formed the type of Aquilegia wontana flare parvo thalictrt^ 
folio C. B. Prodr. p. 75, as well as n figure of the same, of which 
te annexed a good engraving to his Dissertation. It proved to 
be Aquilegia viscosa, Gouan. The citation from Bauhin is of 
course ^ the sole ba?^is of Linne's third supoosed Isopyrum; 
Bav simply cited thnt without comment, and the subsequent 
confusion rests on Morison, who abbreviated Bauhin's text 



14T 

«nd misapplied it to a very poor drawing of a supposed 

Aquilegia borrowed, witliout acknowledgment, from tab. 8 in 
the Pugillus of Christian Mentzel (Berlin 1G82), which could 
not possibly haye been meant for an Isopyrum. 

In the Systema ed. XII. ii. 372 (1768), Linne repeats the 

statement as to the number of the seeds in Isopyrum.; in the 
second Mantissa (1771) p. 408 he observed that in Isoinjrum 
thai ictro ides there are only three *' germens," citing Scopoli, 
Flora Carniolica, ed. i. p. 555 (1760); he omitted, however, 
Scopoli's further observation that the carpels are one-seeded. 
Murray and Willdenow, accordingly, in turn reproduced the 
erroneous definition as regards the number of the ovules. Crantz 



{Stirp. Austr. fasc. ii. p. 125, ed. 1763) criticised Linne's account 
of Isopyrum, with reference, more especially, to the description 
of the petals (" nectaries "). Gaertner (1788) treated /. jumar- 
ioides as the type of Isopyrum (l)e Fructibus i. 312 tab. 65 f . 5) ; 
and this view has found support from Torrey an'd Gray (Flora of 

North America i. Suppl. 660). 

It was not until 1839 that a satisfactory definition of Isopyrum, 
•as a genus* was framed, and this was only attained by separating 
7. fumarioides, on which Spach (Suites a Buffon VII. 326-7) 
following a note by Eeichenbach in the Flora Germanica Excur- 
soria (1832) p. 747, 'founded the new genus Leptopyrum, pnd it 
seems preferable to regard the genus Isopyrum as subsisting on 
the authority of Spach following Eeichenbach. This constitutes 
I. thalictroides, Linn. Sp. PI. i. 557 (1753) the type oi Isopyrum, 



•ms 



Histoi 



(Paris 1839) vii. p. 326. 

Bentham and Hooker in Genera Plantarum vol. i. p. 8 (18b^) 
amended the description of the genus with respect to the number 
of the ovules. They estimated the content of Isopyrum at seven 
•species, and in the 'index Kewensis to date there ore thirtj'-two 

valid specific names. 

The first addition to the Linnean species of Isopyrum was 
published by Alphonse de Candolle in the Systema, i. p. 324 
'(1818), as /. adoicoides, based on Plukenet's figure 3. t. 360 Amal- 
theum, page 19 of text (1705), a species found in the island of 
€husan by James Cuninghame. Cuninghame's collections arei 
preserved' in the Sloane Herbarium, at the Natural History 
lluseum. Plukenet's type is on p. 151 of vol. xciv. ; duplicates on 
pat^es 83 and 100 of vol. xx. ; all three correspond quiteclearly 
io^the Amaltheum illustration and De Candolle's description. 

This species has a varying number of the inner row oi stamens 
■converted Into scales or staminodes, a condition which is charac- 
teristic of the genus Aquilegia, but has not been observed m 

♦Previously in Conspedns Itegni VegetaMlis, No. 4954 (Leipzig 1828) but 
vrithout note or description :-also Tcones Florae Germanic j.f in. 28 t. cjm. 
•6^4728 & 4728 (b), publ. 1840. In the Didionnaire Vlassi^tce jo\i^. p. 34 
n 828 A Riciard had ori-inallv pointed out the propriety of dividing the 
Tit ?enns%ut he assigned Lp,n<.i to L >-"«;f-. -/^ ^^^^\^ 
new ^erniZ T]uilicirella, for I. ihahciroides -.-in 1830 (vol. ivi. p. i^-i} ne 



cancelled Tkalictrella. 



a2 



us 



LeptopyruTn, nor in any of tlie otlier species placed by tlie earlier 
botanists under Iso-pynim, and has accordingly been made tlie 
type of a' separate genus, Semiaquilegia, by Makino, Bot. Mag. 



Tokyo xxi. (1902) p. 119. 

In addition to tlie three species described by De Candolle under 
Isopyrum, the Systema includes at p. 337 a species named by 
AViiidenow (Mag, Gesellsch, Natnif. Freund. Berlin, 1811, 
p. 401. t. 9 f . 6), Aqitilegia anemonoides. The early history of this 
graceful plant is somewhat obscure; in the Flora Altaica (1830) 
Ltedebour mentions Gebier as the collector, but in the Flora 
Rossica (1812) vol. i. 53 this is corrected, and priority given to 
the elder Schangin^^ with a Latin version of Schangin's appre- 
ciation of the ^^ beautiful dwarf Columbine,'' which his Journals 
(in Pallas, Kordische Beitrage vi, 55 publ. 1793) sKow him to 
have discoA-ered on ''inaccessible" ledges at the head-waters of 
the Korgon, an affluent of the Irtish in the Western Altai. 

The same species is stated by Ledebour (Flora Eoss. i. 53) to 
have been in Stej)han's herbarium, named in manuscript as 
'' Aquilegia minuta/' It was communicated by Fischer probably 
to Willdenow, who referred it to Aquilegia, Fischer, however, 
placed the species in Isopyrum^ and it was published (1824) in 
the Prodromus i. 48 as Isopyrum grandifiorum, Fisch. in litt.^ 
although on p. 51 of the same work he included '' Aquilegia 
anemonoides '' on the authority of "\Tilldenow. A note by Ben- 
tham in his interleaved copy of the Prodromus, now at Kew, 
shows that in 1828t Arnott elicited from Fischer that his Isopy- 
rum grandiflorum and Wilidenow's ** Aquilegia anemonoides '' 
were one and the same thing. Accordingly in the Flora Altaica 
(Berlin 1830) vol. ii. p. 299, Ledebour included /, graiuUflorum. 

Be Candolle, following A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. Plant. (1789) 
p. 233, improved the definition of the genus Isopyrum^ treating 
in the Systema (i. 323) the '' nectaries " as petals, and the 
''petals" of the older botanists as sepals, and providing a suffi- 
cient line of division as against Hellehorns in the deciduous sepals 
of Isopyrum. 

Praint has demonstrated, for tlie Papaveraceae, tbe difficulties 
that beset any attempt to limit the genera in these Thalamifloral 
families on a practical basis, and this applies with at least equal 
force to the Ranunculaceae, To take an example, no phyletic 
theory could stand which fails to account for the obvious parallels 
in general morphology of certain species linked with Isovyrum 
tholictroides and the genus Thalictrum,. hut at the same time it 
is impracticable to frame any arrangement of the family, as a 



♦Peter Ivanovich Schangin, an officer of the Department of Mines; 
eramently skilled in the ^eo\o<rj and especially petrology of the time; a 
keen student of natural history, and a ^ood botanist ; in 1786 he conducted 
an exploration ot the Altai Mts. primarily in searcli of lapis lazuli 
quarries; his report includes a maste7ly account of the "-eooraphy and 
mineralogy of the upper Irtish basin, with full and highly interestin<^ notes 
on the Flora. ^ -^ 

t Attention had probably been aroused by the appearance of Sprengel'ff 
iSy^tema vol. ii. aS25), which included both ' Isopyrum grandiflorum, Fisch- 
Cand. , and ' Aquilegia anemonoides, W.' 

X Noviciae Indicae, pp. 105-12P. 



149 



whole, without recognising the importance that attaches to the 
follicular, as opposed to the achenial character of the mature 
carpel. Now in Isopyrum grandifioium ond its closer allies, the 
mature follicles are manifestly moie ahin in structure and devel- 
opment to those of Aquilegia than to Isopj/rum tlialicttoides^ ur 
to take another example of the same series — to Isopyrum adianti- 
folhim^ and after weighing all the conditions we have found 



ourselves obliged to propose a fresh* genus for these Central 
Asian perennials [i.e., for the grandifiorum gTOup)^ to which we 
have given the name of Paraquilegia. 

In the Prodromus (i* p. 48) De CundoUe admitted though not 
without question the genus Enemion^ founded on a species — not 
unlihe the Wood Anemone of Europe, — which is plentiful in 
woods in the United States of America. The first scientific 
ohserver of this plant, often associated with Syndesmon tJudic- 
troideSj Hoffmans., and gathered with it, was Dr. Short, of 



Lexington, Kentucky, who in 1820 sent to Sir "William Hooker 
specimens now in the Kew Herbarium, contending that these 
were identical with Isopyrum thalictr aides, Linn., of Europe, of 
which Hooker at first thought it might prove to be an apetalous 
form. Eelying mainly on the absence of petals Eafinesque, in 
Journal de Physique (De Blainville) Tom, xci. pt. 2, p. TO (1821) 
constituted Enemion, In Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 187 (1834) a brief 
notice of Short's specimens was intercalated in a summary of 
Thomas Drummond's Louisiana collections without formal descrip- 
tion; in 1840 (Bot. Beech. Toy. Suppl. 326) a second apetalous 
species, discovered by Douglas about 1830 in California, was 
described by Hooker and Arnott as Isopyrum occidentale. In the 
same year in their Flora of Xorth America (voL^ i. Suppl. 160) 
Torrey and Gray, while accepting Hooker's reduction of Enemion, 
established the independence as a species oi Isopyrum^ biternatum 
{Enemion hiternatum, Rafinesque) as against Short's theory of 
its being merely a '' geo^-raphical form ^' of the European 7. 
thalictroides. Three species of the same type as 7. occidentale 
have since been discovered, two American and one from Xorth- 
East Asia, all from the Xorth Pacific region. Enemion, there- 
fore, must be held to have Justified its author's discrimination. 
It is a fairly ''natural'' genus, in the accepted sense, more ~^^ 
than Semiaquilegi^y where there is conspicuous diversity of habit 
between Makino's type and certain of the species which we have 
been led to include along with it, as they also exhibit the essential 
character — the conversion into scales of some of the inner 
stamens. Seiniaquilegia adoj^oides approaches Paraquilegia in 
general appearance and has moreover very few staminodes, whilst 
S. simulatrlr, on the other hand, is in general appearance so abso- 
lutely a Columbine that it was described by Masimowicz, El. 
Tangut. (1889) p. 20, t. 8, f. 12, as Aguileffia ecalcarata, but apart 
from the'staniinodes, the petal-spurt characteristic of Aqxnlegia 



so 



* cf. Spach, Suites fas above) p. J27. , , ^ , o- 77 z. 

t One modern Tiow regards the so-called ' perals ' of these Sellehoreae v^ 
^'highly modified staminodes"; cf, Prantl. ia Pflanzenfamihen iii. (2) p. 4^ 
aKo E B Pavson in Contrib. United States Xat. Herb. sx. (4) 135, n. i 



(1918.) 



150 



ni 



is represented by a mere poucli. Semiaquilegia, therefore, fo 
an important landmark from the phyletic standpoint in that it 
indicates the origin of Aquilegia. One species, S, Henryi, points 
in its vegetative choracters rather to Enemion or even to Coptis. 

Aquilegia Jonesii, Parry in Amer. Nat. viii. 211 (1874), a 

Drtheru EocJiy Mountains, illustrates the intricacy 
of these intergeneric relations very clearly ; the floral whorls are 
manifestly those of Ag^iiilegia, and although the general habit is 
diverse from the majority of Columbines, it is approached in 
A. nivalis, Falconer, while the foliage and shrubby lower stem 
are just as characteristically those of Far aquilegia. 

At pp. 54-55 of the Illustrations, Eoyle has described two 
species from Upper Kanawar, and depicted them in figs. 3 and 4 
on Plate 11, as Isopyrum grajidiflorum and Isopyrum Tnicrophyl- 
Zwm respectively, lioyle's figure 3 seems to approach 7. caespi- 
tosum of Boissier and Hohenaeker, Diagnoses ser. (1) fasc. viii. 7 
(1849), of which we have seen an authentic specimen at the 
Natural History Museum. 

In deference to the authority of Maximowicz and of Franchet 
we have retained the three species . just mentioned, although 
after close examination of a large suite of specimens we are unable 
to distinguish them satisfactorily in the Herbarium. 

With these, which are all of a habit peculiarly adapted to the 
inhospitable spots in which they grow, we have associated a 
fourth, which in general appearance inclines towards Isopyrum 
proper, but in the form and arrangement of the follicles to- 
Leptopyrum. This extends to the Tian Shan— the inner Hima- 
laya in Western Kashmir and the Chenab basin — also to the- 
Suliman Eange at high elevations, from the Alatau, where it 
was discovered in 1841 by Karelin and Kiriloff,* and described by 



them in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. xv. 135 (1842) as ''Isopyrum 




anemonoides " : this name being open to objection, we have 
exchanged it for {Par aquilegia) uniflora given (under IsopyrumX 
by Hemsley to Afghanistan specimens (Journ. Linn Soc. 
p. 149 publ. 1882). 

Paraquilegia is essentially a Central Asian type ; even P. micro- 
phylla, which has by far the widest range of the three shrubby 
forms, is not found much to the south of the watershed that 
divides the dry elevated inner valleys skirting the main Asiatic 
plateau from the monsoon-affected areas of India ;— the centre 
of dispersion seems to have been in the "massif" between the 
Tian Shan and the basin of the upper Irtish, reaching along the 
Sayan and connected ranges into eastern Siberia on the one hand, 
and southwards across the 'Hindu Kush and the Himalaya to the 
Alps of Afghanistan and eastern Persia. The rather abrupt 
diversity of the solitary European type of Isopyrum from its 
allies m the Far East on the one hand, and from Paraquilegia on 
the other, suggests that the absence of these types from the 
Caucasus and the Ural Mountains may be due to extinction of 



* Succeeded Kusnetsoff-Tvho succumbed after a journev to the Okhotsk 
Sea-a= collector for Turczanmow, Numerous gatherings by Kiriloff and 
a few by KusnetsofE, are in the Hookerian HerbaSum at lev? 



151 

intermediate formSj following on climatic changes in tliose 
regions. Pampanini (see Piori, A. Begninot and E. Pampanini^ 
note on iS^o. 449 Flora Italica Eoisiccata) believes that Iscypyrum 
thalictr aides escaped in South Europe the furthest incursion of 
the Polar ice-sheet, and after the last main recession migrated for 
the second time into Central Europe. 

Leptoixyruiny which is annual and has yellow sej^als, may have 
originated in the course of post-glacial fluctuations; fi-om obser- 
vations by Pallas [Reise iii. 318) its headquarters were restricted 
so recently as 1772, to the sub-alpine tract south of Lake Baical^ 



level 



s 



Hyp 



foliage, it has no doubt spread rapidly with extending cultivation- 
Enemion is a " natural" g'l'ou]? of forms, and its distribution 
strongly confirms the mori^hological evidence. The specie* 
greatly resemble Anemone nemorosa in their foliage and habit. 
The single Asiatic species ■R'as discovered by Eadde in the 
Bureya Mountains, flanking the Amur east of Blagoveshchensk^ 
and was figured and described by Eegel (Aufzahlung, 1861, p. 61,. 
tab. ii, fig. 3, 4, f, g.). Prom Franchet and Savatier (Enuni. PL 
Jap. xiddenda, 1876, p. 270) it appears that E. Raddeanum [i.e. 
Hegel's plant just mentioned), or a very closely allied species, 
extends to Japan, but we have seen no specimens from there. This- 
North Pacific region is the home now of the most numerous 
section of Isopyrum as defined in this paper. 

In 1883 Maximowicz published a revision of Isopyrum (Bull. 
Acad. Sc. St. Petersb. xi. 623-642); in this he treated Enemion, 
as a section merely, and did not discuss the validity of Leptopy- 
rum. In addition to the four species placed by us under Para- 
quilegia, plus the European I. thalictroides, I. adiantifoUiini^ 
Hook. fil. and T. Thorns. (1855), 7. dicarpon, Miquel (1867) and 
I. ado.xides, DC. (= Semiaquilegia, Makino), he admitted the- 
following: /. nijyponicum, Fmnchet (1879), 7. anemonoides, Xar. 
et Kir. (1842) w-hich we unite with Paraquilegia uniflora, I. 



nem 



stipntatum, A. Gray (18T6), 7. [Enemion] H, 



A. Gray (1872), 7. {Enemion) occidentale, Hook, and Am. (1840) 
and I." (Enemion) biternatum, Torrey and Gray (1840); at the 
same time he added two new species, viz. 7. stoloniferxim (=7. 
dicarpon, Franch. et Savat. Enum. Pi. Japon. ii. 271 (1884), and 
7. trachyspermum (= 7. dicarpon, S. L. Moore in Jo^^rn. Bot.. 
1878, p. 129)— in either case not the 7. dicarpon of Miquel. 

The next revision was by Eranchet in Journ. Bot. Morot. xi. 
(1897) pp. 187, etc. :— in this he confined his attention to what 
he regarded as the " Oriental " region, thus excluding eight of 
the species in Maximowicz' enumeration, i.e. the four American, 
referred by ns to Enemion, the European 7. thalictroides, I. um- 
florum (" anemonoides ") and 7. cnrspifosum of West Asia, also 
7. adi ant I folium, hitherto recorded from Sikkim only, but re- 
ported latelv from North Burma as well. Franchet's revision 
included the f ollowiner : — 7. auricnJatum, Franchet, 7. Benryi, 
Oliver, 7. peltatum, Franchet, 7. vaginatum, Maximowicz, 7. 
Fargesii, Franch., 7. Fanrieii, Franch., 7. sidcJniencnse, Fronch., 
7. Delavayi, Franch. 



152 



4 

In 1898 fruiting material of/, vaccinatum, Maxim., from Abbe 
lielavay's coileetious came mto Iranchet's liauds, and lie accor- 
dingly, taking into account all the observed characters, estab- 
hsbed tbe new genus Souliea for the reception of this very pecu- 



Ijagiiepaiu [Flore cV Asie 



lom? n^"- ^''^^- ^''^' ^^^- ^'■- '*'^'- ^' Tom. iv. 402-409, pnbl. 
1904). Iheir classification is based, unfortunately as we tiiink 

on characters takgn almost exclusively from tne petals; but 

I^nemion is not considered. Leptopyrum is ignored; Souliea is 

xecognised; ^emiaquilegia, published during 1902, is passed over. 

but Isopyrum Henryi, Oliver, is transferred to Aquileqia, '^ Iso- 

pyrum peltatum" is accepted without question, although li 

breaks down the highly practical distinction set up between the 

subtribes Caltneae and hopyreae by Bentham and Hooker (Genera 

Plautarum, i. p. 2), and is otherwise almost as obviously out of 

Its affinity as /. raginatum.'' Fianchet's /. mtchuenense is 



anemono 



fi 



and Aitchison, which i.s certainly the same thing, is treated as a 
variety of /. gTandiflMtum, which suggests tliat the authors must 

IL ' 'n!^'^''"^^. ^'^''^ ¥^ somewhat inadequate material before 
tnem. Otherwise their arrangement is substantially that of 
Iranchet with an important series of corrections as re<>ards / 

Tl^'r/rvrv ""^Qon^f-"'^-^'" ^- ^'^^^'^yi> which was founded 
stat^of tS '^ ■• ^^-^M ^.«. ?-^ they have pointed out, merely a 

from V n?f I " v"" ^'""^ Tchenfongchang and ^s^o. 4951 Delavay 
fiom Longki m limnan, whereas 7. auricuUtum, Franchet in 

Borrr • '-■"';"" ^^f '^ ^- "-^' (^^^ ^'-^^^'^-^ i^ Bull. Soc. 
dnl; V' ^ifT' ""K^'T'^) 'f a distinct species which they have 

lectL irtf.'i ''/•• ^™T^"^;^" 1 ^^- 5094 Delavay, also col- 
lected m the Longki neighbourhood. 

mler fl'&'"f f^^^^^^^^^^^^ «f ^^^ genera dealt with in this 
paper excluding A.teropyrum, may be summed up as follows ■ - 

A ia and'S^'TT ""'?r'^' 7'''^' '^ *^- ^^^ ^^ ^'-thein 
XorflfFlt P ' ^''''''' Himalaya, Eastern Afghanistan and 

\' '^l t ™ (' •' ' ^f""?v '''''''''^ '' '^' l«f ti-r ranges of 
Af^Wstan if P ' -^^ i^\r^''''. Himalaya, and Eastern 
S fr.i-l!; TTil^ii.-d.^- --/-'?- are ranked as 



with tbp Xnrfli W«c+ XT- T' - ■ '-"^'^■'P'-rosa to \\ est Asia 

cultivation at lower levels th^ou^h^'i Xo^tSl'ir " ^"^ '' 
F, If T™!-:-::!^!^-^^ A^ ^ ->- in Ce„t,.al a„tsoutl.-Ea.te.n 



moderat 



lava' tlie reiD^in^Pr T-P Ir '-, . ''^ ^^ ^^^^ -t^astern Hima- 



153 



and 



(4) Seviiaquileyia: — species 4; one in Jajjan, Chusan 
South-east Cliina; two in Central China; one in Xorth-Eastern 
America — the American form differs from Arpiilegia in the reduc- 
tion of the petal-spur solely, 

(5) Ene mion .'S-pecies 5; one in i^.E. Asia and Japan; the 
rest in N.W, America. 

(6) Souliea: — a single species, recorded from Kansu, Szechuan 
and Yunnan. 

Pending further study of the liying plants, and particularly of 



ripe seeds which 



seem 



difl 



group of species of Paraquilegia; the exsiccata have been placed 
under one or other of the types recognised by Maximowicz to the 
best of our ability, but with great diffidence. Except where other- 
wise stated the specimens quoted hove been examined by us. 

Our views on the probable phylogeny of this group may be 
shown as follows : 



I /fctaea 



to capsular 
Beibendaceae 



/fquilefia 



\Omicifafa\ 



A^ 



To part or/Inemone 

and Thalidrum 




Soul! ea 



A^ 



Inemion 



\Semiaquile(iia 



Coptis 



\flnemopsi 



5 




Paraguileg'La 




Faraquiiegia seems to present the more primitne leaiuicb ux 
the group, and it probably gave rise to most of the other genera 
dealt with in the present paper. For instance there is quite an 
easy transition from Paraqutlegia to SemiaqxiUegia, with saccate 

" lis. the only remaininor link showins: the nris^m of the 



origin 
evidenced by the great 



pet 

remarkal)le genus Aquilegia, which, as . 

variability of its species and its wide range, is probably stiJl 
in a state of flux. It is extremely doubtful whether this Ime 
of development proceeded any further than Aquilegia. Then 
Paraquilegia seems to indicate the starting point for another 
line of development, i.e., in the reduction of the number o± 

carpel 
panied 



m 
to two, as in Isopyrum, and nt length to one accom- 



m 



the latter case by aggregation of the flowers^ into 



racemes resulting in 



the genera Sou liea (fig . 8) , 



/ 



and Acfaea, which in their turn may hare been the progenitors of 
certain herbaceous Berheridaceae (for instance Ejnmedium). 



154 



Tlie genus Soulieaj separated from Isopyrum by Praucliet, 



a 



fug 



of the latter an extreme reduction may be tlie remarkable genus 
Achlys in Berheridaceae, whicli has the inflorescence of Ciinici- 
fugeae, but has no perianth. Then again the genus Enemion 
seems to be a direct offshoot fiom Para^uilegia^ the divergence 
here being the entire reduction of petals and the tendency to an 
umbellate arrangement of the flowers. 



The remarkably close 



Man 



affinity of two , ^ 

churia, and E. Hallii from Oregon, is worthy of note. 

Asteropyrum (fig. 1), a genus described below for the first 

time, is not shown in the phylogenetic table above because its 

true position seems to be in the neighbourhood of Caltha and 
Trollhis. 

We are much indebted to PiX)fessor Bayley Balfour and Dr. 
A. B. Eendle for allowing us to examine the material in the 
herbaria under their charge, to Miss E. Milner for general assis- 
tance, and to Miss D. M. Rolfe for help with the text figures. 

Key to the genera separated from Isopymnn. 

Flowers solitary or rarely subunibellate ; car- 
pels more than 1 : 
Staminodes absent : 

Carpels several, always more than 2 : 
Petals present, sometimes small and 



S 



much modified : 
Leaves jjeltate ; carpels spreadin 

stellately in fruit; petals stipi^ 
tate and ihdusiform (see fig. 1) 

Leaves not peltate, usually much 

divided : 
Caespitose perennials ; carpels 
usuall}' about 5, mostly erect 
in fruit; petals not tubular 



m 



(gen. nov.) 



at the base 



« « • 



• • 



Annuals ; carpels about 12 



iquilegia 

(gen. nov.) 



or 



more; petals tubular at the 
base ... 

Petals absent; inflorescence often um- 
bellate 

Carpels 2 (rarely 3), divaricate in fruit; 



3, Leplopyrum, 

ReicJib. 



f 



perennials 



« » A 



Staminodes membranous and flat within 
the fertile st^amens; petals saccate at 



m 



the base ... 



■ V 



• • • 



i lowers _ several in short racemes; leaves 

vagmate at tlie tase; carpel 1 



legia 

Mah 



7. SouMea, 



Franch. 



155 



Asteropyrum, nobis, genus novum foliis peltatis petalis longe 
stipitatis indusiaeformibus carpellis nuinerosis demum stellato- 
pateutibus distinctum. Ob folia peltata in subtribuin Cal- 
thearum removendum est, nisi cliaracteres subtribium secus 
Genem Plantaiuni (Bentli. et Hook, f.) mutentur; follicula eis 
TroUii omnino simillia videntur. 



Species 2, cliinenses. 

Folia haud vel leviter lobata ... 
Folia profunde 3-5-lGbata, lobis trian- 
gularibus acutis 



1. .4. peltatum, 

2. A. Cavaleriei 



^^ 1. Asteropyrum peltafum, nohisj comb. nov. 

Isopyrum lyeltatuvi, Franch. PI, Dvavid. ii, 8, t. 4. (1888). 

Descr, emend. — RJiizoma abbreyiatum, radicibus esiguis pilis 
rufis minutis. Folia omnia radicalia, longe petiolata, peltata, 
ambitu obtuse subpentagona tbI suborbicularia, undulate lobata 
et dupliciter crenulata vel denticulata, 2-4-5 cm. diametro, cliar- 
tacea, obscure nervosa, supra marginem versus subappresse setu- 
loso-pubescentia^ infra glabrescentia; petioli parum carnosi^ 

usque ad 9 cm. longi, basi in auriculas membranaceas suborbicu- 
lares purpurascentes dilatati, parce retrorsum pilosi, purpuroscen- 
tes. Pedunculi e rhizomate orti, solitarii vel plures, simplices 
vel rare biflori, foliis aequilongi vel multo longiores, fere glabri, 
apices versus bracteis opprnximatis vel alteruantibus ovatis 
obtusis circiter 4 mm. longis instructi. Flos an)us, circiter 
1-3 cm, expansus. Sepala late obovata, apice rotundata, 5-7 mm. 
longa, 3-5-4"5 mm. lata, distincte 5-nervia, sicco fere mem- 
branacea, 'glabra. Petala quam sepala dimidio breviora, stipi- 
tato-indusiaeformia, circiter 3 mm. longa. Stamina petalis pauUo 
longiora; antberae 1 mm. longae. Carpella circiter 10, sub 
antbesi erecti, matura stellatim patentia, subcoriacea, vix reti- 
culata vel rugosa, demum obscure torulosa, circiter 8 mm. longa 




Fig. 1. — AsTEfiOPYfiUM FZLTATUM (whole plant i nat. size); dissections 

enlarcred. 



156 



et 2-5 miii. lata, iu stylum subtriciuetrum circiter 2 mm. longum 
rectum plus minusve producta, stigmate obscuro minute bifido. 
Semina ellipsoidea, 1-5 mm. longa, castanea, obscurissime striata, 

Henry, 5630. Han-ky- 



mai 



Chis^a. 



se^ near Tclien-Xiou, 1400 m., 2 Apr. 1896, R. P. Farges 1148. 
Western Hupeli : fls. white, moist rocks, 1350-2100 m., E. H. 
Wilson (Yeitcli Exped.) 3078; without definite locality, E. H. 
Wilson {\eiic\x Exped.) 1849; (Arn. Arb. Exped.) 2369; mossy 
laces m forests at Eaug Hsien, 2400-2850 m., 16 Mar 1907 
. H. Wilson (Am. Arb V.^l^p.f^ \ .'^.'in " ' ' 




2. Asteropyrum Cavaleriei, nohis, comb.- nov. 

Isopyrum Cavaleriei, Leveille et Yaniot in Bull. Soc. Bot. 

CumA. Kweicliow: Pinsa, by waterfalls, 11 Mar. 1902, 
Cavalerie 1345; without locality, Lesquirol 436 (Herb. Edinb.). 

Paraquilegia, nobis, genus novum habitu dense caespitosum 
folns 2-3-ternatisectis petalis sessilibus suborbicularibus busi 
concavis apice plus minusve profunde emarginatis carpellis 
plerumque 5-7 erectis vel rare demum patulis seminibus carinatis 
vel anguste alatis nitidis distinctum.— Z^o^^^/^-ww, Aiict. partim. 

bpecies 4, e montibus altioribus Asiae Centralis usque ad 
Siberiam orientalem, Persiae, et Affghaniae, Emodi interioris et 
omae occidentalis. 

Carpella fructu plus minusve erecta ; caules 

caespitosi, rigidi : 

Folia glabra, 2-3-ternatisecta ; flores 
speciosi, circiter 2-3 cm. diametro : 

Semina puberula 

Semina glabra 2.P.microphyUa. 

J^olia mmute puberula, plerumque sim- 

phciter trifoliolata ; flores satis minoies 3. P. caespitosa, 
t-arpella fructu patula; caules graciles de- 



• • • 



• • • 



difl^ 



cumbentes, solitarii vel pauci 



^ • • • 



/ 




g 



isopyrum grandifiorum, Fisch. ex DC. Prodr i 48 (1824)- 
Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Peters, xi. 627 (1883 ! 7 ^graJl 
aZ^JL ''""aarrf' Tf,?!^J^'. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1866, 2. 

Aqmlegmanemonoides, AVilld. in Mag. Ges. Naturf. Fr. v. 401, 

Cexteal Asia. South Siberia : Alps of Lake Baical 1830 
myrZZff. ^'''"' ''''^- ^'''''''- Turkestan : t^/li^^ 

Nanlhan T^'t'p ^'%'V- ^^°^^* "°^^^^^":^' l^^^, PrzeicMd. 
i>an 5nan, 18»y, Przewalsln. 

on^tbt nw!''?^ specimens appear to be assignable to this species 
on the characters relied upon by Maximowicz :- 

PiTrTom 737 ""'' ^'"'"''^ Lien-wha-shan, 3500-3800 m.. 



157 



India. Kumaon: Topidliunga, 5000 in., Strachey and TT/n- 
terhoUom. Garliwal : Niti Pass, 5000 m., Madden 3070 (Herb, 
Ediiib.). Kunawar, Jacq2ie7nont 711. Piti, T, Thomson. Laliul, 
Jaeschke 155. Saucli Pass, Ellis 1638. Kashmir: Duthie 13218; 
13760; 25160; Sahni 273; /. R. Drummond 14223. Kurnim: 
Mt. Sikaram, 4100 m., Aitchison 207. Baltistan, Duthie 11897 
(Herb. Mus. Brit, and Edinb.). Hozara, Duthie 20727. 



2. Paraquilegia microphylla, nohis, comb, nov, 

Isoiyyrum microphyllum, Royle, 111. 54, t.l. fig. 4 (1839). 

CE^'TRAL Asia, South Siberia : Alps of Lake Baieal, 1830, 
Tiirczaninoiv. Balacbte, 1834, Kuznetsoff , E. Siberia, Stuhen- 
dorff. Saionsk Mts., Augiistaniofj, Alatau Mts., Karelin and 
Kiriloff 1161. 

China. Thibet: Przewalski (1884). Kigichu Valley, 15 miles 
east of Lhassa, Sept. 1904, Walton, Mongolia : mts. around 
Lake Ubsa, 1879, Potanin. Western Szeehuan : Tatsienlu, 
Soulie 117, 834. 
ween divides, Kingdon-Ward 430, 510, 581; Forrest 16759; 
Tsekou, Soulie 1040; mountains near Chungtien, 4100 ni., Aug. 
1914, (7. K. Schneider 2393, Mupin, 2200-2400 m., E. H. 
Wilson f Arn. Arb. Exped.) 3313. Lichiang Eauge, Forrest 5099, 

5722, 10301. 



Yunnan : Mekong-Tangtse and 3Iekong-SaI- 




rig, 2. — Pakaqvilegia microphylla {\ nat. size) 



158 



India. Sikkim : Naku La, Younghusland 220. Llonok 
5400 in., Jan. 1909, Smith and Cave 2313. Kumaon : Pindari,' 
^00 m., Strachey and Winterhottom; J. L. Stewart 712; Herl. 
l^^J'poner (Kew Distrib. 54). Garhwal : Madden 3053 (Herb. 
Ldmb.). Sources of the Janma, Jacquemont 712. Nik Yalley 



Butliietm. H 
Kanawar. Mu 



Hamta 



Kulu 4200 m /. R. Drummond 8318. Saueb *Pass, 4200 m.^ 
A^^r^l {j }'^\^,Ed9eioort}i. Above Eotang Pass, Kiilu, 



B 



2496 (Herb. Edinb.). Ha 



Watt 



unniimb 



g 



nilTT"^ ca^.^nY...m Boiss. et Holi. Diagn. Ser. i. viii. 7 
(1849); Boiss. Fl. Or. i. 64 (1867). 

AFGHANisTAjf. SuHman Mts., Aitdiison 121. 
Turkestan. 

India. Kashmir : 



ff 



INDIA. Kashmir: near Daranshi Camp, 3620 m., Conway 45, 
P.- ^r'S' ^^^^■^^^'- ???• Baltistan, Falconer 3653. Saskatti 



Pass, /. R. Drummond 1^22^ A. 



4. Paraquileg 

I so py rum anei 



egta 



m' L ^r'i*-^^.',^^-.^^e.^. = Paraquilegia grandiflora 



Maxim. Mel 



■iloTum, Aitch. 



et nemsl. m Journ. Lmn. Soc. six. 149 (1875). 

Turkestan. Alatan Mts., at the sources of the Lepsa and 

t^d:S::;I''fV%f'^i ''"'-' -ithout definit'elocal 
Z' : , ff onni"- ^^^' Kuh-Kalon, 3000 m., Konuirov. Mar- 



Komaro 



lcXKi58 zLIp-^''^^^ Semirechensk District 

.^ocalskz 2o8. Zamma River, PrzewalsU. Pamir, Kuschahewicz. 



Afghanistan. 



4500-4700 m., GriiJith 



trib. 39). Seratigah, 4200 m., 1879, 4^7cKyon 



India. N.W 



W T A 1 i^^-^' ^^5? '''•' ^*'^^e^&o«fom 535. Puniob Hima- 
l^o'm ''^1;5^n-''i^^^"^ Valley 3100-4300 m^lLTcX; 

Kukti Pass, Chamba TFo^Tm?^ rm K i^^•^^*^'^^^^ *° *^^ 
TFa« (Herb. Edinht '^ ^^''^- ^'^^^^•)- Zanscar-tsu, 



159 



Leptopyrum, Reichb. Consp. 192 (1828). 



rum 



Hist 



fumarioides 



Helleboriis f 



306 (1807). 



fumariaefi 



Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. viii. 



Eastern Asia : 



mount 



South to Kansu; naturalised' in parts of Europe. 



Altai to Amur, 




Fig. 3. — ^LxPTOPxauii fumartoidks (nat. size, dissections and fruits 

enlarcred)- 



fi 



§ 



Elores solitarii* 



stamina 



• * • 



Lrpella hand stipitata: 

Carpella plurisperma (usque ad 6) ; 



semina granulata 



» • 



Carpella 1-2-sperma ; stamina numerosa ; 



semina 



* m 



§ 



Elores umbeliati. 
Petioli petiolulis multo Lreviores; sepala 

basin versus angustata ; umbellum 

simplex; Asia bor. or. ... 
retioli petiolulis aequilongi vel longiores; 

sepala basi lata; umbellum composi- 

tum, umbellulis bracteatis; Am. bor. 

occid. ... ... •— ■ ••• 



I 



(1820). 



1. E. stipitatum 



2. E. occid entale 



3. E. hiternatum. 



4. E. Raddeanum 



5. E. Halliu 



160 



1. tnemion stipitatum, nobis, comb. nov. 

Isopyrum stipitatum, A. Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. xii. 54 

(1876). 
F. America. jS^. California, E. L. Greene. 

2. Enemion occidentale, nobis, comb. nov. 

Isopyrum occidentale, Hook, et Am. Bot. Beecli. Voy. 316 

(1841); Terr, et Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 660 (1840) ; Brewer and 

A\ ats. Bot. of Calif, i. 9 (1876) ; Jepli. Fl. W. Midd. Calif. 194 
(1901). 

■ ^N. America. California, without definite locality, Douglas. 
Near Forest Hill, Placer Co., among bushes in loose light soil, 
Apr. 12, 1865, H. \. BoJander 4553. Mariposa, Congdon. Coast 
Eanges: Weldon Canon, Yaca Mts., Mar.-Apr., Jephson. 
Amador County, 940 m., G. Hansen 737. Mt. Hamilton Ean^e, 
Heller 8934. San Benito, Elmer 4900. 

var. coloratum, nobis. Flowers red. 7. occidentale, var. 



ea 



California : Santa Cruz Mts., Fremont's Peak, Ma 
1893, L. W . Cusliman (not seen). 



Apr. 



3. Enemion biternatum, Raf. in Journ. Phys. xci. 70 (1820). 

Isopyrum biternatum, Torr. et Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 660 (1840). 
Britt. et Br. 111. Fl. X. States and Canada, ii. 89, fig. 1800 (1913). 

E. N. xImeeica. In moist woods and thickets, Ontario to Min- 
nesota, Kansas, Florida and Texas (fide Britt. & Br. I.e.). 




Fig. 4.-A. En-emion- BiTERNATUii. B. Enemion Eaddeaxxjm a nat. size, 

dissections enlarged). 

4._ Enemion Raddeanum, lUgel in Bull. See. Nat. Mosc. 



XXXIV. 11 



61, tab. ii. %. 3, 4, f.g. (1861). 



M 



Mel 



Webster 130. Li Fndin 



Moukden to Yalu River, at Laoling, He 



u' r. J. 

river, 1860, Maximowicz. In moist 



/TT ' — --^-"-j" • "^^^.>, xiiuur river, ^» May it 

(Herb. Kew). Bureia river mountains, Radde. 



Ko 



161 



CoREA. Musang district, 23 May, 1897, Komarov G61 (Herb. 
Mus, Brit.). A variety jaiwnica is recoi'ded by Francliet (Eiiiiru. 
PL Savat, ii. 271). We liave not seen any Japanese specimens. 

5. Enemion Hallii, nobis, comb. nov. 

Isopyriim Hallii, A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. vii. 374 (1872). 



N. AilEKICA. 

Hall 10 (type). 



Oregon 



without precise locality, 1871, Ehhu 



Isopyrum, Linn, (emend.). 



Petali unguis limbo multo bievior; sjoecies 



europea 



» • 



• • 



« « 



< * 



1. 7. thalictroidcs 



Petali unguis limbo longior; species asiati- 



cae : 
Torus demum tumescens et circa sum- 
mum pedicellum in forma coni trun- 
cati excavati deflexus: 

Semina laevia nitidaque : 
Petali limbus integer 
Petali limbus emarginatus ... • ... 
Petali limbus oblique bilabiatus ... 

Semina muricata vel tuberculata (fig. 



« * t 



• • 



2. 7. stolon if enim. 

3. 7. nipponicmn. 

4. 7. dicarijon. 



5 c): 
Petali limbus stipite sua 1-2 plo 

brevior; semina laxe tuberculata 5, 7. tracliysper- 



mitm 



Petali limbus stipitem suam aequans ; 



semina dense muricata ... 



w w 



6. 7. Fauriei. 



Torus baud tumescens : 

Semina laevia nitidaque, plus minusTe 

globosa : 
Foliolum terminale lanceolato-ellip- 

ticum, circiter medium latis- 
simUm (fig. 6 a) : 
Inflorescentia subscaposa 



luflorescentia foliosa 



• • « 



7. 7. Dalzielii. 

8. 7, anriculatum. 



Foliolum terminale plus minusve 

oborato-orbiculare, supra me- 
dium latissimum (figs. 6 b, c) : 



» t * 



Petali limbus integer 
Petali limbus emarginatus : 
Foliolum terminale lit in fig. 6 b 



9. 7. FranchetiL 



10. 7. sntchuenense. 



Foliolum terminale ut in fig. 6 c 11. 7. adiantifoUum. 



Semina reticulata, utrinque acuta (fig. 



5 b) 



* * 



« * 



■ ■ k 



« ■ It 



12. /. Fargesii. 



1 Isopyrum thalicfroides, Linn. Sp. PL i. 55T (1T53) ; DC 
Prodr.i. 48; Maxim, in Bull Acad. Sci St. PetersK xk 6ol 

Fontandla tertiaria, Pluk. ex. Bers. Prim^ Fl. Gai. n. 363 1808 . 
Gontarella tertiaria, Gilib. ex Steurl. ^«^- ^^ i. 380 (1821). 
Olia thalictri folia, Bub. Fl. Pyren. in. 3-8 (1901). 

B 



\ 



162 



( 



Europe. Mountains from the Pyrenees to the Ardennes and to 
Warsaw, south to the Abruzzi, Albania and the Northern Balkans. 




r 



ig. 5. 



■A, IsopYEuii THALiCTiioinEs, Linn.; Al, the Italian form with up 
to four carpels. B, I. Faugesii. C, I. TKACHYSPEiiinJM. 



2. Isopyrum stoloniferum, Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Sci. St. 
Petersb. xi. 63G (1883) ; Franch. in Journ. de Bot. xi. 222 (1897) ; 
Finet et Gagneii. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. li. 405 (1904). 

Isopyrum dicarpon, Franch. et Savat. Euum. i. 11, ii. 271, 
non Miq. 

Japan. Nippon: Senano Province, Tschonosld! Fudziyama 
woods, Tschojioslci (type). Mt. Fuzi, Suruga Province, July 26, 
1881, Set. Coll. Herb. (Japan); SaJcurai (Herb. Edinb.): Takcda 
(Herb. Edinb.). 

* 

3. Isopyrum nipponiciim, Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. xxvi. 
82 (18T9); Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Sei. St. Petersb. xi. 631 (1883) ; 
Franch. m Joum. de Bot. xi. 220 (1897); Finet et Gagnep. in 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. li. 407 (1904). 

jAPAif . Nii>pon : Etchigo Province, moist rocks near the Nitsu 
waterfall, Faurie 619 (fide Franch.). Kanasava Mountain, 
Faurie 7901. West of Shiniidzutiige, Faxirie 2585 (fide Franch.). 

We have seen only a rather fragmentary specimen of this 
species, which is not readily separated from T. dicarpon except 
by the form of the petals. 




163 



4. Isopyrum dicarpon, Miq. Prol. 195 (186T) ; Maxim, in Bull. 
Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. xi. 635 (1883); Francli. in Journ. de Bot. 
si. 221 (1897) ; Finet and Gagnep, Bull. Soc, Bot. Fr. li. 40T 

(1904). Isopyriim stipulaceum, Francli et Savat. Enum, PL 
Jap. ii. 270 (1874), fide Maxim, l.c, 

Japa:^, Nagasaki : Koisiwara, in woods, 18G3, Mcueimowicz. 
Idu Province; Mt. Amagi, June 12, 1883, Sci, Coll. Herb. 
(Japan). Kiusiu, Savatier (fide Franeh.). 

5. Isopyrum trachyspermum, Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Sci. St. 

Petersb. xi. 636 (1883); Francli. in Journ. de Bot, xi. 219 (1897). 

Isopyrum dicarpon^ S. Moore in Journ. But. 1878, 129, non. 
'Miq, 

Japaih. Mountains of Xikko and Ovama, Bisset 904. Miogi- 
san, Bisset 3653 (Herb. Edinb.). Hakone, Bisset 3876 (Herb. 
Edinb.). Cbichibu, XJnsaslii Province, Sci. Coll. Herb. (Japan), 
Woods at Tsukubosan, Hitaclii Province, TaJ^eda. Mt. Tanzawa, 

Sahurai (Herb. Edinb.). 

6. Isopyrum Fauriei, Franch. in Journ. de Bot. xi. 218 (1897) ; 
Finet et Gagnep. in Bull. Soc, Bot. Fr. li. 406 (1904). 

Japax. Nippon: Senano Province, near Asama-Yaina, May 
1892, Faurie 8018. 

We liave not, unfortunately, seen a specimen of tliis species 
and we have relied in our kev on the characters ffiven bv Franchet 
(I.e.). It may be a form of /. tmcJiyspermtim, Maxim., which 
was omitted from their revision of the g'enus bv Finet and 
Gagnepam. 







Fig. 6. — Terminal leaflets of A, Isopyrum auriculatum; B, I. stttchcen£NSe- 

C, I. ADiAXTiFOLiuK (B and C enlarged). 



7. Isopyrum Dalzielii, nohisy sp. nov. 



- Herha bispitbamea, radice fibrosa. Folia omnia radicalia^ 
petiolis basi abrupte auriculatis supra profunde canaliculatis 

cm. longis suffulta, pedatim 

circiter 4 cm. estensa, seg- 
mentis ovato-rhomboideis basi breviter cuneatis apice obtusis 



glabris usque ad 3 

ternata vel rarius abortu biloba, 



vel digitatim 



B 2 



'•jt\ 



164 



vel emarginatis ivregulariter crenulatis glabris infra glaucescen- 
tibus, petiolulis teneris terminale usque ad 5 mm. longo. In- 
florescentia efoliata, laxe cvmosa, ramis subcapillaribus, bracteis 



min 



usque ad 3*5 cm. long'i. Sepala ovata, obtuse acuminata, fere 
1 cm, longa, Petala sepalis dimidio breviora, spathulata, apice 
bifida. Carpdla duo, ensiformia, circiter 1 cm. longa, demnm 
divergeutia et chartacea, in stylum persistentem straminenm 
tenuem producta. Semina laevia, castanea^ nitentia, late ovoidea, 
quasi carinata. 

China. Kwangtung: Wu-king-fu, about 60 miles west of 
Swatow, /. M, Dalziel (Herb. Edinb.)- 

8. Isopyrum auriculatum, Franch. PL Delavay. 23, t- 6 

(1889); Finet et Gagnep. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. H. 405 (1904). 

Isopyrum Delavayi, Franch. in Journ. de Bot. xi. 222 (1897). 



China, Szecluian: Mt. Omi, E, H. Wilson (Yeitcb Esped.) 



4699; without localitv, E. E, Wilson (Veitcli Exped.) 3087. 
^Yestern Hupeli : E, H. Wilson (Veitcli Exped.) 2672. Tchen- 
fong-clian, June 1894, Delavay 49243 bis. Longki, Delavay 4951. 

9. Isopyrum Franchetii, Finet et Gagnep, in Bull. Soc. Bot. 

Fr, li, 4U5 (1904). Isopyrum auriculatiun, Francli. in Journ. de 
Bot, xi. 220 (1897), non in PI. Delav. Ic. 

China. Yunnan: mountain woods of Long-ki, Apr. 1894, 
Delavay 5094! (type). Hupeb : Soutli Patung, A, Henry 5374! 
without locality, A, Henry 5252! Kweicliow; Pinsa, Cacalerie 
(Herb. Edin.). 

10. Isopynira sutchuenense, Franch. in Journ de Bot. viii. 
274 (1894); Franch. I.e. xi. 219 (1897). /, ad lanti folium., Finet et 
Gagnep. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. li. 406 (1904), partim, non Hook, 
f . and Tlioms. Isopyrum ad ianti folium, var. arisanensis, Hayata 
in Journ, Coll. Sc. Tokyo, xxx. 21 (1911). 

China. SzecLuan: Tcben-keou-tin district, 2000 m., May, 
Farges 794. Soutb ^Yusllan, .4, Henry 5558. Western Hupeb : 
without definite locality, E. H. TF?75on ' (Yeitch Exped.) 258. 
518, Patung, E. H. Wilson (Yeitch Exped.) 448, Kweichow? 
Esquirol 432. Formosa: Arisan, 2500 m., Kawahami & Mori, 



578* (Herb. Mus. Brit.). 
11. 



/ 



1. 42 (1855); Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 23 (1875); Maxim. 'in Bull Acad. 
Sci. St. Petersb. xi. 634 (1883); Finet et Gagnep. in Bull. Soc. 
Bot. Fr. li. 406 (1904), p^irtim. 

India. Sikkim : Pachim, 2150 ni., Hooler and Thomson; 
Darjeeliug, 7. TJtomson: Griffith 



June 4, 1884, C\ B. Clarke, 25641, 35899; Lacaita 15719; Run- 



irvroong:, Sent. 7, 1869, 1D50 m., C. B. ClarJce 9118; Dikeeling, 
2400 m.. May 11, 1876, C. B. Clarhe 27870; On tlie vc^y to 
Snndukfu, Waft 5359. (Herb. Edinb.). Upper Burma: Lnsbi 

' This Formosan specirnen does not show the number of the stamens 
which are stated by Hajata to be five iu number. 



165 



country; Htawgau, valley of jN'aung-chaung, 2220-2250 m., 

KingdonAVard 1601 (Herb. Edinb.). 

12- Isopyrum Fargesii, Franch. in Joiirn, cle But. xi. 194 
(1807) ; Einet et Gagnep. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. li, 405 (1904). 

Chixa. Szechuan : near Tclien-keou-tin, Farges (type), 
Hupeli: A. Henry 5558 A. K-vveicLioAv: Pinsa, Cavalcrie (Herb. 
Ediub.). Gaupin, Cavaterie 2109 (Herb, Edinb.). 

Semiaquiiegia, Makino in Jap. Bot. Mag\ xvi. 119 (1902). 

Elores parvi, circiter 5 mm. longi; car- 

pella glabra; species japoniea ... 1. S. adoxoides. 
Floras satis magni, circiter l-l'o cm, 
longi; carj^ella pubescentia : 

Folia triternata; Am. bor 2. S. Eastwoodiae, 

Folia biternata; sp. asiatica 3. >S. siviulatrii. 

Folia trifoliolata ; sp. asiatica ... 4. S. Henriji, 

r 

1. Semiaquilegia adoxoides, Makino, I.e. 

Isopyrum adoxoides, DC. Syst. i. 324 (_1818). /. capnoides 



Fisch. ex DC. Prodr. i. 48 (1852). /. japonicum, Sieb. & Zut-c. 




ill Al)li. Akad. Miieucli. iv. ii. 181 

China. Szecluian : Keou-pa-tana, Delai-ay 18. Kweicbo^v: 
Piusa, Cavalerie 1344. Koiiy-vang, Bodinier 2110. Hupeh : 
Iclmug, A. Henry 1253 a ; without definite locality, E. H. \Vihon 
(Yeitcli Exped.) 151. ' Kiangsi : ]S'ankang£u, covering the 
ground in many parts, Apr., A'. D. Reid. Kiukiang city wall. 
Carles (Herb. Edinb.). Cliekiang : Shearer; Faher 714; shady 
and dry waste ground, Mar. -Apr., //. /. Hic'kin. " Chekiang 
cind n. Yangtze," Maries. Xiugpo, generally in deep shady 
glens or hill gorges, April. 1877, TT'. Hancock m-, Schnidler 4o9 
(Herb. Edinb.). Shanghai, i^oJ/mer 305. 

Japax. Tokyo, Sakurai (Herb. Edmb.). Oyama, Bisset 1382 
(Herb. Edinb.). Nagasaki, Langsdorff (Herb. Fischer); Oldham 
15; on old walls and banks, 500; Ma.vimoicicz; A. C. Main gay 
826. Yokoska, Samtler 12. Near Kobe, Apr. 1875, Moseley :— 
for further Japanese records see Makino I.e. 

CoEEA. Quelpaert Island, Tac^vet 510, 507, 2509, 4548, 4806, 
4807, 4808, 6048; Faurie 1724. 

Japanese name — Hime-vdu. 

2. Semiaquilegia Eastwoodiae,* nohis, comb. nov. 

Aqnilegia micrantha mancosana, Eastw. in Proc. Cflii. Acad. 
iii i 77 (1897). Aqnilegia micrantha ecalcarata, Davis in Minn. 
Bot Stud. ii. 336 (1899). Aquilegia East uoodiae, ^jdh. in Bull. 
Torr Bot Club xxix. 146 (1902). Aqnilegia ecalcarata, Eastw. 
in Zoe, ii. 226 (1891); Payson in Contrib. U.S. Xat. Herb. xx. 



* This and the next may be as Payson (l-c) inclines to suggest aberrant 
forms of Aquileqia, but pendinp: farther evidence we assume them to be 
Drimitive and have placed them in Seimarimlegm, to which on the characters 
they must be referred. Ulbrich's alternative solution to put S. Henryi 
under Aq^dlegia hardly commends itself. 



166 



153 (1918), Aquilegia mancosana, Cockerell in Torreya, xi. 75 

(1911). 

North A:mekica. Colorado; Jolmstoii Canyon, Mesa Yerde 

Nationol Park, Eastwood. 

'*Miss Eastwood collected tliis interesting plant in bnt one 
niche-like cnrern, wliere tlie snn never conies and wliere the 
supply of water is so slight during the hot, dry summer that it 
is forced to cling close to the damj) rocks, even climbing up the 
sides of the cave with its slender, threadlike stems." — Payson, 
Lc, We Iiave not seen a specimen. 

^\^^ 3. Semiaquilegia simulatrix, nohis, nom. nov, 

Aqnilegia ecalcarata^ Maxim. PL Tangut. 20, t. 

(1889); Finet et Gagnep. in Bnll. Soc, Bot. Fr. li, 411 (1904); 
non Hort. ex Steud., nee Eastwood. 

Chixa. Eastern Kansii, PrzeivalsJdj Potanin; Farrer 280 
(spec. cult, by Mrs, Woodward, Arley Castle), Szechuan : near 
Tatsienlu, Soiilie; Bonvalot, 



8, %• 



12. 




Fig. 7. Semiaquilegia Henrti. (Nat. size ; dissections and 

fruit enlarged.) 






4. Semiaquilejgia 

7s o pyni m Henryi 



Oliv. 



Ill Hook. Ic. PI. t. 1745 (1888). 

Anemone Boissmei, Lev. et Yaniot in Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot. 
1002, 47. Aquilenia Henrvi. Finpt fif nnanpr, in -Rnll Snn Tlnl: 



167 



Fr. li. 411 (1904). Isopyrum Boissieui, Tibr. in Engl. Bot. 
Jalirb. xxxvi, Beibl. 80, 6 (1905). 

Chijs^a. Hupeli : Nanto and neighbouring mountains, growing 
out of clefts of rocky cliffs, flower bluish, A. Henry 3820. Kwei- 
chow: between Tsin-chen and Ganpin, Mar. 17, 1898, Martin 
^' Bodinier 2120. Pinsa, Cavalerie 864. Chwang Chanpo, 
Esqnirol 3145. Szechuan : Tchen-keou district, Farges. 

Souliea, Franch. 

Souliea vaginata, Fmncli., in Journ. de Bot. xii. 69 (1898). 

Isopyrujn vaginatum, Maxim. Fl. Tangut. 18, t. 30 (1889). 

China. Thibet: Jhangkar Chu valley and up to the Jhangkar 
Pass, end of May, 1914, E. H, Walsh 104. W. Kansu: 1885, 
G, N. Potanin. Szechuon : '^ chiefly near Tachienlu,*' A. E. 
Pratt 881; without definite locality, 3000-3450 m., fls. pink. 
May 1904, E, H. Wilson 3171. Yunnan: Santchao, near Mo- 
so-yn, Delavay 3716. 




Fig. 8. SoTTLTE^ VAGIN'ATA, ( X f) ; dissections enlarged. 

The broad sheathing base of the lower petioles is a striking 
feature of this distinct monotypic genus. In many respects it 



168 



reae 



fugeae, its correct jDOsitiou being next to Cimicif 



Its fruits (fig. 8) recall those of some aiJecies oi E pi medium, whose 
deliiscence, however, is by two oblique valves and not by the 
adasial (ventral) suture as in Soidiea and all other dehiscent 
Ranunculaceae. 



t 



IXDEX TO x^AMES ASB SyXOXYMS DEALT WITH ABOVE, 

Anemojie Boissiaei, Lev, & Van. = Semiaquilegia Henryi. 
Aquilegia anemonoides, Willd. = Paraquilegia grandiflora. 
4. Eastwoodiae, Eydb. == Semiaquilegia Eastwoodiae. 

A. ecalcdrata, Maxim, (non Steud, nee Eastw.) = Semia= 

quilegia simulatrix. 

A. ecalcarata, Ea^tw. = Semiaquilegia Eastwoodiae. 

A. Henryi, Finet & Gagnep. = Semiaquilegia Henryi. 

A. micrantha, vars. mcnicosanay Eastw. & ecalcarata, Davis 

Semiaquilegia Eastwoodiae. 

Asteropyrum Cavaleriei, nobis. 
A. peltatum, nohis. 
Enemion biternatum, Rafin. 
E- Hallii, nobis. 
E. occidentale, 7iohis. 
E. Raddeanum, RegeL 
E. stipitatum, nobis. 

Fontanella tertiaria^ Kluk. ex Bess. = Isopyrum thalictroides. 
Gontarella tertiaria, Gilib, ex Steud. = Isopyrum thalic= 
troides. 

Helleborus fjimarioides, Lamarck = Leptopyrum fumarioides. 

H. thalictroidesy Lamarck = Isopyrum thalictroides. 

Isopyrum adiantifolium, Hool-. fiL <5 Thorns, 

L adou'oides, DC. = Semiaquilegia adoxoides. 

7. adoxoides^ Fr. et Sav. = Isopyrum nipponicum. 

7. alburn^ Dulac = Isopyrum thalictroides. 

7. anemoiioides, Kar. & Kir. =: Paraquilegia uniflora. 

7. aqxiiJegioides, Linn, (see ^* nomina exeludenda ''). 

I. auriculatum, Franch. in Bull Soc. Bot. Fr. xxxiii. 376 

(1886). 

7. auriculatiDii , Franch, in Journ. de Bot. xi. 220 = Isopy= 

rum Franchetti. 

7. biternatum, Torr & Gray ^ Enemion biternatum. 
7. Boissieui, TJlb. = Paraquilegia Henryi, 
7. caespitosum, Boiss. & Hohen. = Paraquilegia caespitosa, 
7. capnoides, Fisdi. ex DC. = Semiaquilej^ia adoxoides. 
. Cavaleriei, Lev. & Yaniot =: Asteropyrum Cavaleriei. 

7. Clarldi, Kellogr- = Enemion stipitatura. 

I* Dalzielii, nobis. 

r 

1. Delacayi, Fr. = Isopyrum auriculatum, Fr. 
I. dicarpon, iliquel. 

/. dicarpon, Francli. et Sit%-. == Isopyrum stoloniferum. 
/. dicarpon, S. Moore =. isopyrum trachysperinum. 
I. Fargesii, Francli. 

I. Fauriei, Francli. 



169 



I. Franchetii, Finet & Ga^uep. 

L fumanaefoUum., Salisb. = Leptopyrum fumarioides. 



/. fumario 
/, grandifi 
I. grand I fl 



Leptopyrum fumarioides. 

Paraquilegia grandiflo 
Enemion Kaddeanum. 



I. HaUii, A. Gray = Enemion Hallii. 



/. H 



g 



/. japonicnm, Sieb. & Zucc. = Semiaquilegia adoxoide; 
I. Leveilleunum, Kakai = Enemion Raddeanum. 
I. inicrophyllum, Eoyle = Paraquilegia microphylla. 
I. nipponicum, Franch. 

I. occidentaJe, Ilk. et Am. = Enemion occidenfale. 
7. peltatum, Franch. = Asteropyrum peltatum. 
7. Raddeanum, Maxim. = Enemion Raddeanum. 
7. sihiricum, Xiasliyui. = Leptopyrum fumarioides. 
7. stipitatum, A. Gray = Enemion stipitatura. 

7. stipuloceum, Fr. et Savat. = Isopyrum dicarpon. 

I. stoloniferum, Mn.rim. 

I. sutchuenense, Franch. 

I. thalictrifolium, Gilib. = Isopyrum thalicfroides. 

7. thalictvi folium, Salisb. = Isopyrum thalictroides. 

I. thalictroides, Linn. 

J. thalictroides, Short = Enemion biternatum. 

7. thalictroideum, St. Leger - Isopyrum thalictroides. 

I. trachyspermum, Ma.nm. 



I. tuherosnm, Lev. = SemiaquileJ 

7. nnifiprum, Aitch. & Hem; 

7. vagi'natum, Maxim = Souliea vaginata. 
Leptopyrum fumarioides, Reichb. 



g 



Oil 



Isopyrum thalictroides. 



g 



g 



P. microphylla, vohis. 
P. uniflora, nohis. 

Semiaquilegia adoxoid 
S. Easlwoodiae, nobis. 

S. Henryi, nobis. 
S. simulatrix, iwbis. 



g 



I 



Excluded Names. 



Lsopyrvm arpdlegioides, Bory & Chaub. = Thalictrum orien 



tale. 



Isopyrum aqnilegioides, Linn. = Aquilegia viscosa. 
7 ie;m>Z?fl^«^n, Pampan. = Thalictrum ichangense. 

I trichophyllum, Lev. = Thalictrum foeniculaceum. 

7. tri folium, Britton = Coptis trifolia. 



^ V 



170 



XXIV.— TRESCO ABBEY GARDENS, SCILLY ISLES. 

One of the functions of tlie Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew, as 
is well known, is to grow as far as possible the plants represen- 
tative not only of the British Empire, but also of the world. Por 
the most part these plants have to be grown under glass, and 
though even under these conditions many exhibit fairly well 
their natural pecularities of form and their general charac- 
teristics, especially when they come from the tropical regions, yet 
the plants from the subtropical countries, which are not hardy in 
the open, cannot as a rule be cultvated to show their true value and 
beauty under glass. 

It is the incomparable advantage of botanists and gardeners of 
Great Britain that they are able to study such plants, native of 
South Africa, jSTew Zealand, Australia and South America in the 
two famous gardens of Tresco Abbey in the Scilly Isles and La 
Mortola in the Riviera. 

These two splendid collections of plants, formed by the enter- 
prise and enthusiasm of two remarkable Englishmen, Augustus 
Smith and Sir Thomas Hanbury, are perhaps not sufficiently 
known to the botanists and gardeners of the present generation. 

British botanists tend to be concerned so much with problems of 
structure and function that they have but little leisure or inclina- 
tion to investigate the interesting general features of the vegeta- 
tion of the Empire, while those whose function it is to deal with 
the systematic side of the science are so fully occupied that they 
have but little time left to study as living organisms the plants 

with which they are so familiar as dried specimens in the her- 
barium. 

This, however, is an omission that is not wholly their own fault 
and It would be highly desirable if arrangements could be made 
so that systematic botanists, more particularly, should pay visits 
to the^e two magnificent collections, from time to time, in order 
to study m the living condition the plants with which their sphere 
oi work has made them familiar, though only as inanimate 

objects. '' 

A twofold benefit could not fail to be realised by such visits, 
lor, m the first place, the knowledge of the plants as living 
organisms growing m the open under conditions closely com- 
parable to those of their native countries would teach much of 
their structure and functions, and possibly also of their powers 
of variation and adaptation, while in the second place these 
experts m botanical nomenclature would be able to assist the 
owners of the collections m maintaining and ensuring the correct 
naming of their plants. In addition they would without doubt 
be able to suggest new and interesting subjects for experimental 



t],e .!? ^ are the collections both at Tresco Abbey and in 

rir J«.iTl 'f '\ ^^^^i^^l^ ^^^^ ^^'y °ff^^ abundant scope for a 
K.WH ^">^\^^t^^d a botanical laboratory, but such a counsel 
of T>..f..t.on IS obviously beyond the range of a private individual, 

tioTi iT. nrUy ,i-}i ^^^^C'-^^e^^ of maintenance of his collec- 

sidered a dnt "% .\^ qM^'" ^''^'''' ^^^ '^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ther be con- 
sidered a duty of the State to provide funds for visiting botanists, 



perfect 



I 



171 

i 

%vIio might be on the staff of the ?^^ationnl Botanical Institution 
at Kew, or the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, for the pur- 
poses of making careful studies of the collections at Tresco Abbey 
and La Mortola at different times of the year. 

In the case of both these institutions, ^\-hich may be truly styled 
Botanic Gardens, a complete and accurately named garden her- 
barium is required, and also as far as possible drawings and 
studies should be made of the rare and interesting plants as they 
come into flower. 

At La Mortola, we believe, sometliiiig has already been done in 
the direction of making a representative collection, 'but at Tresco, 
beyond the fact that valuable additions havQ been made from time 
to time to enrich the national herbaria at Kew and at Edinburgh, 
a local garden herbarium has not yet been established. 

Tresco, however, is foitunate in j>ossessing a remarkable collec- 
tion of drawings of a large number of the interestiiig plants w])ieh 
have flowered in the gardens. The collection was commenced by 
Mrs. Le Marchant, sister of 

beautiful and faithful book of her paintings is carefully preserved 
at the Abbey. 

These drawings were made about the middle of the last century, 
and represezit the plants introduced to Tresco hy Mr. Augustus 
Smith. Many of these plants were sent to him from Kew, while 
for others he was indebted to correspondents in Australia, JTew 
Zealand and South Africa. His remarkable botanical enterprise 
and keen interest in gardening was continued by his nephew, 
whom he inade his heir, Mr. Thomas Alijernon Dorrien-Smith. 
He succeeded to the Lordship of the Islands in 187.2, and before 
then had taken no particular interest in plants or gardens, but 
he succeeded by determined effort to acquire a full knowledge of 
the collections and developed a very keen interest in and genuine 
love of his plants. On his lamented death in 1918 (K.B., 1918, 



Ml. .. ., 



He 



Mai 



tastes and interests, but has done even more signal service to 
the science of botany in making expeditions to New Zealand and 
the Chatham Islands, and to Australia in search of seed and plants 
for the enrichment of the collections at Tresco. In addition, 
during his service in the South African War he found odd 

many interesting seeds 



coll 



or Aloes, Gladioli, and other plants for the Tresco Gardens. 

Just as the mantle of the uncle has descended on nephew and 
reat-nephew so has the mantle of Mrs. Le Marchant fallen on 
er great-nieces, and the collection of flower studies which she 
initiated has been skilfully and beautifully continued by the 
Misses Dorrien-Smith, the sisters of the present Lord Proprietor. 
Though much has been done by tliese ladies, many plants still 




com 



which comprises so remarkable and unique a collection. 



vigour 



that they exhibit in their native country have nearly all been 
faithfully painted, as has also the extensive collection of Pelar- 
goniums, most of which flourish here in the open and flower ulmost 



iV 



172 



I 

tliroughoiit the entire year. One species indeed, P. tomentosum, 
grows Tvitli such remarkable vigour that it even kills out the 
common bramble by suffocation ! 

Sometliing must now be said of the Abbey Gardens as they 

are at the present day, Augustus Smith was quick to realise 

. that without shelter it was possible to grow very little of interest 

on a wind-swept spot like Tresco, and when he became Lord 

Proprietor in the year 1833 he started the planting up of shelter 



trias 



Qiiercus Ilex, wliicli soon re __ 

nooks and corners where choicer subjects could be planted. 
Thanks to this shelter from the frequent gales, exotic trees such 
as Hakea oJeijoUa, Cinnamomum camphora, Batiksias, Metro- 
sideros tomentosa, M. rohusta, and many others are now fine and 
stately specimens 30-40 feet high and covered each year with a 
profusion of bloom. 

In addition to the shelter belts and plantations of wind-resisting 
trees an extensive rock garden was built up and formed partly 
out of the natural granite rock of the island and in the sheltered 
bays many a plant unknown to our Xorthern Hemisphere has 
found a home and developed with extraordinary vigour. 

In such places may be found a great variety of Aloes which 
bloom each yeor, such as .4. arhorescens and several other species 
enuinerated in the Tresco plant list, numerous Agaves and a host 
of Crassulas, Sedums, and Mesembryanthemums, which, indeed, 
revel in the chinks and crannies of "the exposed rocks. 'Even in 
March and April the garden is brilliant with masses of Mesem- 
bryanthemum aurantiacum, J/. Zeyheri, M. prodiictum, and 
cusziions of the beautiful soft pink M. crassum, with magnificent 
spires of Aloe Salm-Dijcldana rising above them. 

_ Of shrubs, some of the more noticeable at the time of my visit 
m April ^ei;^Olearia Gunnii, and 0. stellulata, Agonis fiexuosa, 
Yhwm Calhfhyrsum from the Canary Islands, 'l.wpogou lati- 



f 



f 



HaKena lucida some 30 ft. high covered with flowers and Brachy 
glottis repanda with large trusses of white flowers. This forms, 
ft large shrub, and though the leaves with their silvery lower 
surface are exposed to the full force of the wind they do not 
appear to suffer to any extent, and give a fine effect as a bold 
evergreen shrub. Other interesting trees that deserve notice are 
Cinn^momvm camphora. some 30 ft. high, Clethrn arhorea, Ficus 
rn^crophyUa, some 20 ft. high, grown from seed brought home 
by Major Dorrien-Smith, and several Acacias, of which .4. longi- 
foha was being cut m considerable quantities for the London' 
market, ^or must Oleana semidentata be forgotten, which with 
C. chathamica was just coming into blossom 

Four species of Coprosma, C. lucida, C. Baueri, C. qrandiflora' 
and C. rohusta make interesting evergreen trees. They we4 in 
full flower and trees of both sexes of some of the species are to be 

t^lV'i t' f^^^T*^^^'-. ^- ^^"^"' ««*^ ^^^f^ re^ularlv which 
germinate freely where they fall. 



I 



V 



173 



Some of the most successful Ledge plants at Tresco are EscaU 
Ionia macrantlia and Veronicas, Eugenia ainculata, Correas and 
yarious species of Pittosponim, and the low hedges made by ilie 
first-mentioned shrubs enable more tender plants to be gTown in 
small sheltered enclosures. 

The Tresco Abbey Gardens and plantations fall into three very 

distinct sections y — - 

' 1. The garden pro^jer, which includes the rock garden with a 
southern as2:»ect. Here are considerable outcrojjs of granite rock, 
and it becomes very hot and dry during the summer months. It 
is in this part of the garden that the Mesembryantliemums, 
Crassulas and Pelargoniums flourish as in their native home, and 
in addition, Pimelias, Diosmas, Aloes, Cactoid Euphorbias and 
Puyas grow without trouble, while such bulbous plants as 
Sparaxis and Freesias become veritable weeds. 

2. Then there is all the hij3:her ijround above the g^arden denselv 



planted with Cupressus macrocarpa and Finns insignis, amongst 
which are numerous sheltered bays and enclosures. Here among 
the predominant gorse and heather are planted the Acacia? — 
several species, including A. Baileijana, A. longifoUa, and A. 
verticiUiata, growing and flowering in luxuriance, their only 
enemy being the wind. Several species of Melaleuca, Leptosper- 
mum and Hal^ea are also making fine bushes. Trees of particular 
interest which have been planted in these sheltered hollows and 
are doing well are Leucadendron argenteunu the Cape Silver tree, 
some 10 ft, high, surrounded by gorse, which probably affords it 
good protection against the wind and also keeps the soil moist, 
Widringtonia Whi/tci, the Mlanje Cedar, from Xyasaland, CaUi- 
tris SuUivani, from Australia, Juniperiis hennvdiana, the pencil 
cedar, Dacrydiuin cupressoides and several species of Podocarpns 
and other interesting exotic conifers. Here also an avenue of the 
Norfolk Island Pine, Araiicaria exceha, has been made. On the 
shady side of the grass drive these trees are making fine growth, 
but on the more exposed and sunny side they are not a success. 

3. The third section of the groimds embraces the northern slope 
of the central hill, and on this side in bays and clearings among 
the trees a considerable collection of Himalayan and Chinese 
Rhododendrons has been brought together. There are several fine 
specimens of i?. arhoreum and R. AiicUandii, but the most strik- 
ing and interestinir species is li, Veitchianum, a splendid buvh 
some 7 ft. high and 7 or 8 ft. through, bearing a profusion of its 
magnificent sweetly-scented white flowers in mid-April. /?. 
ponticum occurs throughout this part of the grounds as an under- 
growth and makes an excellent wind break near the ground. It 
has, however, one drawback, since it seeds so freely that its seed- 
lings tend to coA-er the groimd and choke the smaller species 
unless constant attention is paid to weeding them out. 

A word may be said as to other weeds which are prevalent m 
the Tresco Gardens. In addition to Freesias, Cinerarias come up 
everywhere, and Bluebells, several species of Oxalis, Allium tn- 
queiruvi and Notlioscordhim are pests with which it is almost im- 
possible to cope effectively. The latter plant introduced by some 



174 



lover of plants as an interesting addition lias proved to be a curse 
from which the gardens can hardly hope ever to be freed. 

It is not necessary now to allude to the Scilly Island industries, 
such as the Daffodils {K.B., 1913, p. 171) and Potato growing 
for the English and French markets which have been so success- 
fully initiated and fostered by the successive Lord Proprietors, 
but reference may be made in conclusion to the possibilities of 
growing Xew Zealand Flax as a crop for the production of Fibre, 
not only on Tresco, but in suitable spots on some of the other 
islands. Phormium is growing remarkably well on Tresco with- 
out any particular attention being paid to it, and though there 
would not be very many acres available for its cultivation in the 
Scilly Isles it would appear possible to set up a Flax industrv in 
co-operation with growers in Cornwall, and provide a sufficient 
quantity of leaves to keep a Cornish Flax mill working throughout 
the 3'ear. 

_ As an example of the suitability of the Scillies for Phormium 
It is of interest to find that plants of F. Colensoi, a species, how- 
ever, which is not of much value for Flax production, has estab- 
lished itself at the foot of the Western Cliffs on St. Martin's just 
above the reach of the waves. Two large plants may now be seen 
which have apparently grown from chance seeds and thev are 
fully exposed to the salt spray. They flower profusely and Vipen 
seeds, and young seedlings are springing up in crevices in the 
granite _ cLffs above and around the original plants. This 
naturalization of r. Colensoi serves to show that though at first 
sight the Islands might not be thought suitable for Phormium, 
owing to the somewhat dry granitic soil, yet the climatic condi- 
tions so much resemble those of New Zealand that the cultivation 
would appear to offer every prospect of success. 

It IS not the purpose of this brief article on the remarkable 
collections m the Tresco Abbey Gardens to enumerate the various 
plants m detail, its object rather is to point out that in the 
bciiiy Islands, thanks to the enterprise and love of plants dis- 
played by the successive Lord Proprietors, we have within the 
boiinds of Great Britain a Botanic Garden of singular importance 
and value. For in this favoured spot may be studied the prin- 
cipal teatures, not only of the temperate regions of IS'ow Zealand 
and her outlying islands, of Au.,tralia and of South America, but 
also a vast number of the characteristic features of the subtropical 
vegetation of South Africa. 

The Tresco Gardens have therefore an exceptional claim to be 
regarded as an Imperial asset of great importance to the botanists 
of t lis country whose work lies with the botanical resources of the 



J5ritish Empire, and it is to be hoped that some provision mav be 
made for linking them more closely in the future with the scien- 
tific centre maintained by public funds for the purpose of co- 
ordinating the work of applying botanical knowledge to practical 



A. W. niLL. 



175 



XXV.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

I 

Sir H. A. Wickham, — We note witli pleasure tliat the honour 
of knighthood has been conferred on Mr. H. A. Wickham in 
recognition of his pioneer work in the establishment of the Eubber 
Industry in the East. 



Sir Edmuxd Giles Loder, Bart. — Kew has lost a valued 

correspondent of long standing by the death of Sir Edmund Loder 
at Leonardslee, Horsham, on April 14th. He will be long remem- 
bered as the maker of one of the finest English gardens of the 
present time. His tastes in horticulture were very comprehensive, 
and although his interest in late years was probably keenest in 
rhododendrons and conifers, there was scarcely any pliase of 
gardening Avith which he was not in active sympathy. In his 
earlier days he took up the cultivation of Alpines and constructed 
one of the most elaborate rock gardens in the countrv for their 
accommodation. Daffodils and hardy fruits had also been amongst 
his special interests. Sir Edmund, however, was a good deal more 
than a successful cultivator. He took a keen interest in botanical 
problems, and his efforts to get his collections correctly named 
were untiring. He was also a zoologist, hunter and sportsman. 
As lately as March 29th he was fishing in the Eiver Tay. He was 
the eldest son of Sir Robert Loder, Bart,, and was born in 
August, 1849. As his only son, Capt. R. E. Loder, of the Eoyal 
Sussex Regiment, died in'^March, 1917, from wounds^ received at 
Gaza, Sir Edmund is succeeded in the baronetcy by his grandson. 



Dr. George Y. Perez. — We regret to announce the death of 
Dr. G. V. Perez on February 29th at La Quinta, Santa Ursula, 

Tenerifte, 

Dr. George V. Perez was the son of Dr. Victor Perez, of Orotava, 

Teneriffe, a distinguished physician who took a gieat^ interest 

in ao-riculture and horticulture in the Canaries, and in whose 



lionour Micromeria Terezii was named. After his father's death 
he edited a memoir on the Canarian fodder plant " Tafrasaste " 
{Cytisus liolmensis), which had been prepared by Dr. Victor Perez 
in coUaboration with the French botanist Sagot. 

Dr. G. V. Perez from time to time contributed to various hor- 
ticultural and arboricultural journals articles dealing with 
Canarian botany, forestry and horticulture ; among these may be 
mentioned an account of an interesting system of dry farming 
practised in the island of Lanzarote (Bull. Soc. Hortic. France, 
Jan. 1913). It is, however, chiefly as an enthusiastic investi- 
gotor of the Canarian flora that his name wiU be remembered. 
He cultivated numerous rare Canarian plants in his gardens at 
Puerta Orotava, Villa Orotava and Santa Frsula, and was instru- 
mental in introducing some of them into cultivation in Europe. 
It was owing to his indefatigable efforts that the long-lost Statice 
arhorea was' rediscovered on the face of a precipitous cliff, up 
which it was hauled by ropes to which hooks were attached (Ann. 



176 

Bot. xxii. p. 115). He commuuicated some of liis entlmsiasm io 
other botanists, and generously placed at tlieir disposal tlie 
nj.aterial and information which he had collected. Among scien- 
tific papers written at his suggestion or based on his work, the 
following may be mentioned : —The Statices of the Canaries of the 
Subsection Mobiles (Ann. Bot. xx. pp. 205, 301); Echiums from 
the Atlantic Islands {Kew Bull. 1914, pp. 116, 265); Tagasaste 
and Gacia {Kew Bull. 1918, p. 21) ; The Rain Tree of Hierro 
{Kew B till . Idld , ^ . Ib^) . 

He retained his enthusiasm to the date of his death, and one 
of his last letters to Kew was concerned with his efforts to re- 
discover Echinm gentianoides, a Palma species which lias only 
once been collected. His name is commemorated by Sfatice 
Perezii, Ecliium Ferezii (Bot. Mag. t. 8617) and Cytisus Perezii. 

T. A. S. 



"William Tysox.— We record with regret the death of Mr. 
William Tyson, which occurred at Grahamstown on xVpril 14th, 
1920. Though born m Jamaica in 1851, Mr. Tyson belongs essen- 
tially to South Africa, where for many years he was an ardent 
plant collector. As early as 1877 he began collecting near Port 



Elizabeth, and in subsequent years he made extensive additions 

to his store, both whpn nn fmiv ttvUi +1iq Qi7v,ri>M',a^,wi^,.j^ „-c inr^r^^lc 



Wood 



and Forests and during periods of residence in a number of dis- 
tricts. His field included the Karroo, the Cape Peninsula, East 
Griqualand, Pondoland, and the district round King William's 
Town. His collection supplied the material for several new species 
as well as for the genus Tysonia. Some hundreds of the East 
Griqualand and Pondoland specimens are at Kew, while the 
Herbarium Xormale Austro-Africainae was considerably enriched 
as a result of his efforts. A record of Mr. Tyson's correspondence 
with Kew reveals his keen interest in the welfare of the Cape, as 
IS shown by his scheme for tree-planting in' the Murraysburg 
district. In latter years he resided at Port Alfred, and specialised 
in marine algae, his interest in which prompted a recent visit to 
the Pondoland coast; he hoped also to increase his phanerogamic 
collection, but ill-health unfortunately hampered his activities. 



Thesium brachystylum.— Througli inadvertence the name 

ihesmm fimhrtatvm, A. W. Hill, has been assigned to two 
difterent_^ species of the genus, one from IN'yasaland, described in 
^ j^'j}^\^^ P- 184,^ and the other from South Africa, described 
i? 'i •' -'-^-!;^' P- 2"- Tliese names have also been published in 
the Flora of Tropical Africa, TI. pt. 1, p. 422, ond the Flora 
Lapensis, \ . sect. ii. pt. 1, p. 191. The South African plant has 
therefore been given the name T. hracJiysti/lum, A. W. Hill, as 
It is distingushed by possessing a short style, a character which 
separates the species from its nearest allies.' a. w. h. 



Printed under the Authority of His Majesty's Ftatiokert Office, 

By Jas. Truscott and Son, Ltd., Suflolk Lane, E.G. 4. 



l_Crown CopyriijJd Ueserved^ 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 




B ULLETIN 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 



T 



No. 6] 



[1920 



• 



\ 



XXVI. -CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF 

MACEDONIA: IIL* 

W. B. TUEEILL. 

The followiuo' additional contribution to oiir Icnowledgfe of i\ie- 
Macedonian flora is based ciiiefiy on a collection of over 3U0 speci- 
mens made by Mr. L. Y. Turner in 1917 and 1918. Xearly li?0 
species and varieties are Lere recorded for the first time in this 
series, and these api^ear in clarendon type in the systemotic list 
below. Apart from these new records the chief interest of the 
collection lies in the fact that it was largely made in the eastern 
part of Macedonia in the neighbourhood of the Rendina Gulf. 
Very little, if any, botanical collecting had preriously been done 
in this area and*^ consequently considerable additions have been 

ade to the known distribution of Macedonian plants. 

The opportunity has been taken of recording some plants which 
for one reason or another were not included in the first and 
second contributions, and also of correcting a few errors which 
were made in the first paper. 

Our o-reatesf need at present, so far as the the Macedonian 
flora is*^concerned, are collections from the higher mountains, 
especially from those, such as the Belashika Planina, which pro- 
bably have an Alpine flora in' their highest parts. Help and 
advice will be most gladly given at Kew to anyone who is likely 
to have the opportunity of visiting these unexplored collecting- 

jifrounds- ,. -, t p n • i. ^ 

:Mr. Turner has vers' kindly supplied the following account of 

the making of his collection : 



'' We landed at Salonika early in February, 1917, and spent 



» Parts I and II. of the present series were published in the Kev: Bulletin 
8 and 9, IQIs, and 3, 1919, respectively. 



(996 



.) Wt.l35. P. 47. 1,000. 7/20. J.T.&S..Ltd. G. 14. Sch. 12- 



178 



some little time at the Karaissi rest camp. The hills rouud are 
of crystalline rock, devoid of trees, and sparsely covered with 
coarse herbage and occasional low growing shrubs — such as the 
holly oak [Quercus coccifera). The occurrence of some tiny 
flowers, appearing just after the snow melted, aroused my interest 
and decided me to do what I could in making a collection. 

" Apart from the very few collected at Karaissi the specimens 
were obtained chiefly while at four camps. 

"The first of these was Lembet. Our camp was close to the 
tillage, on the edge of the Hortiach ridge, leading up to the peak 
Xotos, and just east of the Seres Koad at Eilo. 5. The specimens 
were obtained during the months of March, April, May, and 
June from this neighbourhood, including the hilly country 
b^etween Lembet and Jaladzik (Yellow-jack), and the Happy 
Yalley, which runs approximately parallel to, and east of the 
-Seres Road, 

" Early in July we were encamped for some ten days at the 
great tumulus on the western side of the Seres Eoad at Kilo. 8i 
and near the summit of the Derbend. A few specimens were 
added there, although I missed a fine white foxg-love, many 
■examples of which were in full flower on the pass going towards 
General's Corner. 

"We then trekked along the Langaza-Beshik trough via the 
Eue Ignatia— through the Rendina Gorge with its magnificent 



vegetation to Stavros. 

My 



while at Stavros 



Point during the very hot months of July, August, and Septem- 
ber. Here there is a narrow strip of diluvial land at the foot of 
the scrub-covered and wooded hills surrounding 
Orfano) Gulf. ^ 



Hendina 



(I rn 



Thence we trekked to the Struma front and a few additions 
were made to the collection during my encampments in the 
autumn of 1917 to May, 1918, near Ano Kmsones. The latter 
lies almost at the summit (some 1200 ft. above sea level) of the 
sandy scrub-covered hills which are intersected by steep ravines 
and overlook the mouth of the Struma, Amphipolis Plateau, the 
Struma Gorge and Lake Ahinos. Supei-b and distant views of the 
Struma Plain and the Belashika Mountains could be obtained on 
tilmost any day, while the great peak of Pilav Tepe frowned or 
smiled on us continually, and away in the distance the graceful 
-eak of Mount Atbos rose from the sea on the 80uth-e« stern 



onzon. 
'' Witl 



of add tional specimens could have been collected. One area of 

covered with a fine bushy species of bell heather, of which I 
unfortunately obtained no specimen. 

"Around here the flowers in the spring were as wonderful as 
they were reported to be on the great Struma Plain. In my own 
camp even varie les of fly, bee, and butterfly orchis, anemone 

crocus and 



cyclamen were equally abundant. Unfortunately durin 



ff m\ 



179 



(C 



stay in this area opportunities for collecting and pressing speci- 
mens were few, so that many were omitted/' 

The two following papers dealing, the first in part, the second 
entirely, with the flora of Greek Macedonia, have recently 
appeared: A. G. Ogilvie, '' A Contribution to the Geography of 
Macedonia," Geogr. Journ. Jan. 1920, p. 1. E, Jeanpert, 
'' Enumeration de Plantes de Macedoine," Bull. Mus. Nat. 
d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 1919, Nos.^5 and 6, pp. 390, 517. Both deal 
with observations and collections made during the allied occupa- 
tion, and the publication of the latter paper is not yet completed. 

Systematic List. 

Clematis Flavimula^ L. Stavros, in flower and fruit, 8 and 

9-ir, Turner, 202, 233, 247, 259. 

Thalictrum angustifolium, Jacq. Stavros, in flower and young 
fruit, 7-17, Turner 204, 205. 

Anemone stellafa, Lam. Lembet, in flower, 3-17, Turner 15; 
Ano, in flower, 4-17, Turner 313. 

Anemone hlanda, Schott et Kty. Lembet, in flower, 3-17, 
Turner 14. 

Adonis aestivalis, L, 

Struma Plain, 2 km, S.E. of Orljak,in flower and fruit, 23-4-17, 
Turrill 94. 

Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., N. Afr., Orient. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

The following probably belong to this species, but the material 
is not sufficient to decide definitely : Struma Plain and Krusa 
Balkan, in flower 4 and 5-18, Harris 20, 225; Lembet, in flower 
and young fruit, 5-17, Turner 79. 

Ranunculus Ficaria, L, 

Ano, in flower, spring 1918, Turner 299. 
Distr. Eur., Caucasus, Asia Minor, N. Afr. 
Balkans : General. 

This is very probably the var. ficariaeformi,s , Fiori [Ficaria 
grandiflora, Robert) but tlie material is insufficient to determine. 

NiffeUa arvensis^ L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 173. 
DeJpliinium halteratum, S. et S. 8| km. N". of Salonika, in 
flower, 7-17, Turner 199. 

Delphinium peregrinum, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 186. 
Distr. S.E. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced. 

Delphinium paniculatum^ Ho^t. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, 
Turner 142. 

Glaucium flavum, Cr. (G. luteum, Scop.). 

Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 220. 
Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., Canaries, Orient. 
Balkans : Greece, Maced. 

Glaucium corniculafum, Curt. var. flavifiorum, DC. 8| km. 
N. of Salonika, in flower and fruit, 7-lT, Turner 198. 

A 2 



180 



Hypecoum procumbens, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 3 and 4-17, Turner 23a. 
Distr, Mediterranean Region. 
Balkans : Greece, Bnlg. 

Hypecoum grandiflorum^ Bentli. Lenibet, in flower 3 and 4-17^ 

Turner 23. 

Fximaria officinalis, L. Lembet, in flower 3-17, Turner 12- 

Capparis sicula, Duh. 

Lenibet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 190. 
Distr. vS.E. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced, 

Reseda lutea, L, 

Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 48. 

Distr. Cent, and S. Eur,, X. Afr., Orient. 

Balkans : General. 

Reseda alba, L, 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 166. 
Distr, S, and W, Eur., N. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece. 

Viola KltaiheUana, II. et S. Lembet, in ilower 3 and 4—17, 



Turner 26; Kato, in flower, 4-17, Turner 291. 

Lepidiura campestre, L. 

Lembet, in flower and fruit, 5-17, Turner 81. 
Distr. Eur., Orient. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

Clypeola jonthlaspi, L. var. intermedia, Hal. 

Lembet, in flower and fruit, 4-17, Turner 28. 
Distr. (of var.). Greece, Smyrna. 

Camelina rumelica, Yel. (probably tlie same as C microcarpa, 
Audrz.). 

Struma Plain, 2 km. N.E. of Orljak, in flower and fruit, 
26-4-17, Turrill 101. 

Distr. Maced., Thrace, Bui"'. 

I^aphanus Raphanistrum, L. 

Lembet, in flo^-er, 4 and 5-1 T, Turner 58. 

Distr. Eur., Orient, N. Afr., and more or less spontaneous in 
many temperate regions. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced. 

Sisymbrium officinalis, Sco'p. 

Lembet, in flower nnd fruit, 5-17, Turner 107 
Distr. Eur., N. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Serb., Bulg. 

Lepidium graminifolium, L. 

Lembet, in flower and fruit, T-17, Turner 18T. 
DistT. Cent, and S. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg., Thrace, 



181 



Aethionema graecum, Boiss. et HeJdr. rar. pseudogracile, Hal. 

Lembet, in flower and young fruit, 4-17, Turner 36; Eato, in 
flower, 4-17, Turner 293. 

Distr. (of yar.). Greece, Elbrus, Maeed., Bulg. 

Capsella grandiflora, Boiss. 

Ano, in flower, spring 1918, Turner 302. 
Distr. Greece, Epirus, Corfu, Tliessaly. 

Capsella thracica, Yel. 

Lembet, in flower and fruit, 3-17, Turner 5, 9. 
Distr. Maced., Thrace, Bulg, 

Cardaviine graecea, L. Ano-Krusones, in flower and young 
fruit, 4-17, Turner 319. 

Alyssum micranthnm, M.B. Lembet, in flower, 3-17, Turner 4. 

F 

Erophila verna, Meyer^ var. brachycarpa, Jord. (pro. sp.). 

Lembet, in flower and young fruit, 3-17, Turiier 19. 
Distr, Cent, Eur., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece. 

w 

Erysivuim repandumy L. Ano, in flower, spring 1918, Turner 
295. 

Berteroa orbiculata, DC. 

Lembet, yellow flowers, 4-17, Turner 27. • 
Distr. Maced., Thrace. 

Berteroa incana, Z., var. stricta, TurrilL (comb, nov.) Ber- 
teroa strictay Boiss. et Heldr. B. orbiculata, DC. var. stricta, 
Boiss. B, incana, DC, var. trichocarpa, Eohlena in Mag. Bot. 

Lap. vi. 1907, p. 151. 

Ano, in flower and fruit, spring 1918, Turner 307. S.E. of 
Karamudli, white flowers, in flower and fruit, 20-6-17, Turrill 430. 

Distr. (of vtir.). Thessaly, Maced., Thrace, Bulg,, Mtn. (prob. 
also Alb. and Bosnia). 

Hypericum olympicum, L. Lembet^ In flower, 5 and 6-17, 
Turner 113; Stavros, in flower, 8-17, Turner 228. 

Hypericum crispum, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 181. 
Distr. S.E. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace. 

Hypericum perforatum, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 

171. 

Velezia rigida, L. Lembet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 180. 
Dianthus tenuiflorus, Griseb. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 

126. 

Dianthus graciUs, Sihth. var. armerioides, Griseb, 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 148. 
Distr. (of var.). Maced., Bulg. (?). 

Dianthus pinifolius, S. et S. 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 152. 

Distr. Tliessaly, Epinis, Maced., Thrace, Bulg., Lemnos. 




1018 



1S2 

Koldrauscliia ijrolifera, Eclib. fil. Starros, in flower, 7-17, 
Turner 225. 

The specimens wliicli flowered at Kew, 15-6-18, and were grown 
from seed collected on the southern slopes of Erusa Balkan, 
30-6-17, Turrill (seed-nnmber), 66, are Koldrauscliia velutina, 
Echb. 

Tunica illi/rica, Boiss. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 153. 
Saponaria officinalis, L. Lembet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 183. 
A form with double flowers. 

Saponaria officinalis, L. var. glaberrima, Ser. in DC. Prod. 
I. D. 365. 

tavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 221. 
Distr. (of var.). Here and there with the type. 

Silene subconica, Friv. Lembet, in flower 5-17, Turner 91. 

Silene lydia, Boiss. (S. Harrisii, Turrill, in Kew Bull. 
p. 267). 

Struma Plain and IN'orthern slopes of Krusa Balkan, in flower, 
4 and b-ld>; Harris 164; Struma Plain, 2 km. S.E. of Orliak, pink 
flowers, 26-4-17, Turrill 103. 

Distr. Western Asia Minor. 

Silene trinervia, Seb. et Maur. Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 
218. 

Silene gallica, L. Lembet, in flower, 4 and 5-17, Turner 52, 61. 

Silene graeca, Boiss. et Sprun. 

Lembet, in flower, 5 and 6-17, Turner 112. 

Distr. Greece. 

Cucubalus bacciferus, L. 

Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 217. 
Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Maced., Thrace, Bulg. 

Agrostemma Githago, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 78. 

Alsine recurva. All. 

Lembet, in flower, b-17 ^^Turner 95. Struma Plain and northern 
slopes of the Krusa Balkan, in flower and fruit, 5-17, Harris 307; 
8-10 km. N". of Salonika, in flower, 13-4-17, Turrill 15 

Disi^r. Cent, and S. Eur. "(generally on mountains]. 

Balkans : General as far south as Thessaly. 

Spergularia diandra, Guss. 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Tiirner 116. 

Distr. s. Eur., N. Afr., Orient, ^\ Asii, Abyssinia. 

Balkans: Greece. 

Polygala nicaeensis, Risso, subsp. mediterranea, Chod^t. 

Ano-lvrusones, m flower, 4-18, Turner 327. 

D^T'J""^ ^^^^P-)- SPf^^' S. Fr., It., S. Tyrol, W. Croatia, 
Ualm., Tnrace, Sicily, Alg., Tunis. 

Cistus villosus, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17 Turner 125 
Hehanthemum salicifolium, Pers. Lembit, in flower, 3-17, 

Malva silvestris L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 74. 
Althaea officinalis, L. Stavros, in flower. 7-17, Turner 209. 



183 



Althaea cannabina, Z, 

Stavros, in flower and fruit, 9-17, Turner 256; Auo, in flower, 
9-17, Turner 309. 

Distr. S. Eur., Orient. 

Balkans; Greece (Tliessaly, Epirus), Maced., Thrace, Bulg. 

Geranium molle^ L, Lembet, in flower and young fruit, 3-17, 
Turner 8; Lembet, in flower and young fruit, 5-17, Turner G8. 

Erodium cicutarium, L'Her. Lembet, in flower, 3 and 4-17,. 
Turner 24; Lembet, in flower and fruit, 5-17, Turner 94. 

Erodium ciconium, Ait. 

Lembet, in flower and fruit, 5-17, Turner 65. 

Distr, S. Eur., Orient, JST. Afr. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace. 

Linum flavuniy L. var. thracicum, Griseb. 

flower, 4-17, Turner 334. 

Linum gaUicum, L. Lembet, in flower and fruit, 6-17, Turner 



Ano-Krusones, in 



170. 



austriacum 



Ano-Xrusoues, in flower, 4-17, Turner 2^^, 321. 

Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., Orient. 

Balkans : Greece, Maced., Alb., Bulg. 

L. austriacum, L. is very closely related to L. -perenne, L., and 
in the absence of ripe fruits the identification of the above speci- 
mens is tentative. 

Linum hirsutum, L. 



Ano-Krusones, in flower, 4-17, Turner 330. 



Distr. S.E. Eur., Orient. 

Balkans: Maced., Thrace, Bulg., Serb., Alb., Eoum. 

Linum tenuifolium, L. Ano-Krusones, in flower, 4-18, Turner 

329. 

^Feganum Harrnala, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 163^ 

Tribuhis terrestris, L. Lembet, in flower and fruit, 6-17, 
Turner 144; Stavros, in flower and fruit, 7-17, Turner 2lb. 

The indumentum of this plant is variable. Turner 144 has 
stiff bristle-like hairs 1 mm. in length but no dense short white 
pubescence such as occurs on the fruits of Turner 215. 

Paliurus Spina Chri^ti, Mill. Stavros, 8-17, Turner 240. 

Genista depressa, M-B. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 1U2. 

Ononis spinosa, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner loo. 

Trigonella monspeliaca, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 3-17, Turner 6. 

Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., N. Afr., Orient. 

Balkans : General. 

Medicago minima, var. nwUissima, Koch. Lembet, in flower 

and fruit, 5-17, Turner 70. , p -j. ^ i 

Medicago orbicularis, All. Lembet, m flower and fruit, 4 and 

b-ll, Turner b^. , ^ -.^ ^ ir-r 

Medicaqo faJcata, L. Lembet, m flower, 6-l^ Turner IQt 
Medicago rigidula, Desr. Lembet, in flower, 3 and 4--i^ 

Turner 10, 34. 



184 



Melilotus sulcata, Desf, var. segetalis, Rouy et Fouc, 
Lembet, in floT^^er, 4 and 7-17, Turner 38, 184. 8 to 10 km. N. 
of Salonika, in flower, 13-4-17, Tvrrill 37, 

Distr. (of var.). ^AY. Mi\, Spain, Corsica, Sardinia, Cent. 

and S. Italy, Sicily. 

/ Melilotus indica, AIL Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 41. 
Melilotus alhciy Desr. Stayros, in flower, 9-17, Turner 227. 



Trii 
Trif 



Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 73. 
Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 66. 



S2. 



folium stellatum^ L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 77. 
folium an gust i folium, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 



Lotus aegeus^ Boi.ss. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 169. 

L 

Lotus corniculatus, L. var. stenodon, Boiss, 

^Stavros, in flower, 9-17, Turner 2(jQ, 
Distr. (of var.), Greece, Maced. 

Colutea arhorescens, L. Ano, in flower, 5-18, Turner 308. 
Astragalus sesanieus, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner W^. 

Hedysarum coronarium, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 131. 
Distr, Spain to Greece. 
Balkans : Greece. 

Onobrychis Caput Galli, Lam. var. depressa, Beck. 

Lembet, in flower and fruit, 5-17, Turner 93. 
Distr. (of yar.). Sicily. 

Ihis a variety with glabrous fruits. 

Onohrychis gracilis, Bess. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 86. 
Vicia grandifiora, Scop. Aao, in ilower, 4-18, Turner 310. 
Vicia lathy ro ides, L. Lembet, in flower, 3-lT, Turner 18. 
Lathyrus Aphaca, L. Ano, Turner 296. 
Lathyrus sativus, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 71. 
, ., P f'-y'"^'' C^*^^"-"^ L. Grown from seeds collected near Mirova, 

", I^o ,'"''''' ^^ (seed-number) 47, flowered and fruited at Rich- 
mond 2-8-19. 

^Orohus afropurimreus, Desf. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turnet 

t 

Cercis Siliquastrum, L. 

"Stavros, 9-17, T?/r?ier 282. 
DlstT. S. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, !Maoed., Tlir.ice. 

Potentilla taurka, Jrilld. 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 110 
Distr, S.E. Eur., Asia Minor, Caucasus. 
-Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg., Thrace (?). 

Potentilla hirta, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 111 



185 



Poterium rhodopeum, VeL 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 128. 
Distr. Maced., Bulg. 

Poterium spinosum, L. 

. Stavros, 8-17, Turner 234. 
, Distr, Sardinia to Tlirace, Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace. 

Sedum acre, L. var. neglectum, Hal. 

Lembet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 182. 
Distr. S.E. Eur. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced. 

Lythrum Salicaria, L. Stavros, in flower, 7 and 8-17, Turner 

211, 258. 

Tlie former runs down to Xoelme's var. genuinum, forma a, sub- 
forma dd, wliicli lie only records from Germany (Eliine Province). 
The latter is the variety tomentosum, DC. See Koehne in Engler's 
Pflanzenr. iv. 21, p. 77. 

Herniaria incana, Lam. 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 150* 
Distr. S. Eur., iN". Afr., Orient, 
Balkans; General. 

Ecballium Elaterium, Rich. 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 149. 

Distr, Medit. Reg. eastwards to Caucasus. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg., Herz. 

Eryngium creticum, Lam, 

8| km. N. of Salonika, in flov^-er, 7-17, Turner 201; Stavros, in 
young fruit, 9-17^ Turner 281. 

Distr. S.E, Eur., Orient, iNT.E. Afr. 
Balkans: Greece,^ Maced,, Tlirace. 

Bupleurum junceuni, I. 

Lembet, in flower and young fruit, 8-17, Turner 212. 

Distr. S. Eur. 

Balkans: Epirus, Tliessaly, Maced,, Tlirace, Bulg. 

Bupleurum Fontanesii, G^iss. (See Wetfstein, Bibl. Bot., 
Heft 26, p, 57). 

Lembet, in flower, G-17, Turner 138; Clialcidice (?), Tozer (see 

Kew Ball., 1920, p. 30). 

Distr. S. Ital., Sicily, Sardinia, Balkans, Asia Minor, Pales- 
tine, Egypt. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Tlirace, Bulg. 

Critlimum maritimum, L. 

Stavros, near the sea, 8-17, Turner 245. 
Distr. W. Eur., Medit, Eegion, N. Afr, 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace. 

Tordylium officinalis, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner lib. 



186 



Tordylium Apuluni, L. 

Lembet, in fruit, 5-17, Turner 130. 
Distr. S. Eur., N. Afr., Asia Minor. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace, Herz. 

Caucalis latifoUa, L. Lembet, in flower, 4 and 5-17, Turner hi. 

Caucalis leptoiyhylla, L. Lembet, in flower and fruit, 5-17» 
1 urner io. 

Torilis heterophylla, Guss. 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 118. 
Distr. S. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece, Thrace, Bulg. 

Torilis nodosa, Gaertn. 



Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 63. 

Distr. S. and Cent. Eur., N. Afr., Orient. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

Daucus Bocconei, Guss. {D. communis, Ruoy et Cav., subsp. 
Bocconei, Rouy et Fouc, Fl. de Fr. TIL, p. 234; D. Carota, L. 
var. Bocconei, Fiori et Beg.- in Fiori e Paoletti, Fl. Anal. d'lt. II 
p. 186). 

Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 226. 

Distr. S. Fr., It., Sic, Istria, Crete, Algeria. 

Samhucus Ehulus, L. Stavros, in flower, 8-17, Turner 237. 

Galium Aparine, L. 

Lembet, in fruit, 5-17, Turner 64. 

Distr. Eur., F. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans : General. 

Sherardia arvensis, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 4 and 5-17, Turner 30 109 
Distr. Eur., K. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulo- 

Galiuni verum, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 147; 
Stavros, m flower, 7-17, Turner 213. 

Galium Cruciata, Scop. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 140. 

Fedia Cornucopiae, Gaertn. yar. graciliflora, {Fisch. et Mey.). 
Auo-Krusones, m flower, 4-18, Turner 324 
Distr. S. Eur., N. Afr. 
Balkans: Greece (rare). 

87^176^''' '"'"'^''^''^ ^- ^"^^^*' i^ flower, 5 and 6-17, Turner 

Scahiosa ucranica, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 159. 
CallufemmaT^alaestinum (L.) Heldr. Lembet, in flower, 5 and 
6-17, Turner 99, 141 ; Ano-Krusones, in flower, 4-18, Turver 331. 

T if . ^ / i!" /°''^''^'' ^^^^ ^-^i«^«d regarding this plant. 



fi^r^rv, x>^i r a -i • — -^^^^v^c* luiiuci, p. oi (i*ut) a plant 

B rq7n 771^1 ^'/'"^r.^ ?«?«^-^^^-«. la his Montissi altera, 

^L^^a tr!l T1; ^>' ^"^^^^ " "8'^^^b' placed in the genus 

S btl orn i^bi PI r '' '' ^^ P^"^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^'^ CalUstemnm. 
bibthorp m his Fl. Graecae Prod. I. p. 83, and Flora Graeca II. 



187 



p. 9, tab. 109, transferred Knautia imlaestina, L. to tlie genus 
Scahiosa under the name S. hrachiata. The plant described in the 
same work, p. 84, and in Flora Graeca II. p. 10, t. 110, as 

Scahiosa Sibthorpiana is generally considered synonymous with 
Calhstemma palaestina, Heldr., or a variety of i"t. Boissier (Fl. 
Or. III. p. 146, 1875) keeps up the genus CalUstemma but adopts 
Sibthorp's specific name, thus making the combination Callis- 
tevima hracluatum. 

Of the specimens quoted above Turn-er 99 consists of small plants 
of typical CalUstemma palaestinum, Heldr. (Scahiosa hrachiata, 
Sibth.), while Turner 14^1 and 331 represent CaUistemvia palae- 
stinuin., var. Sihthorpiarmm, comb. nov. [Scahiosa Sihthorpiana, 
Sibth. Fl. Gr. Prod. I. p. 83 et PL Gr. III. p. 10, t. 110). 

Achillea chjpeolata, S. et S. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 

114. 

Achillea crithmifolia, W. K. Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 

208. 

Anthemis tinctoria, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 150. 

Echinops microcephalus, S. et S. Lembet, in flower, 7-17, 
T timer 191. 

Carlina lanata, L. 8| km. IS", of Salonika, in flower. 
Turner 200. 



JV -I K. 



Xeranthemum annuum, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 158. 

Artemisia scoparia, W. K. 

Stavros, in flower, 9-17, Turner 262. 

Distr. Cent, and E. Eur., Orient, N. and E. Asia. 

Balkans: Tliessaly, Maced,, Bnlg. 

Matricaria Chamomilla^ L. Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 50. 

Anthemis Triumfetti, DC. 

Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 40, 49. 
Distr. S. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans; Serb., Herz., Tbrace. 

Anthemis rigescens^ Willd., does not ap2:)ear to be specifically 
distinct from tKis species. 

Inula viscosa, Ait. 

Stavros, in flower, 9-17, Turner 2QZ. 
Distr, S. Eur., X. Afr,, Orient. 
Balkans r Greece, Maced. 

Chondrilla juncea, L. Stavros, in flower and fruit, 8-17, Turner 
231. 

CicJioriura Intyhus, L. var. glabratujUy Presl. Lembet, in 

flower 6-17, Turner 139. 

Scolymus hispanicus, L. Ano, in flower, 1918, Turner 306. 

Chrysanthemum segetum^ L, Lembet, in flower, 4 and 5-17, 

Turner 56. 

Chrysanthemum coronarium, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 4 and 5-17, Turner 57. 
Bistr. S. Eur., ^. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece. 



188 



Harri 



Filago germanica, Z., var. eriocephala, Boiss. 

Lembet, in flower, Turner 188. 
Distr, (of var,). S. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece. 

Xanthium spinosum, V. Lembet, 5-17, Turner 100. 

Tragopogoii ^Geropogon) glaber, Z. 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 96. 
Distr. S. Eur., N. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece. 

Tragopogon pornfolius, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 
Asteriscus aquaticus, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 108. 

Diotis maritima, Sm. 

Stavros, in flower, 8-17, Turner 239. 
Bistr. W. and S. Eur., N. Air., Orient. 
Balkans, Greece, Maced., Tlirace. 

Centaurea paniculata, L. var. macedonica, Griseh. 

Krusa Balkan, in flower, 6 and 7-18, 
flower 6-17, Turner 178; 8i km. N. of Sa.uui^.,, m nower, i-i,, 

lurner 197. 

Distr. Epirus, Thessaly, Maced. 

An unfortunate amount of synonymy has grown up round this 
plant. Grisebacli first described it (Spic. El. Rumel. II. p. 240) 
under the name retained here. Nyman (Conspec. El. Eur p 427) 
raised it to the rank of a species under the name C. Grischarhii, 
though he also quotes it as a synonym of C. maculosa, Lam. (I.e. 
p. 42b). Boissier (El. Orient. III., p. 644, places it as a variety 
(var. 7nacedonica)oiC. graeca, Boiss. et Sprun. non Griseb. 
Halacsy (m Bull. Herb. Boiss. YI., pp. -594-596) described it as 
C. palhdior xav. palUdissima, HqL C. macedonica, Hal. and 
C. confnsa, Hal., but in his Consp. El. Graec, II., p. 147, he 
retains the name C. macedonica (Griseb.), Hal. 

Centaurea ^ublanata Boiss. Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 
'dlJ; m flower, 9-17, Turner 249. 

Centaurea salonitana, Vis. Lembet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 193. 
Centaurea sohtitiahs, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 136. 
Ceriiaurea CaJcitrapa L. Lembet, in bud, 5-17, Turner 89 ; in 
flower, 6-1 (, Jwrner 154. 

Centaurea diffusa, Lam. 

Lembet, in bud and flower, 6-17, Turner 133, 177. 
J^istr. S.E. Eur., Orient. 

Balkans: Thessaly, Maced., Thrace, Buln- 

Calendula arvensis, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 3-17, Turner 13 
Dtstr, S. Eur., ^-. Afr., Orient. ' 
xSalkans : Greece, Maced. 

Calendula suffruticosa, Vahl 
Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 33. 
nistr. Spam, S. It., Sicily, Thrace. 



189 



I Lave failed to distinguisli tliis species from C Noeana^ Boies., 

and C, fulgida^ Eaf. 

PuHcaria dysenterica, Gaertn. 
Stavros, in flo\yer, 7-17, Turner 222. 
Distr. Eur., X. Afi\, Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Tlirace, BuIr'. 

Carduus pycnocephahis, L. Ano, in flower, 1918, Turner 294. 

Galactites tomentosa, Moench, 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 137. 
Distr. S. Eur., N. Afr. 
Balkans : Greece, 

Cirsium creticum, D'Urv. 

Ano, in flower, spring 1918, Turner 305. 
DiHr. S. Eiir., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced. 

Cirsium italicum, DC. 

Stavros, 9-17, Turner 253. 

Distv, Corsica, Sardinia, Greece, Bithvnia. 

Tyrimnus kucographus, Cass. [Carduus leucographus, L,). 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 85 j seeds collected between 
Turica and Kopriva, 30-5-17, flowered at Kew, 15-7-18, Turrill 
(seed number) 22. 

Distr. S. Eur., Orient. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace, Bulg. 

Tliis plant, determined from description, was recorded in I\ew 
Bulletin, 1918, p. 301, as Cardus i)ycnoceplialus, L., var. cinereus, 
Boiss, 

Chrysanthemum Myconis, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 101. 
Dlstr, S. Eur., ]N\ Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Alb. 

Cardopatium corymbosura, Pers, 

Lembet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 179. 
DUtr. S.E. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Tlirace. 

Lactuca saligna, L. 

8| km. X. of Salonika, 7-17, Turner 195. 
Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., INT. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

Launaea mucronata, Musclder. 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 176a. 
Distr. Egypt, Orient. 

Campanula phrijgia, Jaub. et Spach. Lembet, in flower, 5-17,. 
Turner 80. 

. The var. serhica, Adamovic'in Allg. Bot. Zeitschr., 1896. p. 118, 
is doubtfully distinct from the type. Turner 80 consists of two 
plants, one glabrous except in the lower part, the other densely. 
white pubescent up to the receptacles and calyx lobes. 



190 



Campanula lingulata, W.K. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 

98, 

Campanula athoa, Boiss. Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 210. 

Jasione Ueldreichii, Boiss. et Orpli. Stavros, in flower 8-17 
Turner 232. 

Specuhria Speculum, A. DO. var. ^hescens, A DC. Ano- 
Krusones, in flower, 4-18, Turner 317. 

Erica arborea, L. 

Tasli, in flower, 2-18, Turner 314. 

Disfr. Cent, and S. Eur., IS-. Afr., N". Asia Minor. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace. 

Cyclamen neapolitanum, Ten. Ano, flowers, 1918, Turner 300 
Anagalhs cocrulea, Sclireb.. Lembet, in flower, 4-17 Turner 

Lysimaclda punctata, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 161. 

Samolus Valerandi, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 143. 
Distr. iS'early cosmopolitan. 
Balkans: General. 

Plnmhago europaea, L. Stavros, in flower, 9-17, Turner 248. 
Jasminum fruticans, L. Lembet^, in flower, 5-17, Turner 60. 

Fraxinus oxycarpa, WiUd., var. rostrata, Romi. 

Stavros, m fruit, 9-17, Tmmer T^' 
Distr. (of var.). S. Eur. 
Balkans: Albania. 



n 



Cynanchum acutum, L. 

Lembet, small apparently wbite flowers, 7-17, Turner 192; 
^:^:^^^rh^^^'''^ '-''' ^^'^^' '''-' Stavros, leaves 
Dist^, S. Eur., N. Afr., Orient, N. Asia. 
Balkans: Greece, ilaced., Thrace, Bulg. 

Erythraea Centaurium., L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 174. 
Erythraea tenuiflora, Hoffm. et Link. 

btavros, m flower, 8-17 Turner 230- «nnfl. r.f ir ^^• • i 

flowers, 15-7-17, Turrilim ' Karamudli, pmk 

Distr. S. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece, Maced. 

Erythraea pulcheila, Fr. 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 175 
nistr. Eur., -N. Afr., Orient, 
iialkans : Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

Erythraea spicata, Pers. 

Stavros, pink flowers, 9-17, Turner 257 
Distr. S.Eur., N. Afr., Orient, 
lialkans: Greece, Bulg-. 

TTeliotropium europaeum, L 

>Stavro3, in flower and fruit, 9-17, Turner 264. 



191 



Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., N. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece, Bnlg. 

Heliotropiujn suaveolens, M,B. Lembet, in flower, 5 and 6-17, 
Turner 119, 164. 

Symphytum ottomanum, Friv. 

Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 37. 
Distr, Hungary, Greece, Serb., Bulg. 

Symphytum bulbosum, Schimp. 

'Ano, in flower, 4-18, Turner 318; 8-10 km. If. of Salonika, 
in flower, 13-4-17, Turrill 43. 
Distr. Cent, and S, Eur. 
Balkans; Greece, Maced, 

Bcrrago officinalis, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 44. 

Distr. Cent, and S. Enr., N. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece. 

Anchusa italica, Retz. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner S3. 
Anchusa officinalis, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 172. 

Lycopsis variegata, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 3 and 4-17, Turner 25. 
Distr. S.E. Eur., Orient. 
Bolkans; Greece, Maced. 

Alkanna tinctoria, Tausch. 

Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 32. 
Distr. S. Eur., IN^. Afr. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

Myosotis cadmea^ Boiss. Lembet, in flower, 3-17, Turner 21; 

Kato, in flower, 4-18, Turner 292. 

Myosotis collinay Hoffm. Lembet, in flower, 3-17, Turner 3, 17; 



Ano, in flower, spring 1918, Turner 297- 



Lithospermura apulum, Vabl. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 



84. 

Onosma echioides, L. [0. tauricum, Auct. non Pallas). 

Ano-Krusones, in flower, 4-18, Turner 332. 

Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., If. Afr., Orient. 

Balkans : Geueral. 

Tlie various forms of Onosma found in the Balkans require 
further elucidation, and it bas been thought best to retain the 
Linnean name for the present, using it in a wide sense. The 
plants listed as 0. taurica, PalL in Kew Bull, 1918, p. 310, agree 
with the plants generally placed under this species by European 
botanists, but all differ from the Crimean plant in having the 
corollas externally pubescent or puberulous. 

F 

Echium italicum, L. Lembet, in flower, 7-17, Turner 185. , 
Echium plantagineum, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Tumeric. 
Convolvulus tricolor, L. Lembet, in flower, 4 and 5-17, Turner 

43. 123. 



192 



Solanum nigrum, L. 

Lembet, in flower and fruit, 7-17, Turner 189. 
Distr. N'early cosmopolitan. 
Balkans : General. 

Verbascum sinuatum, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 132. 
Distr. S. Eur., ]N\ Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace, Bulg. 

Verbascum rigidum, Boiss. et Heldr. , 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 67. 
Distr. Greece, Maced. 

Linaria genistae folia, Mill. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 
165. 

Linaria Pelisseriana, Mill. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 88. 
Digitalis lanata, Elirli. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 157. 

Veronica austriaca, L. 

Lembet, bright blue flowers, 5-17, Turner 92. 

Distr. S.E. Eur., Orient. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace, Bulg. 

Veronica Chamaedrys, L. var. rigida, Turnll, var. uov. a 

planta typica caulibus rigidioribus ramosioribus, foliis petiolatis, 
pedicellis brevioribus praecipue diii'ert. 

Planta biennis, caulibus adscendentibus ramosis rigidis inferne 
pilis in lineis duabus dispositis instructis superne uudique hir- 
sutis. Folia oblongo-ovata, 2-5 cm. longa, 2 cm. lata, margine 
inciso-dentata, pagina superiore leriter hispida yel glabra nervis 
imjuessis, inferiore in nervis prominentibus valde hispida; 
• petiolus 5-6 mm. longus. Inflorescentia 3-12 cm. longa ; bractoae 
liueari-lance..latae, 5 mm. longa e ; pedicelli floriferi 2 mm. 
longi. Infrnctescentia usque ad 34 dm. longa ; pedicelli f ructi- 
ieri 4 mm. longi. Calyx 5 mm. longa, sepalis costis extra pro- 
minentibus instructis. 

In flower and fruit at Kew, 10-7-19. Grown from seeds col- 
lected on tne southern slopes of the Krusa-Balkan, north of 
Karaniudh, 18-G-17, Turrill (seed number) 49. 

Ihis plant has not been exactly matched with any plant at 
Ivew and IS certainly distinct, at least as a variety, from our 
common leromca Clunnaedrys. A plant mentioned (but without 
a varietal name) by Velenovsky in his Flora Bul^nrica, p. 429, 
a]>pears to approach it in some characters. His description is 
incomplete and is as follows : Specimina de m. Rilo fonnan caule 
rijridiore pedicellis brevioribus foliis profunde inciso-dentatis sis- 
tunt. i^etera cum iis Europae mediae optimo conveniunt 

A petiolated variety is desrribed by Willkomm and Lange (in 
Flora, 18o2, p. 262, and in Fl. Hispanira II., p. G02) from^pain 
and named procera, but the other characters do not agree with 
those shown by our plant. 

Veronica Anagallis, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 122. 

A form with smaller upper leaves than in the type. 

Bartsra latrfoUa, S. et S. Lembet, in flower. 5-17, Turner 117. 



193 



Odontites serotina, Rchh. 

Stavros, ill flower, 9-17, Turner 251. 

Distr. Cent, and S.? Eur., Orient, N. Asia, 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

r 

Orohanche nana, de Xoe, Lembet, blue flowers, 5-17, Turner IQ\. 

Vitex Agnus Castus, L. 

Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 214. 
Distr. S. Eur., I^. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece, Maced., Thrace. 

Thymus Chauhardi, Boiss. et Heldr. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, 

Turner 124. 

Thymus MarschaUionus, Willd. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, 

Turner 62. 

Micromeria Juliana, L. 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 129. 

Distr. S. Eur., IS". Afr., Orient. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace, Alb., Herz. 

Mentha rotundifolia, L. 

Stavros, in flower, 8-17, Turner 229. 

Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., N. Afr., Bithynia. 

Balkans : Greece, Thrace. 

Lamium bifidum, Cyr. 

Ano-Erusones, in flower, 4-18, Turner 322. 

Distr. S. Eur. from Corsica and Sardinia to Macedonia. 

Balkans: Greece, Bulgaria (sub-sp. balcanicum, Vel.). 

Lamnivi amplexicaule, L. Lembet, in flower, 3 and 4-17, 

Turner 16, 35. 

Mentha Pulegium, L. Stavros, in flower, 7-1 i , Turner 2U< . 
Salvia amplexicaulis, Rchb. Lembet, in flower, 6-1., Turner 

135 

Salvia clandestina, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 20, 69. 
Salvia Horminum, L. Lembet, in flower, 4 and 5-17, Turner 
55. 

Mentha longifolia, Huds. var. Sieberi [Kocli. pro. sp.) H<^. 

(Mentha sylvestris, var. stenostachya, Boiss. Fl. Or. IV. p. o43). 
Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 206; Struma Plain and Krusa 
Balkan, in flower, 6-18, Harris, 338; Paprat District, Kiusa 
Balkan, in flower, 6-18, Russell, 75; South-east of Karamudli, 
southern slopes of Krusa Balkan, in flower, 20-7-17, 1 urriU, 4.^. 

■7-\ • f CI Tn T7I r~\,.C^T^4- 



Distr. S.E. Eur,, Orient, 
Balkans : General. 

Marruhium peregrinum, L. 



m 



Phlomis pungens, WiUd., var. laj-iflom, Yel. Lembet, m 

flower 6-17, Turner 134. _ ^^. . 

Sideritis montana, L. Kato, in flower, 4-18. Turner 290; Ano, 

in flower, spring 1918, r«rn.<'r 304. • ^i . • i r^l.T^i- 

Both specimens have smaller flowers than m the typical plant, 
but the difference is probably directly due to habitat. 



194 



g 



inum hirtum, Link. {0. heracleoticum, L.?). 
Stavros, in flower, 7-17, Turner 203. 
Distr. Greece. Maced.. Crptp Asia Arinnr 



Scutellaria alhida, L. Lembet, In flower, 7-17, Turner 194 
A;w^a Chamaepitys, ScLreb. (.4. Chamaepytis, Ind. Kew ). 
Lembet, m flower, 5-17, Turner 120. 

^/"^« genevensis, L. Ano, in flower, 4-18, Turner 311 
Jeucru/??i Polium, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, ^wrweT- 151 
Teucrwm Chamaedrys, L. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, Turner 162. 

Plantago Coronopus, L. 

Stavros, in flower, 9-17, Turner 250. 
Distr. Cent, and S. Enr., N. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Thrace, Bulg. 

Phytolacca araericana, L. 

Stavros, in flower and fruit, 7-17, Turner 223, 224 

iJistr. A native of N. Amer. now widely spread in tlie :iledit. 



egion. 



R 

Turner 224 lias a considerable amount of red colour in tlie 
flowers and inflorescence, but it lias not been found possible to 
separate it from the typical plant by any morphological char- 

Amarantus retroflexus, L. 

Stavros, in flower and fruit, 9-17, Turner 208. 

Dutr. Cent, and S. Eur., X. Afr., Orient, America. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

Gomphrena globosa, L. 

Stavros, in flower 9-17, Turner 252. - Picked up on the shore." 
Distr. TSative of the tropics. 

Chenopodium opnlifolium, Sclrad. 

Stavros, m flower, 8-17, Turrier 235 

Distr, Cent.andS. Eur., jN^ Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, 

Chenopodium Botrys, L. Stavros, in fruit, 9-17, Turner 265. 

Chenopodium album, L. 

Stavros, in flower and fruit, 9-17, Turner 2^ 267 
Distr. Cosmopolitan. ' ^uo, ^o/. 

Balkans: General. 

Salsola Kali, L. 

Stavros, 8-17, Turner 238 
Distr, Nearly cosmopolitan. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

^ Polygonum p^dchellum, -Lois 8^ km K r.f ^ i -i - n 

7-17, Turner 196. ^ ■ ^ ' °^ Salonika, in flower, 

Polygonum arenaria, TF./i. 

Siavros, in flower 1Q1T T oo^. -^ 

p'l ^"i- ^^^•' Caucasus. 
Balkans : Greece, Thrace, Bulg. 



195 
Euphorbia Peplis, L. 

Stavros, in flower and fruit, 8-17, Turner 213, 
Distr. W, and S, Eur,, N, Afr., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

Euphorbia falcata, L. 

Lembet, in floM'er and fruit, 6-lT, Turner 145 
Distr, Cent, and S. Eur., ^. Afr., Orient. 

Balkans : Greece, Bulf?. 



Ficus Carica, L. 

Lembet (young leaves), spring 1917, Turner 63. 
Distr. S. Eur,, IN". Afr., Orient. 
Balkans : General. 

Ulmus campestrisy L. Stavros, 9-17, Turner 269, 

Quercus Ilex, L. 

Stavros, 9-17, Turner 285. 
Distr. S. Eur., N. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced. 

Quercus Ilex, L. var. agrifolia, DC. 

Stavros, 9-17, Turner 277. 

Distr. (of var,). Here and there with type. 

Quercus lanuginosa, Tliuill. 

Stavros, 9-17, Turner 275. 
Distr. S.E. Eur., Cauciisus. 
Balkans : Greece, Bulg. 

CephalantJiera ensifolia, Eich. Ano-Krusones, in flower, 4-lS,. 
Turner 326. 

Ophrys cornufa, Stev, Ano-Krusones, in flower, 4-18, Turner 

316. 

Ophrys afrata, Lindl. Ano-Ivrusones, in flower, 4-18, Turner 

315, 

Orchis fridentata, Scop.^ var. commutata, Reichb. 

Ano-Krusones, in flower, 4-18, Turner 328. 
Distr, (of var.), S.E. Eur., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced, 

Iris Reichenhachii, Heuf . Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 47. 
Romvlea hulhocodium, E. et S. Karaissi, in flower, 2-17, 
Ttcrner 2. 

Romulea Linaresii, Pari. 

Ano, in flower, 4-18, Turner 3S3. 
Distr. Corsica to Thrace. 
Balkans: Greece, Thrace- 

Smilax aspera, L. var. mauritanica, Desf. 

Stavros, 9-17, Tiirner 273. 

Distr. S. Eur., IN'. Afr.', Orient. 

Balkans : Greece, Maced. 

b2 



196 



Ruscus aculeafus, L. 

Stavros, 9-11 y Turiier 274. 

Distr. Cent, and S. Eur., I^. Afr., Orient. 

Balkans: Greece, Maced., Tlirace, Bulg, 

Asparagus aciitifoUus, L. Lembet, 4-17, Turner 42. 

Asparagus acutifoliiis, L. vai. orientalis. Baker. 

Stavros, 9-17, Turner 212. 

Distr. (of var.). Paros, Palestine. 

Allium- margaritaceum, S. et S. Lembet, in flower, 6-17, 
Turner 146, 

Mvscari cov^ostim, Mill. Lembet, in flower, 4-17, Turner 46, 

51. 

Muscari racemosinn, L. Lembet, in flower, 3-17, Turner 11. 

Hyacinthus ofientalis, L. 

Cultivated by H. Blanchard, Esq., from a bulb collected in a 
ruined Bulgar village in Macedonia, in flower, 6-3-20. 

Distr, Orient. In cultivation and as a garden escape in most 
'of tlie soutbern parts of the Balkans. 

Ornithogalum uvih ellatum , L. Ano-Knisones, in flower. 4-18, 
Turner S2S. - 

Ormthognhim ^77?&Waft{m, Willd. Lembet, in flower, 4 and 
5-17, 7'ur;!er39, 103. 



Gagea stenopetala, Reichb. var. rumdica, Vel. 

Karaissi, in flower, 2-17, Turner 1. 
Distr. (of var.). S. Bulg. 

Colchicum latifolium, Sibth. 



Stavros, in flower, 9-17, Turner 261, 287. 
Distr. Greece, Macedonia. 

Arum italicum, Mill. 

Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 127. 
Distr. S. Enr., IST. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans : Greece, Bulg. 

Cyperus fuscus, L. 

Stavros, in flower, 8-17, Turner 242. 
Distr. Cent, and S. Enr., N. Afr., Orient. 
Balkans: Greece, Maced., Bulg. 

Cnnodon Dactylon, Vers. Lembet, in flower, 5-17, Turner 106 
linza maxtma, L. Lembet, in flower, 5-lT, Turner 105. 

Phacelurns digifatus, Griseb. 

Stavros, m flower, 8-17, Turner 244 

Distr. Tbessaly, Maced.. Thranft Asm \f ,-.,.. 



197 



XXVIL— MACROZANONIA MACROCARPA. 

R. A, EOLFE. 

Two beautiful winged seeds Lave been sent to Kew for deter- 
mination from tlie Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, by Mr. C. T, 
White, Government Botanist. One is from a sample obtained by 
Mr. M. J. Colcloug-li in tlie Aru Islands, and it is said that they 
are often picked up on schooners' decks at sea, and when seen in 
the air have a butterfly-like appearance. The other is from speci- 
mens collected by the late Captain F. E. Barton, private secretary 
to the Lieut. -Governor of Xew Guinea. These were doubtfully 
referred to Bignoniaceae by the late Mr. F. M. Bailej^, Govern- 
ment Botanist, thoug-h he remarked that '' without furtlier speci- 
mens it would only be conjecture to say to what plant they 
belong." Mr. White adds: *'I have also seen the same things 
in Pai3ua (Mekoe District), but unfortunately failed to get speci- 
mens. The plant is said to be a large climber.'* The two seeds 
are identical, and are clearly Cucurbitaceous. They prove on 
comparison to belong to the plant described by Blume as long- 
ago as 1825, from Javan materials, under the name of Zanonia 
macrocarpa, Blume, which has since been separated from Zan- 
onia by Cogniaux, under the name of Macrozanonia macrocarpa. 
As it proves to be of wide distribution, though still very imper^ 
fectly known, the following account of its history should prove 
interesting. 

The plant was originally very briefly described by Blume, in 



1825, under the name of Zanonia macrocarpa, from fruiting 



materials found on Mt. Parang, Java. The author gave the 



native name as '* Aroy Kitjubung,'' and created for it the new 
section, Alsoraitra^ Blume, which he distinguished from Zanonia 
proper by its hemispherical fruit and polyspermous cells. The 
flowers were not known. 

In 184'3 the plant appeared under the name of Alsomifra macro- 
carpa^ Blume, a mistake for Roemer. The latter author estab- 
lished a genus Ahomitra, Blume (also a mistake), including in it 
Zanonia section Ahomitra^ Z. macrocarpa (both wrongly attri- 
buted to De Candolle), and seven other species which are evidently 
not immediately allied to Z. viacrocarpa. He did not define the 
genu.^ in any way, and its heterogenous character was subsequently 
recognised by the authors of the Genera Plantarum, who excluded 
Ahomitra macrocarpa, Eoem., as a foreign element, and gave io 
the remainder clear generic definiiion, an arrangement which has 
since been generally accepted. 

In 1881 Cogniaux was able to give further details of Z. 
macrocarpa^ including its fruit and seeds, though flowers were 

still lacking, and he then established the sectional name Macro 
zanonia for its reception, rightly pointing out that it was not 
Zanonia section AJsomitra, Blume. The character of section 
Macrozanonia was given as '* Tructus masimus, hemisphaericus, 
loculis polyspermis. Semina ovata ; ala ampla, tenuissime mem- 
branacea, diaphana, lateraliter valde dilatata/' while of section 
Eticanonia he wrote, ^'^Tructus parvus, cylindrico-clavatus, loculis 
2-spermis. Semina oblonga; ala crassa, basi apiceque dilatata 



99 



198 



4 

He also added tlie localities, Islands of Bat jam, Borneo, Mt. 
Arfat, in Diiteli New Guinea, and the Aru Islands, further 
materials having been collected by Zollinger, De Yriese, Korthals, 
And Beccari. 

In 1893 Cogniaus gave to Macrozanonia the rank of a distinct 
^enus, though he added that the flowers were still unknown, and 
it was not until thirteen years later that he was able to add these 
important details. The circumstance is thus described : " J'etais 
desireux de pouvoir etudier les fleurs du Zanonia macrocarpa 
<iui jusqu'ici, a ma connai««ance, n'existent encore dans aucun 
herbier europeen. Au printemps dernier, ayant eu I'occasion 
^'etre en rapport avec M. J. J. Smith, conse^rvateur au Jardin 
botanique_ de Buitenzorg (Java), je lui exprimai I'ardent desir 
<jue j 'avals de posseder des fleurs de cette espece. Ma demande 
fut accueillie avec la plus gnande bienveillauce, et sur la fin de 
juillet, je regus de M. le Dr. Treub, directeur du Departement 



eaux 



tillons fleui'is de la plante desiree, ainsi qu'un flacon des fleurs 
■des deux sexes, a divers degres developpemeut." This material 
<jnabled the description of the genus to be completed. 

Captain F. E. Barton, private secretary to the Lieut. -Governor 
of New_ Guinea, sent seeds of an unknown plant to Mr. F. M. 
Bailey m 1904 and described them as brown, surrounded by broad 
transparent wings, the whole giving a horizontal diameter of from 



5 to 6 in. 



"^^ hite, and proves to belong to Macrozanonia macrocarpa. 

In 1906, Mr. E. D. Men-ill, of the Philippine Bureau of 
bcience, described Zanonia philipinnensis, Merrill, from the 
Lamao Lake district, Mindanao, remarking, " A species evidently 
related to the Malayan Zanonia macrocarpa, Blume, differing from 
the latter m its cordate leaves, and smaller seeds, which have 
much wider and somewhat longer wings than in Blume's species." 
It has since been collected in the Island of Negros, and there are 
speeunens from both localities at Kew, but I am unable to separate 
lliem trom the Malavan materials. 

A,VT*!?-'.'^\H'V^^^"^'^.^''^ *^* ^^^'^ ^- Gibbs that in the Mt. 
Arfak district of New Guinea "Zanonia macrocarpa is the most 
conspicuous plant seen along the coast in the lower forest. It 
obhtera es whole treeswith dense walls of verdure, while the 
huge fallen fruits, rotting on the ground, are the most striking 
objects m the forest. The seeds, with transparent wings about 
10 cm across, often fill the air, lazily borne on the breeze, like 
great bu terflies, for which, indeed, I took them at first ii the 
distance. » 

Borneo Tat' ^^^'""'l l^^? ^^^^^3' ^^^^^^^d, from Java and 
Island; t ??^\°f ^''^ Mindanao in the Philippines, the Aru 
Guinea. ^^^^^^^^^ aiid both western and eastern New 

The following are the references- 

nf^^^TTT '^^rr'^'^^' ^°^^- "^ S^li- Herb. Boiss i p 612 
(189.3); KSchuni. &Lauterb. Fl. Dentsch. Siidsee, p 589 (1901V 
Con-n. m Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. xliii. p. .358 (1906)^' ^ ^' 
Zanon.a macrocarpa, Blume, Bijdr. 'p. 937 (1825); Ser. in BC 



199 



Prodr. iii. p. '299 (1828); G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. p. 4 (1834); 
Miq. n. Ind. Batay. i. pt. 1, p. 683 (1855) ; Cogn. in DC Monogr. 
iii. p. 927 (1881); Warb. in Engl. Jahrb. xiii. p. 444 (1891); 
Gibbs, Dutch X.W. New Guinea, pp. IT, 51, 222 (1917). 



Bignontai 

p. 2 (1904). 



117 (1846) 

Soc. Queeusl. xviii. 



XXVIIL— THE WEST AFRICAN OIL PALM. 

{Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.). 

J, H. Holland. 

In tbe editorial paper on the West African Oil Palm (K.B. 
1909, p. 47) special importance was attached to the cultivation 
and development of well marked varieties. The lines on which 
the experiments should be made were given, the keeping of careful 
records suggested and from the facts gathered up to that time it 
was considered clear that prolonged experimental work should 
be undertaken before any extensive sowings of the seed of a par- 
ticular variety of the Oil Palm were made. Since that date the 
subject has been before the Agricultural Departments of the Gold 
Coast, IN"igeria, Federated Malay States, Ceylon, Seychelles etc. 
All the known varieties have been tested, more especially in 
West Africa, the "Soft-shelled nut" (forma teiiera, Becc.) 
having been one of the most prominent, and great hopes have 
been centred in this form because of its convenience for cracking. 
So far, however, neither tenera nor any other ^^riety or form 
appears to have been found constant in their characters on repro- 
duction. The position was summarised in the Bulletin for 1918 
(pp. 121-124) and the following particulars are to a large extent 
a continuation of the records there discussed. 

In the Gold Coast Eeport on the Agricultural Department for 
1918 it is stated that "the varieties again suffered badly from 
beetles and only verv small crops of fruit were obtained, and that 
*(a) " Gamopeley "—trees 2, 4 and 6 gave 11 bunches, contammg 
2215 nuts weighing 50-11 lb., the fruits being similar to Abe- 
tuntum" [fruit nearly spherical, pericarp black at the apex, 
red at the base, nut hard : see K.B. 1909, p. 40] *(&) ' Diwakak- 
waka"-the single tree was badly attacked bv beetles and no 
fruits were gathered during the year. *(c) ' Lisombe [the 
soft-shelled palm, forma tenera, Becc ]-trees 1 2 and 4 ^ave 
. 14 bunches containing 3200 nuts, weighing ^V^f /^ "^^f^^^^ 1^7^^ 
o-ave 9. bunches. The fruits are similar to Abetuntum._ [d) 
- Abefita " rfruit very large, pericarp reddish-white, occasionally 
streakedwM black/nut \a^ pafm exceedingly scarce : (see 
KB ll): the white Oil Palm, var. a?fee.c.n.,^Becc.]-trees 4 

* (a), {i)> i^) Cameroon varieties. 



200 



jialm nut or var. communis, CLev., forma dura, Becc.]. (e) 
" Abetuntum "—trees 3 and 5 g-ave IG bunclies containing 3821 
nuts, weigliiug- 50-22 lb., they were all fairly true to type. 
(/) " Abo})obe " [fruit medium size, similar in shape and colour 
to "Abetuntum," shell of the nut very thin and can easily be 
cracked with the teeth (see K.B. I.e. p. 40) : the soft-shelled nut 
or thin-shelled variety: -forma tenera, Becc] — trees 1, 3 and 5 
gave 12 bunches containing 1318 nuts weighing 21-32 lb. :N'o. 5 
gave true thin-shelled nuts, {g) " Abedani " [fruit in shape 
similar to " Abe^)a," pericarp yellowish-red, nut very hard, 
"the false or crazy oil-palm" widely distributed over the colony 
(I.e. p. 40), forma fatua, Becc.]— trees 2, 4 and 5 gave 11 bunches, 

contaming 4472 nuts weighing 61-34 lb. : none of them ai)i)ear 
true to type . " 

The above refers to the Agricultural Station at Aburi and the 
following report (for 1918) is that for the sub-station at Kibbi 
(records for 1916, KM. 1918, p. 121)-" The various palms were 
planted m 1J12 and as most of them are now coming into bearino- 
they were numbered in August so that the yield of each palm may 
be ascertained. In future years therefore the individual yields 
of each palm will be available and a complete survey of the fruits 
will be made. The following are the aggregate yields for each 
variety as planted without discriminating :—" Abetuntum " 22 
bunches weighing 95 lb. and 48 lb. clean fruits, average clean 

aMV}^'^''} -^ l^- . " ^^«bobe," 67 bunches weighing 374 lb. 
and .03 p clean fruits, average clean fruits per bunch 3 lb. 

Abepa, 64 bunches weighing 405 lb. and 2251 lb. dean fruits, 
average clean fruits per bunch 3-5 lb. Mixed varieties gave 144 
bunches weighing 1152 lb. and 652 lb. clean fruits, average clean 
fruits per bunch 4-5 lb. These yields are not much better than 
in tne previous year. 

Apart from the cultivation of any special variety on the Gold 
Coast i^ias Wen found that the cleaning and thinning for a 
;-n;n ^J'lr -1 ?^*^^?lly g^o^'^ trees in bearing-and the 

itandi°l A'l '% f'^'pf ^^"^" T^''. '^^«^S^t ^^^ palm oil trees left 
standing at the Pela Blengo Station has resulted in a considerable 
increase in yield (Eeport Dept. Agric. 1916, p. 53: Z.^ Sls! 

rretrdf?nfr9ir%*'^!?7^*^'''^r ^^ *^^^ Seychelles for 1918 
Station reli' '^P i ^■'- ^' ^^F *^^ ^""^^^ «f the Botanic 
™e receSft .1^^™ ""l^ '^f^ °^ *^^« ^°^t kernel varieties 
the veTr m^!'T Y ^"'''^°' of Agriculture, S. IS^igeria, during 
beini exaS V T; I'l. ^-^^ ^'""'''^ ^""'^^ ^^^^^^^^ Seychelles after 

SiiS Prl^ sm^ll ' -^ ^''^?^- .yP°^ *^^ recommendation of 
b r U. i»rain small consignments will be tested at first as re-ards 

JinueTdo' well '^T ^T^ established iS the Colony con- 
in poor lateSe and ob?^ )T' ^'°^? ^* ^^^ ^«tanic Station 

from four trees, Nos 1 3 4 5 OP .^^P^/^^ts were obtained 
true to type, AT^s 3 and 5 \ ? *^'f^ *^^'' *'^« turned out 
nuts. At the ' Palr^s ' (^.r. f' ^ tV\ ^ P^^^^ced hard-shelled 

falms (pnyate estate out of seven plants of 



201 

the soft-shelled variety grown in good alluvial soil, four fruited 
during tlie year, Nos. 2, 4, 6 and 12; of these only one j3roduced 
nuts true to type, No. 6. It is a fine tree, which fruited abun- 
dantly this year, four ripe bunches having being secured in 
November and December. The j^roportion of kernel to nuts (dry) 
is as high as 53 per cent. In the hard shelled types the propor- 
tion is 13 per cent. In another field set out in 1915 near the 
hospital bridge there are at jDresent thirteen palms growing in 
two rows out of which eleven are just coming into bearing, and 
it remains to be seen early in 1919 liow many of these plants 
from soft-shelled seeds will come true to type. I am indebted 
to the proprietor of the ^ Palms ' who in 1918 allowed me to 
fence in tree No. G from which seeds are now being secured and 
sown. It has been decided on Government land to remove the 
trees which produce hard-shelled nuts so as to avoid cross pollina- 
tion of the more valuable soft-shelled plants. It is, however, as 
yet too early to adopt a general policy as regards this question of 
selection, because many of the hard-shelled trees grown from 
soft-shelled seeds seem to produce hitherto larger bunches of 
fruits yielding larger kernels and more pericarp than the true 
to type trees. For this reason the whole row of trees at the 
* Paims ' will be left standing although more than half of them 
have already been shown to produce hard-shelled nuts. The 
plants groM'u from seed obtained from Lagos in 1913 have not 
yet come into bearing. 



The following records from 



the Annual Reports of the Director of Agriculture for 1917, pp. 
8-9 and 1918, p. 14. In a connected form for this Colony they 
are the first to be published in the Bulletin and afford evidence 
that is particularly valuable as coming from the land of our most 
important trade source of palm-oil and kernels. As on the Gold 
Coast the experiments in the cultivation of marked varieties is 
wisely combined with an enquiry as to the effect of cultivation on 
wild trees in enclosed areas. 

In 1911 seeds of the known varieties of the oil-palm were col- 
lected and propagated at all the Agricultural Stations,^ as it is 
desirable to ascertain whether any or all of these varieties breed 
true and which is the most profitable variety to cultivate. The 
seedlings raised were planted out in small plots and some of them 
commenced to bear fruit towards the end of 1916. As no other 
officer was available for this work, the Mycologist commenced at 
Moor Plantation a preliminary investigation of the botanical 
and economic characters of the oil palm. 

The fruits produced by the three plots of young palms were 
examined, but they were'^so small that they only yielded a negli- 
gible quantity of ^pericarp oil and kernels. In the thin shell 
variety, plot not a single fruit with a thin shell has yet been 
harvested ; all the fruits have typically thick shells. The variety 
in the third plot is that known to the Ibadan people as *' Ope 
Ifa,'' it is not to be confused with the '* Ope Ifa '' or "King 
Palm'' of the Lagos people, it is a thick shell variety, but the 
kernels occasionally have four instead of three eyes which is 
characteristic of the thick shell variety. In the thm shell variety 



202 

one and frequently two of tlie eyes are aborted, occasionally fruits 
were found to consist of a mass of fibre and without a trace of a 
nut. A plot planted witt palms raised from mixed, unselected 
nuts, has only one palm which yields nuts with thin shells. Both 
this plot and the " Ope If a " plot has a palm which exhibits frealc 
characters. These small plantings have clearly demonstrated that 
the oil palm is not a "fixed" species. 

Fruits were regularly harvested from the one-acre enclosure of 
wild palms; this enclosure has 44 fruit-bearing palms, only one 
of which is the thin-shell variety. It is interesting to note that 
fruit was collected during each month of the year and on 18 
different occasions. The total number of bunches collected was 
290, which yielded 3652 lb. of fruit. The average yield per tree 
was thus 6-6 bunches. The average weight of fruit per bunch was 
12-25 lb. The weight of the bunches has no value, for this varies 
enormously in accordance with climatic conditions; during wet 
weather they absorb a large amount of moisture. 



rom 



monly practised in the Western Provinces, and which is reported 
to produce what is known commercially as " soft " oil. Briefly 
described the procedure is as follows:— The fruits are separated 
from the bunch with the aid of a cutlass, and boiled with water 
in an iron pot until the pericarp becomes soft. Thoy are then 
turned into a wooden mortar and beaten with wooden pestles to 
separate the pericarp from the nuts. The mixture of nuts, -oil 
and fibre which results is put into a circular pit which has its 
surface lined with hardened clay. Here it is trodden on until 
any fibrous matter adhering to the nuts is removed. The nuts 
are picked out, and the fibrous mass remaining is hand squeezed ; 
the fibre being discarded. The oily matter which rises to the 
surface is boiled to evaporate any water present, after which the 
oil IS ready for market. The method is essentially crude; the 
amount of oil extracted varies from 5-5 to T per cent, of the total 
weight of the fruits ; by means of solvents it is possible to extract 
oil equivalent to more than 10 per cent, of the weight of the fruits. 

Experimental extractions from the small quantities of thin 
shell fruits available gave from 7-5 to 12-5 per cent, of the total 
weight as pericarp oil. About 600 thick shell kernels go to the 
pound, as against 1400 thin shell kernels. 

From a large _ control extraction made under careful super- 
vision the followinq- results were recorded 



* « • • » • 



Totel number of l)unclies liarvested 
Gross weight of Lunclies 
Weight of fruits 
Average weight of fruits per bunch 

Total yield of pericarp oil 

Equivalent yield per 100 lb. of fruits 



■ • 



• I* 



136 

2,130 lb. 

1,331 lb. 

9-T8 lb. 
10-0 galls. 



120-2 fluid oz. of oil [one gall. = 160 fl. oz.] 
lotal weight of oil extracted ... 95 lb., i.e. ♦9-5 lb. to gall. 

lotal weight of kernels 1811b 

The^weight of oil extracted equals 7-14 per cent, of the fruits 



203 



treated. From these resiilts it is calculated that the acre of wild 
palms referred to above yielded 261 lb. of pericarp oil and 497 lb. 
of kernels. 

In 1918 the Director of Agriculture reports: *' These investi- 
gations "^ere proceeded with as far as circumstances permitted. 
The yield of fruits, pericarp oil and kernels from the various 
plots is shown below. The oil was again expressed by the primi- 
tive native method, as our efforts to procure an oil press have so 
far been unsuccessful/^ 1 acre of 

iSahns 
1 acre enclosure planted in 
of nild palms. 1913 2u^x 2i>'. 

]y"umber of collections ... ... 15 ... 12 

Number of bunches collected ... 265 ... 99 

"VVeight of bunches, lb 5671 . ... 2369-5 

Weight of fruits in bunches, lb. ... 3370 ... 1476 

Weight of fruits in bunches, % ... 59-4 ... 62*3 

Weight of nuts obtained, lb. ... 1871 ... 803-1 

Weight of nuts in fruits, % ... 55*5 ... 55-1 

Weight of kernels obtained, lb. ... 396-3 ... 1754 

Weight of kernels in nuts, % ... 21-2 ... 21-8 

Weight of oil obtained, lb 187-8 ... 79-67 

Weight of pericarp oil in fruits, % 5-6 ... 5-4 

A sample of nuts of the *^ Abepa ^' variety of the Gold Coast 
was received at the Museum from Cevlon in June, 1919. In 
reference to this the Director of Agriculture (letter to Director, 
Eew, dated 29th Mar, 1919) states: '' Seed of this variety of oil 
palm was secured by this Department in June, 1915, from the De- 
partment of Agriculture, Gold Coast. I'rom the plants raised from 
this consignment, 3 acres of oil-palms were planted 22 ft. by 
22 ft, in jN^ovember, 1915. The plot has been regularly cultivated 
with disc harrows. Cow-peas [Viffua Catiang) and other legu- 
minous crops were inter-sown and ploughed in from time to time. 
The Experiment Station is situated in the Dry Zone of the Colony, 
rain rarely falling in any appreciable quantity between ^lay and 
October. During the dry season the palms have been under irri- 
ation. The average rainfall at the Experiment Station (Anurad- 
apura) is 68-66 in. In February, 1918, the palms flowered for 
the first time, viz., at the age of 2 years and 3 months and in 
October, 1918, the first collection of fruit was made, when 16 lb. 
was secured. The young piilms are looking extremely healthy 

and vigorous. 

It may be of interest to note that in 1897 a firm of nurserymen 
in Ceylon were prepared to supply seeds of Elaeis guineensis at 
10s. per 100 (Queensland Agric, Journ. i. 1897, p. 461). 

The cultivation in the Dutch East Indian Possessions {K.B. 
1918, p- 12-1) is being rapidly extended. The Director of the 
Algemeen Proefstation Avros, reports (letter to Director, dated 
Medan, 27th May, 1919) that in 1918 the total of plantations 
where the '* Oil-palm " is cultivated numbers 22, of which 15 are 
situated on the East Coast of Sumatra, 6 in Attjeh and one_ in 
the western part of Borneo, the total area under cultivation being 
2303 hectares with a productive area of 982 hectares. '•' West 




93 



20-i 

Africa/' in the issue for March 2Ttli, 1920, records that "at the 
beyinniug- of 1919 there were in Eastern Sumatra, 5188 hectares 
planted with 556,162 trees, of which 306,381 (covering 2723 hec- 
tares) were in full j^roduction, " and " Handelsvereeniging, 
Amsterdam," mentions (letter to Director, dated Amsterdam, 
April 10th, 1919) that in Sumatra there were 3730 hectares of 
Oil-palms under cultivation in properly organised plantations. 

The following particulars have recently been received by the 
Director from Mr. E. Swainson Hall, Cabinda, Portuguese Congo, 
a repdn which hitherto has not contributed to the fund of infor- 
mation that has been published in the Bulletin from time to time. 
Tlie pericarp, endoearp and endosperm percentages are based 
upon the weight of one fruit, which was the weight obtained from 
an average of several typical fruits from each variety. The per- 
centages of oil and kernels are based upon the weight of bunch 
when freshly cut. It is proposed to undertake experiments in the 
pollination of the thin-shelled variety — " Bissombe " of the Por- 
tuguese Cono'o and the results will be awaited with much interest. 

The varieties of the Oil-Palm, so far noted existing in the Portu- 
guese Congo, together with their native names, are as follows: — 
(1) Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. var. micros per 7}ia, Welw. (Fl. Trop. 
Africa, viij. (1902) x); forma tenera, Becc. or Kew Bull. 1914, 
Ko. 8, 237, var. communis, Chev., forma tenera, Becc. Thin 
shell which can easily be cracked with the teeth. Fruits large 
and oblong, very fleshy pericarp, soft thin shell, weight of one 
average fruit, 14-95 grams. 

Analysis. — Fleshy pericarp forms 80-0 % of fruit. 

,, endoearp „ 10-7 % 
„ endosperm „ 8-7 % 

Oil „ 12-25% „ 

Kernels ..-. „ 10-2 % ,, 

^ The native name in the Portuguese Congo for this variety is 

•' Bissombe." This palm does not appear to be very plentiful 
here . 

(2) Elaeis guitieensis, Jacq., var. macrosperma, Welw. (Aponts. 
p. 584) or var. communis, Chev. Keic Bull 1914, p. 286, forma 
dura, Becc. Hard thick shell. Common variety palm. Weight 
of one average fruit, 16-1 grams. 

Analysis.— Fleshy pericarp forms 54-3 % of fruit. 



>> 



yi 



„ endoearp ,, 37-0 % 

,, endosperm ,, 8-7 ^ 

Oil ... ,, 9-07% „ 

Kernels ... ,, 7-9 % 



J J 



>> 



Native name, " Peepiti." This palm is plentiful. 

{6) Elaeis gumeensis, Jacq. var. repanda, Becc. Chev. (I.e. 
p. bl) a variety with green tinted fruits, when young and unripe 
all green, but when ripe green at tips only. Wei<> 
average fruit, 18-2 grams. -f j t- 

Analysis.— Fleshy pericarp foims 50-0 % of fri 



one 



,, endoearp ,, 38-0 % 

,, endosperm „ 12-0 % 

0^1 , ,, 5-25% 

Kernels ... fi-OQ % 



.. . ,, 



> » 



>> 



> t 



>) 



2U5 



J^atire name, "Matuundaby." This palm appears to be very 
rare bere, tbe uatiyes do not use the oil, as it is said to be a 
letish." 

Another instance recently brought into notice of uncertainty 
in reproduction lies in the variety with the fleshv perianth, known 
as " Ayara Mbana '' in Old Calabar, *" Agode '' or " Khide " of 
Togoland (Elaeis guineensis, var. C. H. Wright in K.B. 191 -i 
p. 92, with fig. of fruit, and 1919, p. 238. E.g. sub-sp. nigrcs- 
cens var. Poissonii, A. Chev. E. Poissonii, Annet). From a 
sowing made by Dr. Gruner (Togoland) in 1905 of 61 seeds of 



Klude/' 51 palms were raised wliicli bore '' Klude " fruits and 
10 palms which bore fruits of '' Dento '' or the ordinary variety. 

It may be early to generalise or to draw any conclusions as to 
the prospects under cultivation. Everything', however, at the 
moment, tends to the advisability that'^not only experiments in 
pollination and development of particular varieties on the lines 
indicated, but that selection on lines similar to those recommended 
for the '* Coco-nut'^ (see K.B. 1915, pp. 72-76) should also be 
advanced in every possible way. If either of these palms could 
be raised from suckers in the same way as the '^Date Palm '' there 
would be quite a different story to tell in the fixing of varieties 
and no shadow of disappointment when the time came to gather 
the crops. 



XXIX.— DECADES KEWENSES 

Plantaruai Novarum in Herbario Horti Eegii Coxsera^4.tarum, 

DECAS XCVIII. 

971. Malus toringoldes, Hughes [Eosaceae-Pomeae] ; affinis 
M, transitoriaey Schneider, sed foliis majoribus ad 8 cm. longis 
minus profunde lobatis interdum indivisis elliptico-oblongis 
crenato-serratis vel lobulatis, floribus et fructibus multo majori- - 
bus, calycis tubo more generis. 

Frutex vel arhor 3-8 m. alta. Rami patentes, leviter pen- 
duli, infimi prope terram orti, purpureo- vel brunneo-fusci, praeter 
novellos araneoso-villosos glabri vel glabrescentes ; gemmae 
parvae, ovatae, acutaej sparse lanuginosae. Folia decidua, ad 
8 cm. longa, profunde lobata, ambitu ovata vel ovato-elliptica, 
crenato-serrata, rarius indivisa et tunc elliptico-oblongo, basi 
attenuata, supra viridia, subtus pallidiora, ad nervos pubescentia, 
caeterum glabrescentia ; petioli supra leviter canaliculati, 
1-3 cm. longi, araneoso-villosi. Flares in fasciculis vel 
corymbis subsessilibus 3— 6-floris. Calycis lobi elongnto-triangu- 
lares, acuminati, circiter 4 mm. longi, basi 2 mm. lati, tubo 
breviores, utrinque ut tubus dense tomentosi. Petala late ovalia, 
obtusa, parce subcrenulata, breviter unguiculata, 0*9-1 cm, longa, 



*" Agode'' or " Klude *' was attributed in Kew Bulletin, 1914, p. 288, to 
var. idolatrica, Becc. because it had been described as the "Saj:red Palm " of 
Togoland {K.B, 1909, p. 43); but in view of Mr. Wright's note (K,B, 1919, 
p. 238) there seems to be more than one " fetish " palm in West Africa. 



1' i) 



3-3-5 mm. lata, iiitus apice sparse pubescentia. Stamina cir- 
citer 20, petalis quarta parte breviora. Styli 3, staminibus 
superati, ad Tel supra medium connati, glabri. Ovula in quoque 
loculo 2-nata, subcollateralia . Fructus maturus globosus vel 
obovatus, basi leviter attenuatus, apice depressus^ cicatrice aiinuli- 
formi caiycis decidui notatus, 1-1-4 cm, diametro, flavus vel in 
latere ad solem spectante coccineus. Semina triangulari-obo- 
voidea, 7-8 mm. longaj 3 mm. lata, pallida. J/, transitoria, 
Scliueider, yar. toringoides, Eelid. in Sargent, PL Wilson, ii, 286; 
Fyriis transitoria var. toringoides, Osborn in Garden, Xov, 1, 

1919, 522, with %. of fruit. 

Western SzEcn'rAN. West of Tacliien-lu; 3300-3600 m., 
October, 1908, Wilson 1285; near Tong-olo, West of Tachien-lu, 
3000-3600 m. Jnne to October, 1904, Wilson 3494, and Seed 
No. 1730. 

Eebder in Sargent, PI. Wilson, ii, 286, says: "This plant 
looks quite distinct from typical M. transitoria witb its larger, 
partly entire leaves and larger fruit, and may turn out to be a 
distinct species, but as long as we do not know the mature fruits 
of the type and the flowers of this variety, we must rely on the 
difference in the leaves which are not sufficient for specific separa- 
tion,^ as intergradations seem to exist." Flowering and fruiting 
specimens from Wilson's collection and fresh material from a 
plant grown at Kew [Wilson, seed no. 1730) being now available, 
it is quite evident that Eehder's suggestion of M. transitoria var. 
toringoides hein^ a distinct species is correct. 

In examining M. transitoria, Schneider, a peculiar condition 
has been observed in the structure of the receptacle. It consists 
in the separation of an outer portion extending from the calyx 
lobes to the base of the receptacle so that a cavity is formed 
between it and the remaining inner parts. The outer portion 
consists of the epidermis and the parenchyma immediately 
beneath a^ far as it contains chlorophyll. It is probably owing 
to some differentiation in the character of the cell-walls of the 
zone in question that the separation takes place. It becomes of 
course more manifest in the dried state. Whether this is a normal 
process which is eventually obliterated during maturation cannot 
be decided from the material available. The fruits at hand show 
at any rate no traces of a temporary disconnection of the chloro- 
phyll bearing layer from the remainder of the fruit and the pecu- 
liarity described can therefore in the present state of our know- 
ledge not be used tfs a diagnostic character, nor does it seem to 
throw any light on the problem of the morphological nature of the 
receptacle of Pomaceae, 

972. Leptoderniis Farkeri, Dunn [Eubiaceae-Paederieae] a 

L. lanceolata, Wall., nervis foliorum 4-5-paribus, floribus 2 cm. 
ion^is extus puberulis, seminis testa adnata distincta. 

res glaber. Folia sessilia, lanceo- 
2-3 cm. longra, papyracea, nervis 

Flores praecoces, 



rrute.r me 
lata, arvice b 



m ramulorum apicibus saepius terni, sessiles, basi braeteis binis 
mvolucralious coriaceis apiculatis arete cincti. Calyx ovoideus. 



Calyx ovoideus, 



207 



A. 







e 




c 





A. M. transitoria, Schneider; B. M. tarlngoides, Hughes; a, longitudinal 
section of the receptacle, 6X; b, petal, 6x; c, lorgitudinal section of an 
ovule, 30 X ; d, mature fruit, 3X; e, immature fruit, 3x. 



208 



5-lobus, lobis ovatis obtusis bieviter fimbriatis. Corolla dela- 
bens alba (baud rubescens), iufundibiiliformis, extus pubeiula, 
1-9 cm. longa, tubo et fauee introrsum pilosis, limbo 5-loba 1-2 cm. 
kto, lobis ovatis. Stamina 4, medio tubi inserta, inclusa. Stylus 
filiformis, apice 2-3 (-5)-fidus, stamina subaequans. Ovarium 
5-loculare, loculis 1-ovulatis, ovulis anatrojns erectis. Fructus 
obovatus, calyce discoque coronatus, siccus, loculieide S-valvis; 
epicaipiiim a calyce soliitum, pergamaceum; endocarpium 
fibrosumj semini arete adnatiim. 

Pui^-jAB Himalaya. Cbamba State: in forest underg^o^Ytll at 
Ilndbu Kotlii; Belj yalley at 7000 feet, 21.6.1919; Kaintbli 
Reserve, Balhousie Range at 6500 feet, 22.11.1910. R. N. 
Parker. ^ Mr. Drumniond tells me tliat it is frequent in and about 
the station of Dalliousie. 



9T3. 



Strobilanthes aborensis, Dunn [Acantliaceae-Ruellieae] 
a S. secundo, T. Anders., foliis acuminatis basi rotundatis distat. 



m 



bre.viter glanduloso-puberuli, nodis incrassatis. Folia lanceolata, 
acuminata, basi rotundata, obscure crenata, sess.ilia, 6-14 cm. 
longa, cystolithis puuctiformibus iecta, glabra, venis 6-7 subtus 
prominulis, Flores laxe paniculati, in paria opposita sessilia 
dispositi ; bracteae ovatae, 6 mm. longae. Cohj.t fere ad basin 
fissus, laciniis liuearibus acutis. Corolla pallide lilacina, praeter 
pilos paucos albos infernos glabra,* tubulosa, 3-5 cm. longa, basi 
2-3 mm. lata,, supra medium inflata 1 cm. lata; lobi 5, rotundati, 
4 mm. longi. Stamina 4. Ovarium, 4-ovulatum. Capsula oblan- 
ceolata, 1-5 cm. longa. Semina 4, rugulosa, glabra. 

Easterx Himalaya. .Outer Abor Hills: Makum; 140 m., als'» 
plentiful at Sadiya, Kobo, Rotung, Rengging and Yambung 
Flowers in November. Burhill 35757. 

974. Strobilanthes Burkilli, Dunn [Acantliaceae-Ruellieae] 

a ^. gemculato, C. B. Clarke, bracteis ante antbesin caducis 
distat, 

^'Futex parvus, praeter flores glaber, ramis crebre geniculatis. 
toha superiora oblongo-lanceolata, acuminata, basi obtusa, 
obliqua 6-9 cm. longa, breviter dentato-serrata, subsessilia, 
cystolitbis linearibus tecta; venis 6-paribus infra prominulis. 
Flores l-A-ni, capitata, Capitula graciliter pedunculata, bracteis 
lanceolatis 1 cm. longis membranaceis glabris ante antbesin 
cadueis cicatrices parvas conspicuas relinquentibus; pedunculi 
^-5 cm. longi. Calyx ad basin fissus. laciniis linearibus 7 mm. 
longis ut capsuhs breviter glanduloso-pubescentibus. • Corolla 
tubulosa, 3-4 cm. longa, basi 2-3 mm. diametro saepe paulo 
torta, supra medium inflata, 1 cm. lata, cucullata, pallide vio- 
lacea; lobi o, rotundati, 2-3 mm. longi. Stamina 4. Ovarium 
4-ovulatum Capsula oblanceolata, 1-3 cm. longa. Semina 2, 
rugulosa, glabra. ° ' 

Eastern Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills; between Kobo and 
rasighat. Ilowers m December. BurJcil I ^7 107 

Mr. Burkill states^ tbat tliis species is found on tlie gravels of 
the plains and only just reaches the hills at the place indicated. 



209 



Tlie description of the flo'wers is drawn up largely from liis notes 
-iitade on the spot at the time of collection. 

975. Strobilanthes tenax, Dunn [Acantliaceae-Euellieae] a 
S, secundo, T. Anders., panicnlis glntinosis foliisqne acnte serratis 
distat. 

Caules supra ut paniculi calyces et capsulae glanduloso-liirti, 
infra glabri. Folia lanceolata, acuniinata, basi acuta, 8-10 cm. 
long-a^ erebre acute serrata, inferioru breviter petiolata, suprema 
sessilia, glabra, cystolitliis linearibus tecta, venis 6-paribus infi^a 
prominulis. Flores laxe paniculati, in paria op2)osita sessilia 
dispositi ; bracteae parvae, lineares, foliaceae, persistentes. 
Calyx ad basin fissus, 1 cm. longus, laciniis linearibus acntis. 
Corolla tubulosa, 3 cm. longa, basi 3-4 mm. diametro, supra 
medium inflata, 1 cm. lata; lobi 5, rotundati, patentes, 1-2 mm. 
longi. Stamina 4. Ovarium 4-ovulatum- Capsula oblanceolata, 

15 cm. longa. Semina2. 

Easteen Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills : Kobo ; 140 m. Flowers 

in March. Burkill 56785. 

976. Elatostema arcuans, Dunn [Urticaceae-Procrideae] ab 

E. platyphyllo, Wedd., foliis membranaceis distans. 

Ilerha magna, glabra, dioica. Caules multi, aggregati, carnosi, 
yirides, striati, arcuantes, apice borizont^iies. Folia alterna, 
oblanceolata, acuminata, basi obliqua, obtusa vel acuta, parte 
superiore dentato-serrata, membranacea, cystolitbis brevibus tecta, 
15-25 cm. longa; stipulae lineari-lanceolatae, deciduae. Capi- 
tula 9 (solum visa) fere sessillia, axillaria, liemisphaerica, paulo 
lobata, 1-2 cm. diametro. Flores numerosissinii, virides, breviter 
pedicellati. Perigonium 4-pbyllum ; segmenta ovata, obtusa, 
membranacea. Achaenium erectum, ovale, striatum, 0-5 mm* 

longum, perigonium patens bis excedens. 

Easteex HiiTALAYA. Outcr Abor Hills: growing by water 
courses near Eotung; 450 m., flowering in December. Burhill 

37365. . ^ 

977. Elatostema imbricans, Dunn [Urticaceae-Procrideae] 
ab E. surculoso, Wight foliis oblongis regulariter imbricatis 

diktat. 

Ilerha parva, glabra. Caulis erectus, saepe ramosus, basi 

radicans, miuute brunneo-furfuraceus. Folia alterna, .imbri- 

cata, sessilia, oblonga, apice serraturis 5 prorsum directis 

notata, basi oblique cordafa, 2-2-5 cm. longa, 6-7 mm. lata. 



mema 



(f 



teae lineari-lanceolatae, scariosae, supra capitula et secus folia 
subtendentia arcuatae. Flores 2-4-ni, subsessiles, 1-2 mm. dia- 
metro in^Lolucro 4r^-pbyllo inclusi; bracteae ovatae, ^1-1'5 mm. 
longae, viridi-costatae. Ferianthii segmenta 4, byalina, ovata. 
Stamina 4, inflexa. ^ 

Eastern Himalaya. Outer Khor Hills : on the summit of Bapu ; 
2100 m., and on a '' razor edge '' ridge dividing the Lalik from 
tbe Serpo at 1700 m., in both cases on rocks where the ground is 
dry and the air very damp. Burkill 3G364, 36938. 



210 

978. Elatostema Maclntyrei, Dunn [Urticaceae-Procrideae] 
ab E. sesquijolio, Hassk., foliis crenato-serratis, receptaculisque 
pedicellatis aggregatis distans. 

Frutex parvus, praeter novellos glabrus, dioicus. RaniuVi ut 
pagmae foliorum superiores et involucri bracteae cystolithis 
Imeaiibus dense tecti, stria ti. Folia alterna, oblique' ovato- 
caudata, basi obtusa, 10-14 cm. longa, 4-5 cm. lata, parte 
supenore crenato-serrata, chartacea; petioli 0-5-1 cm. loiigi; 
stipulae 'triangulares, caudatae, basi latae, 1-2 cm. longae,. 
deciduae. Capitula (f (solum visa) axillaria, 8-10-na, 6-8-flora, 
1-2 mm. diametro; bracteae cucullatae, dorso calloso-gibbosae ; 
pedunculi 3-5 mm. longi. Flores subsessiles, 1 mm. diametro. 
terigonit segmenta 4, ovata, paulo cucuUata. Stamina 4. 

Easteex Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills; Eengging. Flowers in 
rebruary. BurUlimiU. Sfe b . 

At ^v Burkill's request this species is dedicated to Major- 
Cxeneral Donald Charles Frederick Maclntyre, C.B., Indian Army 
(Eetired List), who will be pleasantly remembered by those who 
took part m the expedition on which the plant was collected. 

r 

979. Andradine emicans, Dunn [Euphorbiaceae-Phvllau- 

theae] ab A CZar^ef, Hook, f., foliis longe petiolatis, floribus 
fasciculatis difFert. . 

Frutex parvus, glaber, ramos novellos steriles erectos ad 3 
m. altos emittens, corpusculis clavatis in axillis aggregatis. Folia 
lanceolata, apice acuminata, basi acuta. fi-P n,.. lr.nr..a f...r.^ 



virentia ; nervi laterales, 8-9-pares ; petioli graciles, 1-2 cm. longi. 
I! Lores $ (solum visi) axillares, 2-4-ni; pedicelli graciles, 0-9-1-1 
cm. longi. Sepala 5, ovalia, obtusa, herbacea, 2 mm. longa. 
h^ianduiae disci cum sepalis alternae, ovatae, profunde bilobae, 
U-& mm longae, membranaceae. Ovarium triloculare, 6-ovula- 
turn. i>tyh 4-6, 0-5 mm. longi. Capsula depresse globosa, 0-5- 
U-b mm. diametro. Semina 6, angulata, 1-5 mm. longa. 

Easterx HniALAYA. Outer Abor Hills: Kobo; river bank, 
iruitmg m December. Btirkill 35955, 37068, 37390. 

The voung shoots springing up to a height of 10 feet make this 
a notable plant m the jungle. 

del^a J"^^'^^^^ ^."^^ L^^ticaceae-Procrfdeae] ab Achu^ 
aeviia^ 151.,^ mflorescentia spicata imilaterali differt. 



Flores dioici ; Q 



Tmis 



longa 
Perinnthium 5-partitum, 



SL oppoSa ^^O ^"" ^^-u-.W.a 5, minuta, glob^osa, .e^- 
Slorum ?.<?U* fi ^T''''1 ^^^^^^\"^^ ; «t%«ia sessile, fascicule^ 
Sire^-eohl "^ formatum ; ovulum e basi erectum. Achae- 
W rHcar^i.TrT^^' P^^^^/t^io persistente pntente sufful- 
cea^ albumen tenue ; cotyledones late ovati 

deS!^t%Trvl:- stllr^^^^'^'.^f^^^^^'/-^-- -^-li^-' 
ternn-nnToo ' '^'^''^^^ mtrapetiolares, deciduae. Spicae 



211 



S. myriantha, Dunn, species unica. 

Herba riridissima, repens. Caules ascendentes, 30-50 cm. longi, 
basi radicantes. Folia late ovalia, apice breviter acuminata, basi 
obtusa, serrato-dentata, 13-15 em. long-a, 6-10 cm. lata, saepe 
aequilateralia, glandulas liydatbodas in serraturis et alibi ferentia^ 
cjstolithis linearibus crebre conspersa, subglabra; petioli 2-5 cm. 
longi. Spicae $ 1-2-nae, 6-10 cm. longae; pedunculi aequilongi. 
Perianthii segmenta anguste ovata, 0-7 mm. longa, pilis 1-3 albis 
conspicuis coronata, ovarium includentia. Acheniuvi lenticulare^ 
1-5 mm. diametro. Flores steriles lineares, 1 mm. longi, apice 
truncati. Flores cT ignoti. 




Smithiella. — Fig. 
inflorescerce ; 

fruit open; 9, 



1, part of plant; '2, stipule; 3, part of leaf; 4, 
5, bud; 6, bud in section; 7, fruit; 8, part of 
section of seed. 



Hni 



^.*^^^x.., ^^-.^..^ Outer Abor Hills: on tbe sunless side of 

the Dihong Gorge in dark and very damp places below Eotung at 
SOO m., in similar situations near Puak at the same elevation and 

■ " ' * Flowers in Decem- 

ber and January. Burkill 36076, 37383, 37636. 



a little higher on the north of the Sidi river. 



c2 



212 



This remarkable lierb can easily be recognised as allied to 
Procris, Achudemia and Elatostema, even in the absence of male 
flowers, by its liabit and floral characters, but the crowding of 
minute female flowers on to one side of a slender terminal spike 
was previously^ unknown in that group and finds counterparts 
among the Urticaceae only, in such genera as the tropical Ameri- 
can Myriocarpas and the Dorstenias of America ond Africa. The 
discoverer noted that the leaves averaged 70 square cm. in area 
and that they were always covered with drops of water (which had 
doubtless exuded from the conspicuous water glands). 

The genus is respectfully dedicated to Miss Matilda Smith, 
and the specific name of the first species not inapproj^riately 
refers to its innumerable flowers as well as to the very large 
number of beautiful drawings and paintings of flowers with which 
Miss Smith has for so many years decorated the Botanical 
Magazine, the Icones Plantarum and the Kew Bulletin. 



XXX.— ADDITIONS TO THE WILD FAUNA AND 
FLORA OF THE ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, 

KEW: XV. 

The following additions to the wild fuuna and flora have been 
recorded during recent years. The list of insects belonging to 
the Aphididae, Psyllidae and Aleurodidue has been drawn up by 
Mr. r. Lamg, of the British Museum (Natural HistoiT) from 
observations made by him in the Gardens in 1914, 1D15, and 1919. 
Mr. Lamg remarks that further collecting will, no doubt, reveal 
many more species, especially amongst the Aleurodidae and 
Psyllidae, the present numbers of which are very small when we 
take into consideration the varied flora of the Gardens. A more 
up-to-date classification, he adds, might have been adopted in the 
Aphididae, but the classification of this group is in such a chaotic 
condition that it has been thought better to be conservative rather 
than use many of the genera which future work may show will 



not stand. 



Fauna. 

COLEOPTEEA. 



Myrrha octodecimguttata, L. On Urtica dioica, Queen's Cot- 
tage grounds, Sept. 1919, E. F. Turrill. 

Hemipteea. 

Aphididae. 



Aphidinae 



M aero siph urn, Pass. 

M. avellanae, Schr. On Corylus avellana. 

M. chelidonii, Kalt. On Ruhus idaeus. 

..^ 4?'*'^™'^fii'T^''^'^^'^' ^"^^^^- On Chrysanthemums 
end Asters m one cf the houses late in the rear 1915 

M, con vol villi, Kalt. On Convolvulus sp. 

31. dirhodum, Walk. On roses and grasses. 



213 



M. granarium, Khy. Ou grasses. 

M. mlllefolii, Fahr. On Achillea Tuille folium-^ common. 

M. jaceae, Linn. On Centaurea nigra^ Carduus sp. 

M. lactucae^ Schr. On Rihes. 

M. pelargonii, Kalt. On Malva sp. Geranium rohertianum, 
M. pisi, Kalt. On LatliyruSy Lotus. 
M. rosaCy Linn. On roses, always to be found. 
M. rosae, var. glaiica, Buckt. Usually to be found along with 
the previous species. 

M. (Amphorophora) rubi, Kalt. On Ruhus spp. but scarce. 



M 

spp. in 1915. 
M. solanij 



This was the common Aphid on Ruhus 

This was found in numbers on potatoes 

being grown in the Gardens in 1919. It has a wide range of host 

plants and will probably be found on other plants when looked for. 

AL sonchi, Linn. On Ajchillea millefolium^ Centaurca, Chry- 

santhemum. 



M. (M 



Found in one of the 



houses in 1915. It evidently does not survive out of doors in this 



country. 

M. urticae, Linn. On Urtica dioica. 

Drepanosiphum, Koch. 

D. platanoides, Schr. On Acerspp. common throughout the 
summer. 



Rhopalosiphum, Koch. 



R 



On Berheris spp, very common in 1915 



but not seen at all in 1919. 

R, persicae, Sulz. Occurs ou a very wide range of plants. 

R. ligustri, KaJt. Apterous females found in 1919 on Ligus- 
trum sp.y but evidently very rare. 

Melanoxantherium. 

M. salicis, L. On twig of Salix SmitJiiana. H, St. J. Bonis- 
thorpe. 

Siphocoryne, Pass. 

On Brassica sp. growing- 
-ild. ^ 



cot-y 



\\ 



S. (Cavariella) capreae, Fabr. Ou willows, Herachnm, An- 
gelica, Aegopodivm. 
Phorodon, Pass. 

P. hmnuli, Schr. Ou Pntnns si^. 

Myzus, PcLss. 

M. cerasi, Fair. On Pruniis cerasns, forming block clusters 

and a gliitinons mass. 

M. ribis, Linn. On Rihes spp. 

M. tetrarhodus, Walk. On roses, but, as far as our observa- 
tions go, very rare. 

Aphis, Linn. 

A. (Myzaphis) abietina, Walh. On Spruce. /. TF. Munro. 

A. clirysanfhemi, Walk. On Asters and Cbrysantliemums out 

of doors. 

A. e den tula, Buckt. On Crataegus monogyna, rare. 

A. epiiobii, Kalt. On Epilohium sp., rare. ^ 

A. hederae, Kalt. On Ivy and Holly, occasionally m numbers- 



214 



A. lychnidis, Linn. On Lychnis sp., rare. 

A. pomi, De Geer. On Fyrus spp,, common througliout the 
summer. 

A. prutii, Reaum. On Prunus sp. 

A. pyri, Boyer. On Pytus spp.^ rolling the margins of the 
leaves which turn red. 

A. rumicis, Linn. On poppies, EuonyrmiSy docks, 

A. saliceti, Kalt. On willows^ but scarce, 

A, sorbi, Kalt. On Pyrus spp. 

A. viburiii, Fahr. On Viburnum Opulus. Several authors 
maintain that this species is the same as the one found on Ribes 
(A. grossulariae^ Kalt.). If such were the case, under the condi- 
tions prevailing in the Gardens, one would expect to find A. 
grossulariae^ but though careful search has been made repeatedly 
for it it has not been found. 



Q 



Subfamily Callipterixae. 

Myzocallis aini, De Geer, On Alders. 
M. castaneae. 



Buckt, (castanicola, Baher). Swarming on 



M. coryli, Goeze. On Corylus, common. 

M. (Tuberculatus) quercus, Kalt. This appears to be the 
species regularly found on Oaks witliin the Gardens. 

Euceraphis betulae, Linn. Tlie common species on Birches. 
Callipterus betulicola, Kalt. On Bif-ch, occasionally. 



glandis, Goeze. On Walnut trees, very rare. 



common 



Eucallipterus tiliae, Linn. 

Phyllaphis fagi, Linn. On Beech trees, common throughout 
the summer, the copper variety appearing to be attacked more 
heavily than the ordinary one. 

Chromaphis juglandicola (Kalt.). On Walnut trees, very 



rare. 



■ 

Subfamily Chaitophohi^^4E. 



Chaitophorus, Koch. 

C. aceris, Linn. Common on all species of Acer. 
C. populi, Linn. Common on Poplars. 
C. salicivorns, Walk._^ On Salix sp. 
C. treiniilae, Koch. 



put 



but it seems a well-marked species and is to be found on Aspens 
but not on Poplars growing in the immediate neighbourhood. 

Subfamily LACH>^ijfAE. 

Lachnus, Burin. 

L. agilis, Kalt. On Pinus sylvestris, rare. 
L. hyalinus, KocJi. On Pimis sylvestris, rare. 
L. pini, Linn. On Pinus sylvestris, frequent. 
L. juniperi, Linn. On J t mi per us virginiana (Bed Cedar), 8 
apterous females, 28. viii. 1919. 

Subfamily Sciiizoneurinae. 
Anoecia corni, Bartig. Winged females of this species may 
always be found on Forsythia, but the true host-plants are the 
numerous species of Cornus growing within the Gardens. ' 



215 



Eriosoma lanigerum, Hausm. On Pijrus sp,, but fortunately' 

by no means common. 

E. ulmi, Linn. On Elm, rolling the lea\'es, abundant. 

Subfamily Pemphiginae. 
Pemphigus (Thecabius) affinis, Kalt. At tlie roots of Ranun- 

cuius sp.y very rare. Trail lias recorded tliis species from Poplar. 
P. bursarius, Linn. On Poplar, very rare, 
P. marsupialis, Koch. On Poplar (Trail, Wild Fauna of Kew, 

1906.) 

Tetraneura ulmi, Linn. On Elm, very rare. 

Subfamily Yacuninae. 
Vacuna dryophila, Schr. Not uncommon on Oaks. 

_r 

Subfamily Hormaphidixae. 
Cerataphis lataniae, Boisd. On a palm in the Palm Ilouse. 

w 

Subfamily Phylloxeeixae. 

Phylloxera quercus, Bayer. In 1915 an oak was very severely 
attacked by this species, the leaves becoming first yellow and then 



shrivelling. 



Subfamily Chermesixae. 



Chermes abietis, Linn. On Spruce, forming characteristic 



galls. 



C. (Cnaphalodes) strobilobius, Kalt. On Larch twigs. 



Eoot-Feeders. 



F 

Rhizobius menthae, Ta&s. On roots of Mentha aquatica, 1907 
(Prof. E. JS'ewstead). I have^ seen tlie original specimens but 
have not foimd tlie species again. 

Alette ODiDAE. 
Asterochiton phillyreae, Hal. On Pldllyrea and Crataegus. 
This species appears to be qnite established within the Gardens. 
A. vaporariorum, Westw. The adults of this species are usually 



aporanorum 

to be found flying within the houses. 



AE 



Psylla biixi, Linn. An exceedingly common species on Bm^w^ 
causing the leaves to form little clusters, inside which live the 

nymphs. 

P. Porsteri, Flor. On Ahnis. . n . 

P. mali, Schmid. On various species of Fyrus and Crataegus, 

onlv too common. . . -r»- . 

P. oineti, Flor. On conifers m the Pmetum. 
Psyllopsis fraxini, Linn. On Ash, but apparently not common. 
P. fraxinicola, Forst. On Ash, common. 

COCCIDAE. 

DiaST^Is zamiae, Morgan, on Cycads in the Palm House, 
December, 1919, F. E. Green. 



216 



Nematoda. 

Mermithidae. 



Merniis nig 



ni 



lias been appearing in many parts of the coiintry during the recent 

spell of thundery weather, and was found in the gardens on 

June 16. A parasite of insects, it is frequently found upon the 

leaves of plants, not, however, necessarily having recently 

emerged from its host, but from the ground out of which it appears 

during periods of excessive moisture for the purpose of oviposi- 

tion. According to Hagmeier,* two years may be passed in the 

soil by the female before its eggs are ripe for laying. When laid 

they contain a large, coiled-up embryo. It is not known how 

this, on becoming a young worm, enters the body of its host. The 

eggs are probably eaten, in the case of a caterpillar, with its food, 

hatch in the gut, and then burrow throu(]^h its wall into the bodv- 
cavity. 

The egg itself of M. nigrescens consists of two shells : an inner 

one, thick and brown in colour, containing the embryo, and an 

outer one^-thin, colourless, and transparent — ^bearing- at each pole 

a filamentous process frayed out at the end into a bunch of minute 

rootlets, by means of which it adheres firmly to the surface of a 
leaf. 



It is the brown colour of the inner, shell of the egg which is seen 
through the body-wall of the female worm, and which in quantity 
appears as a line down the axis of the animal. After ovipositioii 
the worm becomes white. The adult attains a length of 60-150 
mm._ or more. There is doubtless much confusion between this 
species and M. albicans, von Siebold. 

H. A. Baylis. 



FLORA. 

Pha^-erogams . 

. Myrrhis odorafa, Scop. In quantity and spreading near the 
Herbarium, May, 1920, IF. B. TurrilL 

loT-f'^Vi'"?* ^^^"^^ ^^^'^^^- ^^ear the Herbarium, April, 

Cynodon Dactylon, Fers. Abundant in the turf to the west of 
the new Eange, Sir W . Thiselton-Drjer. 

s HepaticjIe. 

Riccia fluitans L. i^ the pond in the Berberis Dell, F. 
hscombe, Oct. 24, 1917. 

F 

FUXGI. 

Lepiota nauseosa TFa^-e/. IN^epenthes House, Feb. 1918. (See 

hew Ball, 1918, p. 230.) ^ 

amT'''^ Pinastri, hurt. Tropical Pits, September, 191T. 

Boydia remuliformis, A. L. Sm. Abundant on dead twicrs of 
Ilex Aqinfohiim, Arboretum, Sept. 1919. 



♦ Zool. Jahrb., Sjst., xxsii. (1912) p. .521. 



217 

r 

Aleuria tectoria [Coohe] Bond. On tlie floor beneath a leaTcing 



hot-water pipe, Herbarium, Mar. 1920. 

Mastigosporium album, vor. muticum, Sacc. On leaves o£ 

Dactylis glomerata, L., 1918 (Kew Bull. 1918, p. 233). 

Mastigosporium album, var. muticum, Sacc. On leaves of 
destina, Stapf, Tropical Pits, July, 191T. {Ihid. p. 233.) 



2 



XXXI.— FLOWERING OF PHYLLOSTACHYS AUREA. 

J. S. Gamble. 

Tliis pretty bamboo rJiytlostacliys a urea ^ A. & C. Riviere, lias 
recently flowered in this country and g'ood specimens of the flowers 
have been received from Mr. Charles H. Cave. They came from 
gardens at Sidbury Manor, Sidmouth, Devonshire, and Rodway 
Hill House, Mangotofield, Gloucestershire. It had previously, 
accordiupf to Mr. Bean, in '^ Trees and Shrubs hardy in tlie British 
Isles/' vol. 2, p. 150, flowered m the garden of the late Canon 
Ellacombe at Bitton, and with the late Signor Fenzi at Florence 
in 18TG. It also flowered with Mr. S. T. Heard at Eossdohan, 
Tahilla, Kerry, Ireland, about 1905. Xo description of the flowers 
seems, however, to have ever been published, so that it may be 
well to put on record the following: — 

A caespitose shrub bearing erect stiff closely growing culms 
which may reach 10 to 15 ft. in height and are at first green, 
afterwards bright yellow in colour, smooth and shining, from 
^ -1 in. in diameter at base, where the internodes are short, while 
further up they reach about 6 in. in length, flattened on one side 
with sometimes a central ridge. The nodes are conspicuous and 
have a bluish coloured ring below them when young and when 
old a raised belt about -| in. broad. Cataphylls straw-coloured 
with occasional brown spots, reaching 10 in. in length and 
glabrous, oblong below, narrowed gradually at the top and pro- 
duced slightly to meet the ligule about yV in. long, below which 
the linear-subulate recurved blade varying from 1 to 4 in. long is 
inserted- Leaves with glabrous straw-coloured sheaths ending 
in short auricles with few stiff easily deciduous bristles; blade 
oblong-lanceolate from a short petiole, the tip long-acuminate 
and hair-pointed, 3-4 in. long, l-^o in. broad, glabrous on both 
surfaces except for white pubescence along the midrib near the 
base beneath, the upper edge scabrid, main nerves 5-6 on either 
side of the midrib, the transverse nervules closelv tessellated. 
Panicle of flowers large, occupying nearly all the joints of the 
flowering culm and bearing a few leaves only but many deciduous 
snathaceous straw-coloured sheaths at the bases of the branchlets, 

about" half as long. Spikelets 2-flowered, |-1 in. long, glume 
usually one, lanceolate, acuminate, papery, with a short blade, 
glabrous except the ciliate edges; valve 1, tightly rolled, linear- 
Tanceolate, glabrous, about 7-9-nerved; palea as long as the 
valve, bidentate, keeled, glabrous except the tips, which are 
minutely scabrous ; stamens with very long exsert filaments ;lodi- 
cules 1 to 2 when present, which is not always, xV in. long, oblong. 



218 



acute, liyaline, ciliate on the margins, 3-5-nerTed ; ovary stipitate, 
depressed, the style very long and slender with three minutely 




1, part of stem; 2, slieatli; 3, leaves; 4, base of leaf; 5, inflorescence; 

6, flowers with anthers ; 7, Flowers showing the styles. 

feathery stigmas. A. & C. Riviere, " Les Bambous " (1878) 262, 
figs. 36, 37; Mitf. "Bamboo Garden" (1896) 114: Camus, " Les 
Bambusees " (1913) 64, pi. 33. 13. 



XXXII.-MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Mr. ^Y. Nowell, Mycologist on the stafP of the Imperial Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in the West Indies (see K.B., 1913, p. 359), 
has been appointed Assistant Director of Agriculture, Trinidad. 



xMr, W. Harris, Superintendent 
tations, Jamaica (see K.B., 1896, 
Assistant Director of Agriculture 
that Colony. 



of Public Gardens and Plan- 

p. 217), has been appointed 

and Government Botanist in 



Mr. T. G. Mason — The Secretary of State for the Colonies has 
appointed Mr. T. G. Mason, B.A., Dip. Agric. T.C.D., on the 

recommendation of Kew, Economic Botanist in the Imperial 
Department of Agriculture, West Indies. 



219 



Mr. F. G, Harcourt, Sub-foreman on tlie gardening st^iff of tlie 
Eoyal Botanic Gardens, has been appointed by the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, on the recommendation of Xew, Agricul- 
tural Superintendent, Antigua, Leeward Islands. 



Mr. H. W. Jack, Agricultural Instructor, Agricultural Depart- 
ment, Federated Malay States (K.B., 1914, p. 137), has been 
appointed by the Secretary- of State for the Colonies, on the 
recommendation of Kew, Economic Botanist in the Department. 



Mr. J. N. Milsum, Superintendent of Government Plantations, 
Agricultural Dejjartment, Federated Malay States (K.B., 1913, 
p. 314), has been appointed by the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew, Assistant Agriculturist 
in the Department. 



Capt. J. McDonald. — The Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
on the recommendation of Kew, has appointed Capt. J. McDonald, 
B.Sc, of Bristol University, Assistant Mycologist in the Agri- 
cultural Department, British East Africa. 



Major R. T. Wickham.— The Secretary of State for the 

Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew, has appointed Major 
E. T. Wickham, late pilot officer, Eoyal Air Force, District Agri- 
cultural Officer in the Department of \\griculture, Uganda. 



AuGUSTiN DE Candolle. — The premature and unexpected death 
of Eichard Emile Augustin de Candolle, which took place at the 
family residence at Vallon, Geneva, on 4th May, 1920, removes 
the representative of the fourth generation of a name which will 
alwavs remain illustrious in the annals of botanical science, and 
deprives Kew of a warm and sympathetic friend. The regret 
which this loss induces is accentuated by the circumstance that 
it has followed so closely the death of his distinguished father, 
recorded so recently in these pages (K.B. 1919, p. 237). 

Born at Walton-on-Thames on 8th December, 1868, Augustm 
de Candolle was the younger son of the late Anne Casimir de 
Candolle, of Geneva. His mother was the daughter of the late 
Dr. William Marcet, F.E.S., of London. After a sound pre- 
liminary education in Geneva, young de Candolle was sent to 
Eu^by in 1883. Leaving his public school in 1887 he then pro- 
ceeded to the University of Heidelberg, afterwards passing to 
the University of Leipzig as a student in the faculty of law_, m 
which profession he was, after the example of his illustrious 
grandfather, Alphonse de Candolle, very thoroughly trained. 
On returning to Gene^'a he did not take up the formal practice 
of his profession, but devoted himself, under the direction of his 
father to morphological and svstematic botanical study, to which 
he felt impelled alike by natural predilection and a sense of 

family duty. . , • -i tx a „ 

Anionc. his more notable contributions to botanical literature 



220 

may be mentioned one on tlie flora of Madagascar based on the- 
collections of Mr. A. Mocquerys, and his descriptions of various 
previously undifferentiated species, especially from south-eastern 
Asia. The published results of his biological studies on mono- 
spermous capsules are also of much interest and reveal a capacity 
for sustained research which enables us to realise how much 
botanical science has lost by his death at the age of 51. But one 
advantage of his wide and varied education was that his scientific 
interests were not confined to botany alone. He took a very active 
part in the business of the Societe helvetique des Sciences 
naturelles, as well as in that of the Societe botanique de Geneve 
and the Societe botanique Suisse. In the case of the Societe de 
physique et d'histoire naturelle, of which he was President in 
1914, he served for many years, and greatly to its benefit, a* 
Ireasurer of the x4.ssociation. 

After 1911 the scientific pursuits of Augustin de Candolle were- 
greatly impeded by new and important duties of another char- 
acter. His urbanity of manner and strength of character, hi& 
-English education and his sound legal training rendered him an 



ideal incumbent of the post of British Consul for the Canton of 
Geneva, to which he was appointed on 1st January, 1912. The 
eight years during which he fulfilled its duties included the whole 
o± the trying period of the great war, and provided him with 
occupation of a character so absorbing as to leave little oppor- 
tunity tor sustained scientific work. His memory will live in 
the mmds of members of the English community at Geneva and 
ol British travellers whose business necessitated recourse to the 
lei'Ss^'' assistance of their Consul during the anxious period 

^ 

The death of his father on 3rd October, 1918, entailing as it 
did the assumption of his hereditary duties as custodian of the 
magnificent herbarium and library founded by his greatgrand- 
father Aiiguste Pyrame de Candolle, rendered it incumbent 
upon_ Augustin de Candolle to demit his consular duties. The 
tennmation of the war enabled him to do this without feeling 
that he was abandoning his post, and his many friends, consciou's 
of his great natural gifts and aware of the firomise afforded by 
his earlier but a 1 too scanty contributions to science, looke'd 
fo ward with justifiable hope to a long and distinguished cus- 
todianship, on his part, of the Candollean treasure". This was 

^.n-r I • 'if" ''I'''''' '' ""^"^ ^^'^ P°"^'^^ ^0^' the loss of one of the 
mast kindly and courteous and most widely informed of her 



Hexry Powell. 



TTpTir^ P. .11 f aT^^ *" ''^T'? ''''*^' '^^^P ^^8'i^^t the death of Mr. 
Ster n l.w! H ^{^^f^^',B\'^ti.h East Africa, of heart failure, 
atter a severe attack of malaria, on June 5th. 

Ecl'onfirpll fT?- '-'''• ^'^f '"''-'''^'^ t^^« P«^t of Chief of the 
Ea°t Afdcl. P fT'7 '^ *^" Agricultural Department of the 
h^nitn ve.r^nfr r-'i "^^-^"^ ^^^°^^* ^o sail for home after 

a vo'^ig' g.^rdlt'^^nTss"' d" .^ ^^^o^^^^^ *° ^^- - 
Curitoi of ti;rT? f ^ o V ^""^ '° ^^^.''' IS^O' ^as appointed 
Luratoi of the Botanic Gardens in the Island of St. Vincent This 



221 



j)ost lie lielil until Xoveinber, 1903, wlien lie was appoiuteJ 
Assistant to the Director of Agriculture, British East Africa 
[K.B.y 1903, p. 31). He was promoted to the post cf Chief of the 
jblconoiaic Plants Division m . April, 1907. Mr. Powell sent 
numerous dried plants from St. "Vincent to the Herbarium, and 
durine: his lone- service in British East Africa he contributed 



G -"--^ ■'^"to 



several collections to the establishment, including a new species 
of Boscia (B, Powellii, Sprague & M. L, Green), which was 
described in the Keiv Bulletin, 1913, 178. The Librarv is in- 



1904-07. 



Africa Q 



The Old Linnean Garden at Upsala. — The new Swedish 

Linnean Society, as a most important aim for its efforts, has 
decided to restore Linnaeus' botanical garden. This little place, 
the pride of Linnaeus and famous at his time, was abandoned on 
the establishment of the new garden more than a hundred years 
ao^o, and was allowed to fall into decav. The conservatories were 
later used as an archceological museum and Linnaeus' house was 
-occupied by the Director of Music at tlie University. 

The garden is now being restored to the original j^lan, and will 
be planted only with species grown there by Linnaeus himself. 
The work haslieen comjjleted in its general outline, and the 
garden was opened to the public last May. Linnaeus' house, 
where he died, will be converted into a museum as a memorial 
of him which will be supi:)lementary to his country house at 
Hammarby, familiar to several British botanists. iOTtunately 
his personal belongings have remained in the hands of his few 
descendants, and it has been possible for the Society to acquire 
a rich collection, including furniture, porcelain, clothes, etc., so 
that it is hoped that the old house, which has been left practically 
untouched, will give a good idea of the surroundings in which 
he lived and worked. Upsala will no longer be in want of a 
memorial worthy of its greatest son. 

The necessary funds are being collected among members of the 
Society. Dr. R. Sernander and Dr. 0. -Juel, Professors of Botany, 
liave taken great pains to find out all the details of the old garden 
and of its contents. The place is now in charge of Professor ^S". 

Svedelius. 

The General Secretary of the Linnean Society of London has 
iinderttiken to forward to Sweden any contributions towardsthe 
restoration of the garden that may be made by British botanists- 

C. SKOTTSBi:RG. 



Araphichromy in heatlier. — An interesting plant of CaJluna 
'vulgaris showing purple- and white-flowered inflorescences on the 
same stock was received last year from Mr. Dyson Perrins, Ardross 
Castle hv Alness, X.B., who found it on a grouse " moor m tlie 
Tieio-hbourhood. In the same plant some of the inflorescences hare 
flowers of the normal purple (or more correctly pale magenta) 



222 

colour, while tlie remainder have flowers with white sepals, white 
or very pale rose petals and red to purple styles and stig-mas. 

"While colour variations in different individuals (purple 
magenta, violet, dingy white, pure white) are not uncommon in 
taiiuna, the occurrence of two distinct colours in the same stock 
IS rare, and recalls to mind some of the well-known graft-hybrids 
[e.g., Cytisus Adami). A similar case has, however, been 
described by Lindman (Bot. J^ot. 1907, p. 201) in a plant col- 
lected some miles north of Stockholm, Sweden. The author 
believed his plant to have arisen by cross-fertilization of a white 
and a purple heather. If he is correct we have here perhaps a 
case somewhat similar to that of Medicago media, the sand 
lucerne or variegated alfalfa, a hybrid between the purple- (M. 
sativa) and yellow-flowered {M. falcata) lucernes. In this plant 
many colour variations occur even on one and the same plant, 
white-yellow, dmgy yellow, yellow with violet veins, lilac, and 
green to green-violet flowers being met with. Experiments with 
this plant and their results are. dealt with by Urban in Brand. 
1 erhandl XIX. pp 125 seq., 1877. Other interesting examples 
of the influence of hybridization on colour are to b? found in 
Kerner and Oliver - The Kutural History of Plants," yol. ii. 
pp. pbb seq., and the more modern work on flower colours with 
special reference to genetics is deult with in M. Wheldale, " The 
Anthocyanm Pigments of Plants," 1916. 

coloraH^n^ ^^"""'^ Proposes the following terminology for flower 

finl' .^''flT''™''"'"'' '"'l;''''^"'! '^^^•^' ^•^^'^^'^ or variegated colora- 

r-ilt n.f "^'""" r^'V'^ ^^^' ^^'"^'^^'^ "^P^"^ ^^^^^0 colours 
il ,i I ?! f^ ^iid Convolvulus tricolor three colours (violet- 

biue, yellow and white m the same corolla. The two-coloured 

rndl""n"b1r?'"^^°"??^^^^^ ^'-S- ^^^-' Leuc^^^^ 

in bif -ri ' P- !^5 r^^^^^" "^^•^^•i^d l^ere, though ~ ' 
ihis'"nne^cd:r'.°'-^°*^^^i^^^^ ^^™^''- ^^ ^-^--'- 



Jackson 
omous in 



mKi^^of ThT. "^^r'r^^r'^ '' ^ ^^-^"^ ^^ oftr d;: t the 

mixing oi the parental colours (e.g. Dianthus, Iris) 

inL^uX^n? n?'"'' '""^'^^^^^S .colour differences between the 
individuals of one species. This is known for examule in 

Hepatica triloba, Melampyrum cristnfvm T',/ f;- ^^ ' • 
Calhina i-o.h^n^- ( tJ"-'-'"' cristaturn, Antliyllis vulnerarw^ 

tet rhrin^ti''' ^^°?^ ^^/ Y^'^'^y other species. Sexuai 

spec es sTot infl .'''' t ^/^*^ ^'"^^^^ P^^^^s of a dioecious 

fsm" as -a ch.rr- ;i '^"'^"^ ^^'''^ ^^^^^^ " heterochroma- 
tism as a change m the colouring or marking of petals." 

floL rt^ Zrs'tid''?f •" -^^ ''^^^?^^ '^ ^^- -louring of the 
other acciden " nfl^^^^^^^ crossing^or some 

Medicago .nedia butTndivirln i f ''\ '^ ^^^^^^* ^^^'"^ ^"^ 

V^ola ^nina, AzaUa W cI ' S'r^^^^ n. Fohjgala amarella, 

(Journ. Linn. Soc! But. xxix ^ lln't "" -f . ^''''' ^'^^' 
flowers of Metrosideros rW^^^ ^' .9 (describes red and yellow 
tree in Fiji, ioedous ^^ as sometimes occurring on the same 

-.tic, U niore~elutclr iftS maS"^' ''''''''- 



223 



4, Metachromy, indicating the changing or losing of colour in 

one and the same flower, generally with age. Examples are 

several Borraginaceae, Rihes aurem and certain forms of Viola 
tricolor. 

Two or more of the above categories may be represented in one 
and the same plant. Thus Medicago media shows amphichromy, 
heterochromy, and metachromy; Viola tricolor f. versicolor is 
polychromatic, metachromatic, heterochromatic, and perhaps 
even sometimes amphichromatic. Certain plants are known to 
vary in regard to floral coloration with the season, producing 
flowers of one colour in one season, of another colour in unotber 
season. This change of floral colour in one and the same or in 
separated stocks can be termed seasonal amphichromy or seasonal 
heterochromy. ' " * w, B. T. 



Cardamine pratensis (3 uaiflora in Britain. — An interesting 

and at first sight striking form or variety of the common lady's 
. smock was received in April this year at Kew. It was found by 
Miss M, E. Francis *^ in damp ground in a copse, where quanti- 
ties of lady's smock grows,'' near Eudgewick, Sussex. The plant 
has well-developed radical leaves and shows no sign of starvation^ 
but all the peduncles are about 9 cm. high, one-flowered and quite 
destitute of cauline leaves or bracts. In the specimen received 
5 of them arise from the rosette of basal leaves. 

This plant is evidently similar to that described as Cardamine 
pratensis (3 utiiflora by Sternberg and Hoppe in Denkschr. Bot. 
Gesell. Regensburg, 1815, p. 157, where the following descrip- 
tion is given : ^^ acaulis, aphylla, uniflora, foliis radicalibus petio- 
latis, pinnatis impari majore transverse ovato, dentato.'' The 
authors state that they found it in abundance in a damp meadow 
near a colliery in Bohemia. Some plants transplanted into pots 
and wintered in a glasshouse spread during the winter and, 
according to these authors, in the following spring changed back 
to ordinary C. ^pratensis ! 



lum 



pratensis /? uniflora from the Braemar mountains, Aberdeenshire, 
collected by H. C. Watson in 1844. IS'o reference has, however, 
been found in recent floristic literature to this plant, which may 
be looked upon as an unstable mutation or sport. w. B. T. 




Qtanical Exploration in Chile and Argentina. — The follow- 
ing travellers and publications should have been referred to in 
the paper on this subject published in the Kew BulL Xo. 2, 1920, 
pp. 57-66 : John Ball, in Journ. Linn. SocBot.xxi. p. 203, 1884, 
published '' Contributions to the Flora of A^orth Patagonia and 
the adjoining Territory,'' which consists of an account of plants 
collected by G. Claraz, a Swiss gentleman, in Argentine terri- 
torv. In the same author's paper in the Journ, Linn. Soc. Bot. 
xxii! 1886, p. 137, entitled "JS'otes on the Botany of Western South 
America/' pp.-158-168 he deals with plants from localities in Chile. 
Af^ain in the Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xxvii.1891, p. 471, Ball, under 



224 



the title " Further Contributions to the ilora of Patagonia, 



5y 



W. Andrews in Patagonia and 
vriter is indebted to Prof. Hans 



presented by him to Ke'w. The 

iSchiiiz of Zurich for calling' his attention to these papers by Ball. 

F. Meigen, in Engler's Bot. Jahrb. xvii. 1893, p. 199, has 
a j^aper, "Skizze der Yegetationsverhaltnisse von Santiago in 
Chile," which contains a general account of the flora between 



om 



this area. 

Frombling, in Bot. Centrl. xvi. Jah. Bd. 62, 1895, pp. 4, 40, 
published a general account of botanical excursions conducted 
during three years' stay in Chile. 

F. W. Neger, in Ei _ 

an account of the vegetation in S. Chile under the title " Die 
Yegetationsverhaltnisse im nordlichen Araucanien (Flusegebiet . 
des Eio Biobio)." The same botanist, in Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 
xxviii. 1899-1901, p. 231, has a paper ''Pflanzengeographisches 
aus den stidlichen Anden und Patagonien," which records the 
■observations made and the plants collected in the summer of 1896- 
1897 in the Cordillera de Villarica. 

Expedition Antarctique Beige.— Resultats du Toyage du 

S.Y. Belgica en 1897-1899. Botanique (Les Plianerogames des 
Terres Magellaniques) par E. de Wildeman, 1905. This work 
consists of (1) a systematic enumeration of the Phanerogams 
collected by M. E. Racovitza during the voyage of the S.Y. 
Belgica towards the S. Pole, (2) a systematic enumeration of the 
Austro-Antarctic American Phanerogames, and (3) statistical 
tables of the same. The reports of the Princeton University 
Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. viii. Botany, is at 

present composed of three bulky volumes, most of which are 
occupied by G. ilacloslde's "Flora Patagonica." A useful 
bibliography is given in the second volume. w. b. t. 



The Flora of Jamaica.— The 4th volume, the 3rd to be pub- 
lished of the "Flora of Jamaica," by W. Fawcett and A. B. 
Pendle, has now appeared, and consists of 369 pages of printed 
text and incorporated figures. The arrangement followed is that 
ol Engler s Pflaiizenfamilien, and the orders dealt with in the 
present part are the following : Leguminosae, Gemniaceue, 
Omlidaceae, Linaceae, ErythroxgJaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Ruta- 
ceae, bimaruhaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Malpiqhiaceae, 
tolygalaceae, Euphorhmceae and CalUtnchaceae. Of these the 
J^egummosaeoccupj 153 pages and the Euphorhiaceae 100 pages 



Each genus is illustrated by a text figure and dis 
teys and descriptions are in English and full refere..... c. uxu.xu- 
graplxy and synonyms are provided. An index to the single 
volume is provided at the end. w t» a- 



dissections. The 
ences to biblio- 



W. B. T. 



Printed 



^^^■=1 luc n.umurity 01 ms MAJESTY'S PXiTIOVEEl 

By Jas. Truscott and Soq, LW.. 6u2olk Lane, E.G. Z 



[^Crown Copyright Reserved 



ROYAL BOTANIO GARDENS, KEW. 



-^ 



BULLETIN 



01 



MISCELLANEOUS LXFORMATION, 



No. 7] 



[1920 



XXXIIL— A TRIP TO THE KNYSNA. 

S. SCHO^-LA^^D. 

Superintendent, Albany lluseiim, Gi'aliamstown, 

South. Africa. 

In connection witK tlie work for tlie Botanical Survey of tlie 
Union of South Africa (started in 1918), I have used part of my 
holiday time in making several extensive trips with a view to 



mo I 



nite information on the limits in my area of the various phyto- 
geographical regions. Incidentally a fair number of plants were 
collected and observations on them noted. The last trip, which 
covered over 900 miles, took me from Grahanistown through the 
southern edge of the Great Karroo, then to the Knysna, the T'Zitzi- 
kamma, Uitenhage and back to Grahamstown. It lasted a month 
from the 19th of December, 1919, of which 16 days_ were spent at 
tke Knysna. In making such a trip even an old resident of South 
Africa like myself comes across a hundred and one things of 
interest apart from botanical matters. The botanical results 
unfortunately, owin^ to a terrible drought, were not commensurate 
with the time spent m travelling. Moreover, the collections made 
bave not been worked up yet, and when this is done they will have 
to be co-ordinated with the work of other botanical travellers, such 
as Burchell, Drege, Ecklon, Zeyher, Krauss, Schlechter, Galpin, 
etc., who tave visited the Knysna district. I felt, therefore, some 
hesitation in accepting at this stage the invitation of the Director 
of Kew to give an account of my trip. I have, however, picked out 
of my diary a few items which may be of interest to readers m 

Europe, . t pl-l r- j 

Leaving Grahamstown for Somerset East grassveld is left behind 

within a few miles even before the descent into the Fish Eiver 
valley is reached. This broad valley has quite a different climate 
from that of Grahamstown, and its vegetation is quite karroid. The 
moment we left the grassveld the effects of extrejue drought loecame 
apparent. We travelled for about 300 miles up to the neighbourhood 
of Uniondale without seeing in the veld a single plant^ in flower 
except Acacia Karroo, and this in a region of summer rams ! It is 
true even at the best of times, not much ram is expected, but, for 



(10600 



Wt. 135-P. 47. 1,000. 8/20. J. T. & S.. Ltd. G. 14. Sell. 12. 



226 

instance, while the rainfall at Willowmore is normally about 
10 in., in 1919 only 5 in. had fallen. Not a green blade of grass 
could be seen, although near Bedford (after emerging from the 
Pish Eiver valley) there is a good deal of grassveid. Even the 
small Karroo bushes which are adapted to extreme conditions of 
drought were withered everywhere, and no doubt a large number 
of them had died, although it is marvellous to see after a rain how 
so niany of them, which to a casual observer look dead, sprout out 
again. A good deal of stock had died, yet we saw a fair amount of 
game, numerous herds of goats, many cattle, etc. Some progres- 
sive farmers whom we met had reserves of lucerne and had pro- 
vided drinking water for their herds by means of boreholes and 
dams, but it seems a puzzle how the non-progressive farmers (and 
they are unfortunately in the majority) kept their stock alive, and 
how the wild bucks managed to subsist. As an example, we will 
take the south-west corner of the Somerset East district draining 
towards the Sundays Eiver and the greater part of the Jansenville 
district. Here we were in what was nothing but a stony desert 
sprinkled over at intervals with plants, amongst which a cactaceous 
Euphorbia {E. coerulescens, Haw.), is the most conspicuous. It 
occurs m clumps about 3 ft. high. It is locally known as Noors. 
Now this plant, which is spiny, is liked by all kinds of stock. It is 
slashed by the farmers, and, when half withered, is greedily eaten 
by the animals, or the dry herbage inside the clumps is fired and 
the spines are thus partly burned off. Goats &nd cattle will even 
tackle the plant as it stands, in spite of the spines. Another 
succulent Euphorbia {E. esculenta), which occurs in the same 
neiglibourhood and which is even a better food for stock, is 
-^''''^-rf'i^^ "^'^^^ extermination. Our kind host on one occasion, 

luable 



stock-food plants which unfortunately are getting scarce in the 
Aarroo Amongst them were (apart from others which are well 
linown to b. African botanists) : species of Aizoon, Aster (Diplo- 
ixt'pjjus) Hermannia and Cadaha jnncea. In fact, as the late Dr. 
^lacXiwan and Dr. Marloth have repeatedly pointed out, when one 
wants to approach the question of South African pasture plants 

text-Ws^ *^"'*^ ""^^^^ ^^""^ ^^^ '^^""^ gathered from European 

U^?''7n^ visit^beautiful rains fell in the Karroo (as much as 
Tm,il".T rf ^T^* '"^ ^"^^ months), and the countrv looks in 
Tt™!?/ ^ flower garden now (end of March). Especially 

nW?fT.tt '^^ o'^//'f ? t^" ^^^^^"^5^ li^^' ^^^^^ i« i^ numerous 
IZeVr^ctfT ^1 S- ^'-^- ^ ^^^^^ opportunltv to see this 
mrlfTv.wT-HT^ ^""^ Naauwpoort. Owing to overstocking com- 

K^rrZil ^''^'' ™ '^^^ ^^^^i^« ^^*^«« f"^ces. The dwarf 

ivarroo buslies were supreme. 

larll'^part o7n, ^"i""" ^"°P" ^">' ^^^^ ^"^^er how it is that a 
tWorld bnf r ?T° '' ^"^^"^'^ ^^^ fi^^^t stock-countries in 
An7.°f I'^i^ir'l' " 'T^ f^'^y '^''^^ °f tlie pasture plants, 
rnforfunatX n'^^ ' f"^'^^ *^^ '^"^^ ^^'^^^^ ^^^^^^ as licerne. 
is tp™"^^,^^^^^^^ overstocking and kraaling the vegetation 

are made^by S 1^;. ^^^^^. *? ^^'^^^^^^ well-defined paths 

oy stock which m ram become water-courses. These 



227 

become deeper and deeper, they widen out, and dongas are formed 
wliich carry ofi: the rainwater rapidly, lower the water-level, etc. 
Attention Las been frequently called to this evil, and it is hoped 
that before long active steps will be taken to prevent the Karroo 
from becoming a real desert. Some farmers have at all events 
tried to preserve the more or less extensive alluvial soils (which 
are probably the most productive in the world) from being washed 
away. They have built walls and formed terraces to break the 
force of the water-currents, and have blocked up dongas which 
soon get filled wath silt that in many cases is e:xcelleut for 
crops. The terraces act at the same time as reservoirs, and on 
various farms we saw most mar\^elIous results achieved by this 
method. For instance, on Mr. Codner's farm near AVillowmore, we 
saw a large stack of wheat grown without irrigation in a year with 
a total of 5 in. of rain, on another field a good yield of green barley 
had been obtained; higher up there was an orchard with healthy 
trees of apples, pears, plums, apricots, peaches, etc., all in full 
bearing and quite healthy. 

Five miles from "Willowmore Hhenoster bosch {Elytropajrpus 
rhinocerotis) begins. This covers huge areas, especially on the 
northern slopes of the mountains as far as Grahamstown in the 
east, and is also widely spread towards the west. It is not touched 
by any kind of stock. Here and there progressive farmers have 
eradicated it at great cost. However, until we reach practically 
the crest of the Langeloof mountains beyond Uniondale the vege- 
tation is to a large extent karroid. Then comes a transformation. 
Suddenly a few Proteaceae make their appearance, and when the 
crest itself is reached the E-henosier and Karroo veld is left behind 
and pure south-western associations, constituting the true Cape 
Flora, are seen as far as the eye can reach : Proteaceae, Resti- 
aceae, Bruniaceae, species of CUffortia, Watsonia, Ericaceae^ 
Orchidaceae and hosts of other plants characteristic of the south- 
western Cape Flora are here met with in abundance on the southern 
face of the mountains, and not one (except very close to the top) 
can be found on the northern slopes. I have on several previous 
occasions passed these sharp boundaries between the karroid and 
south-western types, but every time I see one of them it sends ^a 
thrill through me. It is just as if we had here a large botanic 
garden in w^hich the various types of plants were kept separate by 
artificial means, but as Marloth first pointed out, mists which do 
not iTO north of these mountain rankles and increased rainfall 



account for the whole difference. In fact, if we could get accurate 
data of the amount ol *' beneficial '^ moisture available at different 
seasons for plants in a particular spot (not mere rainfall statistics), 
we could, in Cape Colony at all events, fairly accurately predict its 
type of vegetation. Altitude, as Bolus first pointed out, has very 
little influence on the distribution of our vegetation. In fact, on 
the Knysna trip, we found a number of species from an altitude of 
over 3000 ft. to near to sea-level. Soil also plays a very secondary 
role, for instance, the Knysna forest is partly on Table Mountain 
sandstone, partly on Bokkeveld beds, which, having- been eroded 
into steep slopes, retain less moisture, and consequently the forest 
on them is not so tall as that on the Table Mountain sandstone. 

a2 



228. 



After crossing the Langekloof (wliich. on a previous occasion !■ 
ascertained to belong tJirougliout its whole length to the South- 
"Western Region), the real descent towards the sea is begun on the 
Prince Alfred Pass, and the trip from there to the Knysna is cer- 
tainly the finest in South Africa as far as my experience goes. I 
will not attempt to describe its beauties which culminated in 
reaching the Knysna forest. . 

There are three main groups of forest areas in the region to which 
the Knysna forest belongs. Henkel* calls them respectively the 
George, Knysna and T'Zitzikamma groups. They occur in a tract 
of country lying between the Great Brak River beyond George and 
Clarkson, near Humansdorp. They are all south of the Outeniqua 
— T'Zitzikamma — Kareedouw Range of mountains, the average 
height of which is 4000 ft., some of its peaks rising over 5000 ft. 
But high foreat is seldom found over 2000 ft., and is consequently 
almost entirely restricted to the foothills of these mountains, 
hiding itself to a certain extent in deep ravines. The total area of 
high forest is approximately 112,000 acres, and Mr. Henkel esti- 
mates that possibly 10,000 acres have been destroyed by recurring 
fires. Of the total amount 70,000 acres belong to the Knysna 
group which contains the largest patch of forest in South Africa— 
the Knysna forest. From what has been said it follows that if we 
take a bird s-eye view of the zone in which these forests are located 
their total extent, even allowing for former extension, is hardly 
sufficient for one to denote this area as "the " Forest Region of 
bouth Africa and to contrast it with the South-Western Coast 
Kegion arid other primary divisions. Leaving out of account the 
areas of the mountain ranges themselves and the Langekloof which 
all haye typical south-western vegetation (apart from enclosures of 
kaiToid succulent vegetation on suitable rockv exposures), and 
which cannot be separated from the area under discussion, a rough 
calculation shows that the George forest patches occupy about 

if 4 fv "'ri?^-!''.,'^^"'^ ^^'^y °^^^^' *^<^ Knysna group occupies 
;1 ' 5"« . Zitzikamma group about 1/8 of its area. To put it 
m a ditterent way : on the narrow coast plateau on which these 
groups are mostly found with an area of over 15,000 square miles, 
here used to be about 190 square miles of forek of which about 
tior. ?.T^ f I remain, the remainder (apart from coast vegeta- 
On nt\. ^ A ""l ^'7'V^ vegetation) is typically south-western. 

S tllnnfrr^ ' ? T^'^^ '^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^'^^^^' ^^' separation 

tvXT •'''*? ¥'.^'1 f ^ ^ ^«^^^t ^^gi«^' ^-^ fi^'^t introduced 
O} Kenmann, is not advisable. 

CJZ.^:^-J^2V^^?^'-^^ T^^^-^ergU (11 per cent.), 



turtuza fagmea^ Plafyhphus trifoliatvs,. Apodytes dimtdiata, 



bracl-ets denote the percentaS^tf. f ' ^^^ Kapland. The figures in 
There are nearly .50 differeS' t"^ T^ represent m the Knyana forest. 
OBly a small fraction of the ?otal ^^*°"^*^^^'' "^^^J oi which constitute 



22d 

T 

l^terocelastrus variabilis (7^ per cent.), Gonipma Kaiiiuiisi (15^ per 
cent.), Virgilia capensis^. Others do not occur so frequently. "In 
Que patch at the Knysna Faurea saligna is found. The under- 
storey of shrub growth, consists principally of Trichocladus crinitus 
and numerous ferns^ especially the beautiful tree-fern, Ilemitelia 
capensis. Of the trees mentioned, Ocotea bnllata has somewhat 
discontinuous distribution in the coast districts of South Africa, 
the genus Faurea does not occur again in an easterly direction 
until the Bashee Eiver in the Transkei has been crossed. Viiyilia 
capensis is south-western and stops at Van Stadens, near Port 
Elizabeth. Platylophus trifoliatus does not reach the Uape Penin- 
sula in the west and also does not extend beyond Van Stadens. 
Thus there is a certain amount of endemism ; but on the whole we 
recognise that these forest patches^like the forest patches further 
east — are distinctly outliers of the Tropical African forest flora. 
In a sense they are intruders, which cannot be utilised to forra 
primary phytogeographical divisions. They are found only where 
the configuration of the country and other circumstances farour a 
greater rainfall than is found in neighbouring parts and where 
the plants are protected from drying winds, although all these 
forest trees are slightly xerophytic. It is, therefore, not likely 
that the South African forests, even in our narrow coast districts, 
had ever a wider distribution as long as climatic conditions were 
approximately what they are now, although the discontinuous dis- 
tribution of some trees, shrubs and other forest plants seems to 
point in the opposite direction, and although we know that since 
the advent of man much forest growth has been destroyed^ I have 
already referred to the discontinuous distribution of Ocotea biiUata 
and Faurea. A few more examples may be quoted. Pygeum 
afi'icanuvi occurs at Bluekrantz, near the Knysna, and is not found 
again in an easterly direction until we come to the neighbourhood 
of King Williamstown, a distance of about 250 miles. Strelitzia 
augusta is also found at Bluekrantz, and is not met with again 
when travelling eastwards until Natal is reached, Mr. J, D. Keet, 
district forest officer, Knysna, drew my attention in the forest to a 
tree-orchid which in its vegetative organs is exactly \ik,e C alanth e 
natalensis^ not previously found west of the Pirie bush near King 
Williamstown. However, until this orchid has been examined 
when in flower, we cannot be quite sure^ that it is this species. 
Amongst animals inhabiting South African forests there are also 
very striking instances of discontinuous distribution known. 

South Africa uses up an enormous amount of timber every year, 
chiefly for railway-sleepers, house-building, mine-props, wagon- 
building, furniture, etc., but it is very far from self-supporting 
in this respect. In former years the system of working, even of 
the Government forests, has been lamentable, and many parts of 
them have been ruined for an indefinite period. During the last 
25 years or so, however, a rotation system has been introduced 
which allows a definite supply to be drawn from certain sections, 
while others have a chance to recuperate. Portunately such a 
vfiluable tree as Ocotea huUata (Stinkwood) coppices freely, 
yellowwoods sow themselves freely, but all our South African valu- 
able timl>er trees grow very slowly, and even 3lq not flourish as well 



230 

in plantations as in tlieir natural conditions. Much experimental 
work on this and other points remains, however, to be done yet, 
and some experiments are actually in progress at Concordia, close 
to the town of Knysna. In the meantime large plantations of 
exotic trees have been made in many places between George and 
Storms Eiver (as also in other places in South Africa), and others 
are being formed. Before many years are past the timber from 
the Government plantations will exceed in value that from the 
natural forests, though the latter will continue to furnish valuable 
timber, especially for furniture, wagon-making, etc* At Con- 
cordia Prnu^ insignis^ Pinus Pinaster^ and Eucalyptus rostrata are 
chiefly grown. In another plantation we saw Pinus canariensis, 
which looked healthy and had made a good start; Cryptomeria 
japonica, Cork oak, Cedar, and the Camphor tree were not doing 
particularly well. Many others are being tried, but it is too early 
yet to pronounce judgment on them. Ocotea hullata, Xa/ithoa^y- 
Ion capense., Curtisia fayinea, Nuxia flonbu7ida, Toddalia lanceo- 



wn 



whether it will be worth while to retain them under these condi- 
tions. I should like to have enlaro^ed more on the Knvsna forest. 



plants and epiphyi 



ytes. Ferns 



interesting plant formations and associations found outside the 
forest. The -uhole stretch of country from George to near 
Eumansdorp is" a botanical paradise which botanists so far have 
only glanced at, as the difficulties of travelling in it, even to this 
day, are very considerable, and large parts of even the main roads 
have to be negotiated very cautiously, especially in wet weather. 



:Vfrican 



experience to dip down 



gorge and crawl out again, or to slither into the Elands Eiver 
drift. The denseness and wildness of the Knysna forest may be 
gauged by the fact that there is still a small herd of elephants in 



road. 



On our return journey we passed along the T'Zitzikamma 
road. As we ascended the Pass over the Kareedouw mountains, 
near Assegai Bush, the effects of severe drought became 



affo 



apparent, and were simply appalling further on in the Uitenhage 
and Alexandria divisions. To give only one instance: I stopped 
at he corner of the Witteklip, near Yan Stadens, where nor- 
mally there is an abundance of flowers of plants of the South- 
\Vestern types, yet J could get absolutely nothing, nor did I see 
anvthmg m flower m the karroid scrub, which one reaches a few 

el.rt .{; ""^h ^^r ''^^ "^^^ "^^^^^ *^« ^^««t of t^e plateau, 
rwi /T^"'^ inflorescences of the plant which Baker calls 

^nts of Xr"- ^" T-^^V'^-g this Very brief sketch a few 
Wrnev Ll T^ ^'°^''P^'r^ ^^*^^^«* '^^t ^i*^ «^ tl^e return 
f^roim2.%'^^"''T'^-- .^^ K^^-li^^ws river, a few miles 
La il?b?^'±7l'^^'^^'^- ^^--' -^i^t we had not seen since 



limit of Tree-EuniiorbiaW^ \\ ^^T ^J'° '' *^^ ^^'*"™ 

occasion noTrT+aT .. *T, r A o^''^'"''^''"'' • ^ ^^^^ ou another 
occasion pointed oilt that the South- Western Eegion goes as far 



231 



as Port Elizabetli. This, of course, does not mean tliat elements 
characteristic of other regions are absent from it; in facf, here 
and there, more or less large associations which seem to be foreign 
to the region occur, for instance, associations of forest plants aiid 
Karroo plants, as pointed out already. From the heights east of 
the Gamtoos Biver to the beginning of the Van Stadens Gorge we 
travelled through typical South-Eastern grass country with scat- 
tered bush such as we find near Bathurst, south of Grahamstown. 
The last point I would like to refer to is this. On a preyious 
trip I had confirmed one of Ecklon's observations — unfortunately 
overlooked by Bolus and others — that karroid vegetation 
stretches from Port Elizabeth to the mouth of the Sundays River, 
thus forming a broad wedge between the South-Eastern and 
South-Western Regions. I noticed that this wedge consists, near 
Coega, partly of low karroid shrublets (including Penfzia vir- 
gata). On the trip here dealt with I travelled from Uitenhage 
to Coega, and I ascertained that there are extensive flats on this 
road covered with these karroid shrublets, Karroid vegetation is 
also found all over the hill called the ** Coega Kop," which is 
composed of Table Mountain sandstone, another of the numerous 
instances which we have of the secondary influence of geological 
formation on the distribution of plants in South Africa. 



XXXIV.— PHELLODENDRON 

T- A. Speague. . 

^Jiellodetidron (Rutaceae-Toddalieai 



Maa 



by ,Euprecht in 185T from specimens collected by Richard 
in Amurland.* An excellent detailed generic description is given 
in Sargent's Trees and Shrubs, i. p. 195 (1905); the following 
diacrnosis mav, however, be useful to those who are unable to 

coBsult that work. 

Trees with opposite, iinparipinnate leaves. Axillary hud con- 
cealed in a little pocket between the base of the petiole and the 
stem. Leaflets very finely crenukte-serrulate or subentire, 
dotted with pelkicid glands along the margins. Flowers pani- 
culate, dioecious, pentamerous. Calyx small, 5-lobed. Petals 
much larger, boat-shaped, greenish-yellow, slightly imbricate. 
Disc none. Male flower -.—Stamens 5, hypogynous, alternating 
with, and about twice as long as the petals; anthers sagittate, 
introrse. Gynoplwre oblong, bearing 5 rudimentary villous 
pistils. Female flower :—Staminodes 5, very small. Ovary sub- 
globose, glandular-punctate, S-locular, with a very short thick 
stvle and depressed-capitate, 5-lobed stigma. Ovules solitary, 
pendulous. Fruit a drupe with aromatic flesh enclosing 5 pyrenes 
Endocarp ciirtilaginous, translucent. Seeds with a thin layer of 
endosperm. i^Tnferi/o large; cotyledons flat. ^ 

The type-species, Phellodendron amurense, Eupr., is a tree with 
extremely corkv bark (whence the generic name, meaning Cor^* 



* Bull. Acad. Petersb. xv, p. 353 (1857). 



232' 



m t 

Tree"), whicli is Ui.ed Ly tlie native fiskeriiien of tlie middle 
Amur for making floats for their nets. It lias a wide distribution 
in Russian and Chinese Manchuria, and has also been recorded 
from Corea and japan. ' 

The form which occurs in the island of Sachaliu has a smooth, 
not corky bark, and was described as var. sachalinense by Fried- 
rich Schmidt, with the following diagnosis: /' ramis junioribus 
omiiino esuberosis, folifoljis latioribus brevioribus, seminibus 
quam in planta amiirensi magis convexis minoribus."* Schmidt 
cited a specimen collected by Albrecht, near Hakodate, in Japan, 
as apparently belonging to the same variety. In spite of careful 
investigation, he was unable to find sufficient differential 
characters to justify the separation of var. sachalinense as an 
independent species. Sargent, however, raised the variety to 
specific rank as Phellodendroii sachalinense. f His description 
was drawn up, mainly, if not entirely, from trees which had been 
raised m the Arnold Arboretum in 1887 from seeds sent from- 
Japan. According to him, P. sachalinense differs from P. 
amurensem the darker colour of the branchlets, the thinner, not 
corky bark, rufous-pubescent, instead of silvery-pubescent, winter 
l>uds, leaflets not lustrous on the upper surface, glabrous on the 
margins and the glabrous inflorescence. The type specimen of 



mense 



^chmidt) has, however, a distinctly pubescent inflorescence and 
inlructescence, so that the last character does not hold good. The 
axillary buds are rufous-pubescent, and the leaflets have glabrous 






cannot 



the herbarium specimen. 
: According to Sargent, the Japanese tree which has hitherto 
passed under the name Phellodendron amurense, should be called 
I . mchahneme. He cited Japanese specimens of the latter 
species, but none of the former, and suggested that P. amurense, 



synony 



tJn^ .^1 +1 TX' T^' }"? snmmarised in the following proposi- 
d^.HnVt '/ P^ ^'"'^^'^ Arboretum sachalinense is specifically 

a'nureL l"^ ' ^r '''''''' ^' ^^'""^ '^ '^ identical with /. 
Zd!Z;^lj ^^^^^^^'^^"i-' Fr. Schmidt; 3, that it occurs in a 
wild state m Japan, near Hakodate and Sapporo. 

iniiLw ^r^^^^^^^r the specific status of sachalinense seems 

de criiion ?. h ■'•" *^' Arnold Arboretum, agree with Sargent's 
and lu ron. nn'i^^ ^ non-corky bark, but the leaflets are ciliate 
tLJ.^ !'°V.n*5^ ^pper ^surface,_ and the inflorescence is not 



glabrous . Ph 



Say Z'sib h :f. ",," '''"'f""'- ^O"-"-. -"J tie seeds 

sTecieHr vi riir u™ .*f . --esult of a cross with so», e oilier 
oSe'L'^a a tree " S H„ToS^f ^"t t^^''"^'*"'" ' "" *''^ 

and „.rown' at K r™, r t\e n" e7 'tlT"''' Exlnbition, 

non-corkv birl- ^-nA ■\- ± ^ ^- ^'^chrihnense, also has a 

alTo wasl hybrirL T^^t^tr ^^1^??^' '' that 'unless this 
J^J^^^the^ets of P. sacTxalinense evidently do not 



Ke 



t Trees and Shrubs, i. p.' 1^9 (1905) 



23a 



differ from. tliose- of /''. amurense in being dull on the upper surface 
and liaving glabroua margins. .Nor does tliere appear to be any 
marked difference between sachalinense and amurense in the 
colour of the branclilets. It seems desirable, therefore, to treat 
the cultivated sachalinense as a A^ariety of amurense. 

(2) Sargent's identification of the cultivated sachalinense with 
P. amurense var. 'Sachalinense^ Er. Schmidt, may, on the other 
hand, be accepted. Both trees ditt'er from typical amurense in 
having a non-corky bark, and relatively bruader leaflets, 

C3) The identification with var. sachalinense of the Japanese 
iree, hitherto known as P, amurense^ is open to question. The 

_. m- ^ ^m ^ ^ Y MM 



an 



achalin 



to the nature of the bark, which furnishes the must important 
character of the variety! Furthermore, the figures of the bark of 
Japanese amurense given by Shirasawa, Ic. Ess. Eor.^ Jap. ii. t. 33, 
ft'. 27, 28 agree, in the writer's opinion, with typical amurense 
rather than with var. sachalinense. The question is recommendod 
to the attention of Japanese botanists, as it can be elucidated most 
satisfactorily by a study of the living trees. 

It is, moreover, complicated by the existence in Japan of 
another variety or form of P. amurense^ which Dode has described 
as an independent species, P. Lavallei, from a tree of Japanese 
origin cultivated in the Arboretum at Segrez.* This differs from 

"' ^ to Dode, in the leaflets, which are lanceo- 
late-ovate instead of lanceolate, and have the nei^res of the lower 
surface clothed witli stiff white hairs. It has been in cultivation 
in England for about 40 years, and has hitherto passed under the 
names P. japonicum. and P. sachalinense. Apart from the in- 
dumentum, it seems to differ in no respect from the usual 
Japanese form of P. amurense^ and it may therefore be named 

P. amurense var. Lavallei. , , 

A specimen in the Xew Herbarium, gathered by Tschonoski m 
1865 in subalpine woods in the province of IS"ambu, Nippon, agrees 
with var. Lavallei. Sargent referred the corresponding specimen 
in the Gray Herbarium to P. japonicum, from which the Kew 
specimen differs in the cuneate base of the leaflets, and the nature 
of the indumentum. 



M 



sed bv tlie tliin bark wliicli peels 
off 'in small scales, tlie shorter and broader leaflets, rounded at the 
base and softly pubescent on tbe lower surface witli rather curly 

hciirs, and the'larger fruits. . 7, 7 

A third species which is in cultivation at Kew is P. clunense, 
Schneider, of which P. sinense, Dode, is a synonym. This is a 
native of Hupeh, and may easily be recognised by its very com- 
pact inflorescence. , „ „ •■ -n j 
Phellodendron macrophyllum, Dode, and P. Fargesn, Dode, are 

known to the writer from description only, and do not appear to 
he in cultivation. The former has very large leaflets, up to ^U cm. 



• Bull. Soc. Bot. France, Iv. p. 648 (1909). 



234 

long and 9 cm. broad; and tlie latter has a small compact in- 
florescence, resembling that of P, chinense, from "which it differs 
in the narrower leaflets, lioth are natives of Szechuan.* 

The cultivated species and varieties of Phellodendron may be 
distinguished as follows : 

Inflorescence compact; leaflets oblong- 

. lanceolate with nearly parallel margins 3. chinense. 

Inflorescence lax : 

Leaflets broadly ovate, rounded at the 



base, shortly acuminate, softly and 
rather densely pubescent on the lower 
surface; bark thin, peeling o£E in small 
scales 
Leaflets ovate, ovate-lanceolate or 



*•• ••• »•■ *• 



2. japonicum. 



lanceolate, not softly pubescent on the 
lower surface : 

Nerves more or less pilose on the 

lower surface ; bark of trunk and 

old branches corky ... ... 1. amnrense, vat. 



Only the base of the midrib pilose 
on the lower surface : 



Lavall 



ei. 



Bark not at all corky ... ... 1. amurensey var. 



Bark of trunk and old branches 



sachalinense. 



corky ... ... ... ... 1. amurense. 

1. p. amurense, Rupr. in Bull. Acad. Petersb. xv. p. 353 
(1857); Kaxim. Prim. Fl. Amur. p. 72, t. 4; Kegel, Fl. TJssut. 
p. 42; Fr. Schmidt, Eeisen in Amur-Lande, p. 37; Francli. PL 



16-30 



Ma 

Shiriasawa 



Journ. Coll. Sc. Tokyo, xxvi: Art. 1, p. 117; Sarg-. Trees and 
Shrubs, i. p. 197, t. 93j Sclineider, 111. Handb. Laubholzk. n. p. 
125 ; Bean, Trees and Shrubs, ii. p. 131. 

Distrib. Eussian and Chinese Manchuria, Northern China, 
Corea, Japan. 

The writer, for reasons already given, follows Franchet and 
Savatier, Shirasawa and Matsumura in recording- P. amurense 
from Japan. Pritzel (in Engl. Jahrb. xxis. p. 424) cites several 
specimens of P. amurense from Central China. The one collected 
by Henry is evidently P. chinense, Schneider. The other speci- 
mens should be re-examined. 

var. sachalinense, Fr. Schmidt, Reisen in Amur-Lande, p. 120 

(1868) ; Palibm, Consp. Fl. Kor. i. p. 51 ; Nakai in Journ. Coll. 

Tojcyo, xxTi. Art. I, p. 117; Miyake et Miyabe, FL Saghalin, 

nnn^C'l^ ' ^^c^'^^^^e^^^e, Sarg. trees and Shrul>s, i. p. 199 
(lO^o); Bean, Trees and Shrubs, ii. p. 132. . 

Distrib. Sachalin, Corea (fide Palihin). 



1 



* Ball. Soc. Bot. France, It. pp. 648, 649 (1909). 



235 



This variety is cultivated in Japan, and may possibly be indi- 
genous tbere. It differs from typical amurense mainly in the 
nature of the bark, so that it is hardly possible to recognise it 
from herbarium specim^ens unaccompanied by notes or samples of 
bark. Sargent records P, sachallnense ixova Szeohuan (PI. Wilson, 
ii. p. 136). The writer has not seen the specimens cited. 

var. Lavalleiy Sprague. — P. Lavallei, Dode in Bull. Soc. Bot. 
France, Iv. p. 648 (1909). 

. Distrih. Japan: Province of Nanibu, in subalpine woods, 
1865, TschonosJci. 

2. P. japonicum, Maa^im. in Bull. Aced. Petersb. xvi. p. 212 
(1871); :MeL Biol. viii. p. 1; Franch. ct Sav. Enum. PI. Jap. i. p. 



Matsum, Ind. PI, Jap. ii. pars 2, p. 293; Haj 



Bea 



Trees and Shrubs, ii. p. 131. 

Distrib. Japan: Fujiyama, in the deciduous broad-leaved 

tree-region. 

According to Matsumura, P. japonicum is confined to Fuji- 
yama. Sargent, Trees and Shrubs, i. p. 201, cited under i'.- 
japonicum; Tschonoski's specimen from IN'ambu, which the writer 
refers to P. amurense, var. Lavallei; and Henry's no. 4003, from 
Hupeh, which is P. chinense, Schneider, as he himself subse- 
quently recognised (PI. Wilson ii. p. 137). 

Pritzel recorded the occurrence of P. japonicum in Central 
China, which is highly improbable (Engl. Jahrb. xxix. p. 424). 

3. P. chinense, Schneider, 111. Handh. Laubholzk. ii. p. 126 
(1907); Sarg. PI. Wilson, ii. p. 13G; Bean, Trees and Shrubs, n. 
p. 131. P. sinense, Dode in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, _lv. p. 649 
(1909). P. amurense, E. Pritzel in Engl. Jahrb. xxix. p. 424, 

non Eupr. • -,>•,•. 

Distrih. China: Hupeh, Wilson 1972, 2739; Patung District, 

Henry 4003, 5202. 



XXXV.-ON TWO SPECIES OF OVULARIOPSIS 

FROM THE WEST INDIES. 



E. M. Wakefield. 



West 



been 



called, for the sake of distinction, the '^^est Indian Leaf 



M 



unknown 



part of tHe world.* In the West Indian Bulletin, 1916, p. 118, 
the disease was briefly described as follows : — 

♦'The disease occurs on both native and cultivated cotton. 

^ ,.11 T__- ±.^. ^ £ +„,.^ TT^lTr^Ti- nr vpf] in irreoTilar 



that Dr. Butler in his book "Fungi and 



♦ It may be noted, however, that Dr. Butler in bis book t ungi anu 
isease in Plants," p. 363, has recorded the occasional occurrence o£ a 



D 

similar disease 



236 



areas, frequently at first „bounded by tlie large leaf veins. 
J'inally, the ^vhole.leaf is affected, turns yellow and drops oiJ. 
The under, sides of diseased leaves ar^ covered with a white, 
shining mildew, there is also an internal mycelium in the tissues 
of the leaf, . . . 



roiin 



corners; they are borne sing^ly on short conidiophores. , 

'' So far the disease has only appeared.on old leaves which have 
passed their prime, in which case it simply hastens the fall. . . . 



ear 



Since this note was published the disease has been recorded from 
year to year, in varying intensity, but little work appears to have 
been done on it, and the fungus has remained unidentified. 
. Recently Mr. IS^owell submitted to Kew typical specimens of 
this cotton mildew, and also, of a somewhat similar mildew on 
Tecoma leucoxyloJi^ with a request that they should be identified 
if possible. 

Microscopic examinatijn at once showed that both belong 



tingu 



H 



internal mvcelium, and from 



presence of external as well as internal mycelium. The question 
of specific identity, towever, is one of some little difficulty. 

Salmon* noted tliat the type species of the genus Ovulariopsls , 
0. erysiphoides, and also the later described O. moricola, Del., 
agree morphologically with the conidial stage of Phyllactima 
corylea. He came to the conclusion tluit the genus represents the 
conidial stage of Phyllactima, and that both the described species 
were identical with P. corylea. In support of this theory, he 
latert described the range of variation in the shape of conidia and 
conidiophores m this species, and distinguished certain well- 
marked varieties which are associated with particular host-plants. 

In view of this known variability of the conidia, and the long 
list of host-plants already recorded for P. corylea, one hesitates 
to describe any Ovulariopsis as a new species. 

On the other hand, the fact has to be taken into consideration 
tliat in neither of the present West Indian forms has anv peri- 
thecial stage been observed. If it occurred, it is stmnge "that it 
snould not have been seen in so well known a disease as the cotton 
mildew. Climatic conditions could hardly be supposed to prevent 
the deve opment of the perithecial stage, for P. corylea is kno^Ti 
from both tropical and temperate South America. 

In addition to the negative character of the absence of any per- 
lect stage, the two forms under consideration possess fairly dis- 
tinctive morphological characters, differing from those of P. 
'^orylea In the case of the cotton mildew, the diseased areas of 
the leaf are very sharply marked. In the dried specimen they 

' }^ a} '''' ^l^ ^P^'," ■^^^'^^^^' ^^^^ covered with a fairly 
,e powdery growth of mildew below. In no specimen of P. 



den 



* Ann. Myc. ii. 1904, p. 438. 
t Ann. Myc. iii. 1905, p. 493. 



237 



corylea have suci. marked effects, on the liost tissues been observed. 
The mature conidia are regularly oblong or elliptical, not clavate 
as in typical P. corylea. Salmon mentioned (loc. cit., p, 496) that 
he had observed conidia departing from the type on (Jossypiuvi- 
sp.y but he does not appear to have described these further, 

"In the case of the mildew on Tecoma leuco^ylon, the fungus also 
occurs more or less broadly effused on the under side of the leaf, 
but does not cause marked discoloration. The conidia here are 
almost all much narrowed towards the apex, and may reach over 
90 /x in length, which is greater than any measurement recorded 
for P. corylea. 



P:. 



^" 



■0 



i^ 



t-.> 






) 



4 " ^ 



4f ■ 



k-< 



A * 



^r 



h* 




i. Ovtdariopsis Gossypii, Wakef. 
ii. 0. obclavata, Wakef., X 250. 



In view of these facts, it seems advisable, for the present at 
any rate, to give these forms distinctive names. Descriptions are 
therefore appended* 

Ovulariopsis Gossypii, Wakef., sp. nov. 

Maculae amphigenae, e fulvo rubescentes dein atro-purpureae, 
irregulares, prime punctiformes demum late confluentes. Caespi- 
tuli hypophylli, effusi, albido-farinosi- Mycelium- hyalinum^ pro 
maxima parte superficiale sed hyphis paucis per stomata in meso- 
phyllum penetrantibus. Hyplme steriles repentes, tortuosae, poix-e 
septatae, 5-6 /a diametro; hyphae conidiferae erectae, flexuosae, 
70-170 X 6-7 /u. Conidia acrogena, solitaria, oblonga vel ellip- 
tica, 50-60 x 16-22 //, episporio laevi vel demum plus minus 
reticulato-rimoso. 

Habitat. On old leaves of ''Sea Island Cotton^' {Gossypium 
harhadense) Barbados, April, 1920, W. NowelL 



238 



Ovulariopsis obclavata, Wahef.^ sp. nov. 

Maculae indistiuctae vel nuUae, Caes^pituli liypopliylli, effusi, 
albido-farinosi. Mycelii pars intramatricalis, pars superficialis, 
Ilyphae steriles tortuosae, parce septatae, 5-6 /x diametro; lijpliae 
conidiferae erectae, ad 220 /x altae, 8 fx crassae* Conidia acrogena, 
solitaria, obclavata, sursum magis attenuata, 66-94 x 20—24 /x, 
guttulata, episporio laevi vel rimoso* 

Habitat. On leaves of Tecoviu leucoxylon^ Barbados, April, 
1920, ^Y. Nowell. 



XXXVL— AMOORA SPECTABILIS AND 

A. WALLICHIL 

H. H. Haixes. 

Tlie tree -^'e are here concerned with is one described by Sir 
Geor^ ^ing in the Journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, Ixiv. 
p. 56, as Amoora Wallichii from specimens in the Calcutta 
i3utanic Gardens undoubtedly named by Wallich Sphaerosacme 
spectabilis and taken from a tree originally brought from Goal- 
para in Assam. 

Avioora spectabilis, Miq., is described in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. 
iv. 37, also, as Miquel says, from a tree in the Calcutta Botanic 
Gardens called Aglaia spectahilis, the native country of which 
was unknown to him, 

Hiern, in the Flora of British India, described what he con- 
sidered to be A . spectahilis , Miq., from fruiting specimens collected 
by McClelland, near Eangoon, adding the characters of the 
flowers from Miguel's description of Amoora spectahilis. 

King (I.e.) gives as synonyms for his Avioora Wallichii 
''Sphaerosacme spectahilis, Wall. MSS. in Herb. Calc, Amoora 
spectahilis, Hiern {not of Miquel) in Plor. Brit. Ind. i. 561," 
and he writes : — 



"There has been some confusion in dealing with this plant. 
The description given is that of AVallich's own specimen (in 
flower) taken from a tree grown in the Botanic Garden, Cal- 
cutta, which had originally been brought from Goalpara in 
Assam . . Miquel has described under the name Amoora spec- 
tabilis, a plant of which he says Sphaerosacme spectahilis, Wall, is 

^7 i?P^V "^T* ^i^^^V^ description does not fit Wallich's plant 

■takiii^ Miquel's name, x4. jpecfa6iZw, describes 
from Burmah which is certainly not MiqueFs 



at all, Mr. Hiern 
under it a 



Wall. 



spectah 



It may be noted that Dr. Stapf considers King to have made an 
erroneous statement in saying that Miquel considered Sphaero- 



spectabilis, Wall,, as tbe typ 



SpJiaerosacme spec 



lltV- \ v^^* P^obaWy all that King intended to convey wa3 
that Miquel believed he was describiTiS +l.a «n,v.. +... J ^o. 



was describing the same tree as was 



tahilis).^ Wallich SpJiaerosacme spectahilis (= Aglaia spec- 



239 



^ Neitlier King nor Miquel would appear to liave seen Wallicli's 
S. spectahihs at Kew, Wallicli's ^^o. 1277B, so named, resembles, 
and probably is, Amoora Rohituka, ^^\ & A. It is not our plant.. 
But there is another specimen of Wallich's, viz., No. 1278, also 
from Goalpara, called Sphaerosacme Rohituka, which is certainly 
the same as Amoora Wallichii, King-. Ko. 1278 is quoted by 
Hiern (Lc.) under Amoora cucullata, but there are two specie's 
here under the same number, one being A. cucnllata, the 
other A. Wallichii. Dr. Stapf has come to the conclusion that 
there has been a misplacement of labels, and that AYallich con- 
sistently called the tree under discussion Sphaerosacme spec- 
tahilis. As his note on this subject is of considerable interest it 
is reproduced below (p. 241), but the question to be decided here 
is whether, in the face of Sir George Xing's opinion quoted above, 
his Amoora Wallichii and Aliquers Amoora spectabiUs are the 
same. The type of MiquePs species is not avaihible. The Director 
of Xew has caused inquiries to be made for it, both at Leyden 
and at Utrecht, but it appears to be at neither of these herbaria. 

The species, especially if the Andamans tree (see below) is con- 
specific, appears variable, Most of the Indian material dis- 
sected by me shows the teeth of the staminal tube rounded and 
only 8-9 half-exserted anthers, but Eing describes the teeth as 
acute (I think from the Andamans plant, which has acute teeth) 
and the anthers as 10, and some of my Duars specimens have 
shallow rounded teeth and 10 anthers. Miquel says *' tubus 
urceolatus glaber dentibus 8 brevibus retusis: antherae 8 fan et 

King describes the panicles as bisexual, '^ the female flowers 
mixed with the males and exactly like them, but with a pyramidal 
prominently 3-ongled tawny pubescent 3-celled ovary crowned 
by a stigma as in the male.*' In all the specimens seen by me the 
flowers are only apparently monoecious, and the female inflores- 
cence is quite different from the male. Ko true female specimens 
are found in the herbaria, except in fruit. It is remarkable that 
if the panicles are really bisexual, as described above, that tlie 
fruits are always on very short racemiform panicles not more 
than 3-4 in. long, whereas the flowering supposedly bisexual 
panicles are diffuse and exceed one foot in length. A fruiting 
tree was therefore marked by me and flowering specimen? subse- 
quently collected from the same tree through the kindness of Mr. 
Haslett, in "whose district it was growing. These, undoubted 
females, all turned out to be on short racemes, not or scarcely 
panicled, whereas a dissection of the panicled flower from another 
tree collected by Mr. Lace in the same locality (Lace 2501 marked 
ATUoora Rohituka^ Puri), has convinced me that, though the 
flowers are hermaphrodite in form, functionally they are not so, as 
the well-developed ovary has ahortive or no ovules. A dissection 
of specimens from the Duars and Assam led to the same con- 
clusion, and so did also a dissection of King's specimen collected 
in the gardens at Calcutta and supposed to have been one of 
Wallich's trees from Goalpara. 

If MiqueFs description of A. specfahilis and King's description 
of A. Wallichii are compared with one another, and with the 



240 

revised description of tlie tree given by me below, it will 

be seen that Miquel's does not differ mucli more tlian does 

King's from tliis revised description, wliich is based on a far 

larger number of specimens than these botanists bad access to, 

and it appears possible, or even probable, that the tree grown in 

the Calcutta gardens, described by Miquel as Amoora spectahilis, 

was the same as the tree grown in the same gardens and called 

by Wallich Sphaerosacme spectabilis = Amoora Wallichii, King. 

Dr. Stapf states that he has no doubt that the two ore the same, 

and therefore that the older name Amoora spectabilis, Miq., must 
stand. 

Eevised Description. 

,. Amoora spectabilis, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. iv. 
37; Hiern in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. I. (561, at least in part). 
Sjn. Amoora Wallichii, King in Journ. Asiat, Soc. Bengal, 
LXIV. b6; Sphaerosacme Eohitu'ka, Wall. Cat. no. 1278 (in part). 



dioecious 



crown 



Sap of young parts milkj; bark smooth, pale, blaze 



drops of m 



juice; twigs stout, rusty tomentose. Leaves crowded at tlie ends 
of tlie twigs 15 in. to 3 ft. long, odd-pinnate; rhackis stout, up to 
22m. long (with the petiole), grey or rusty with microscopic fim- 
briate scales and minute stellate hairs when young; leaflets 
opposite or subopposite, 9-19 or only 3-7 near the panicle, attain- 
ing 11 in. by 5 in. or terminal up to 14 in.; decreasing in size 
towards the base of the rhachis, terminal elliptic, lateral oblong 
or those at base ovate and somewhat reflexed, acute or acuminate 
with obliquely rounded base, secondary nerves spreading then up- 
turned, 12-20 each side, distinct, often with small scattered rusty 
scales beneath, petioles 1-f in., of terminal leaflet 1-1| in. 
long Male panicles 9-22 in. long from the unper axils, inclined 
or suberect, very stout, with main branches 2^-8 in. long, ultimate 
branchlets rvmose with rather crowded flowers on very short rusty 
pedicels. Flou-ers subglobose, J^ - ^V in. in Orissa specimens, 
o x.J^' ,^\^tii"^^^-ea stern specimens. Calyx saucer-shaped with' 
d obtuse lobes rusty-tomentose. Petals 3, orbicular, concave, 
thinly tomentose on the parts exposed in bud. Staviinal tube 
with a broad mouth and 8-10 rounded teeth or faintly crenate or 
(m the Andamans plant) with acute teeth ; anthers scarcely or half 
exserted, connective incurved acute. Pistillode depressed-globose, 
tomentose, resembling the pistil of the female flower, but with 
fertile or rudimentary or no ovules. Female panicles sub-race- 
mose, stout, 2i-4 m. long, rusty. Floicers on very stout pedirels 
T-5 m. long supported by subulate bracts } in. long. Caly^r lobes 
t.} % ^^^""^^l ^^ *^e male, 3 or 4. Stamtrml tube as in the 
nf.ll rn ' ^^^^l-'^r'^l'^Ped with lateral slits, each containing a 
hnear pollen mass. Ovary depressed, brown-tomentose, 3-4-celled 

^uT4!;S"^^J:^^!^-«^ .^ell;.ti,ma very large, 




k 



3-4 

and 3-4-valved, with 
1-^ 



3-4 



tran7ver.e to rvirnT "'"'i ^""V *^'^^ '"^^ ■^'^^^^■^«* ^^ilj radicle 
uans verse to axis of seed, plumule tomentose. 



241 



ii 



Distribution: — Throiigliout the plains and low hills of north- 
east India from the Sikkiin Terai to Assam and Burmah ; monn* 
tain valleys of Orissa, Mayuii)hanj and Singbhum, extending to 
Ganjam in Madras; Andamans, King (but possibly different). 

Note by Dr. 0. Staff. 

King says (Mat. i. 57): ** The description above given is that 
of Wallicli's own specimen (in flower) taken from a tree grown in 
the Bot- Gard. Calcutta, which had originally been brought from 
Goalpara in Assam," and he quotes, among the synonyms, 

Sphaerosacme spectahilisj Wall. MSS. in Herb. Calc.'' It is 
clear then, that King drew up his description (apart from the 
fruits) from an unnumbered specimen of Wallich's in the Cal- 
cutta Herbarium. That is no doubt the sheet which you say you 
recollect having seen at Calcutta. From his description it is 
evident that this specimen is a companion to the sheet marked 
'^1278. 1, H.B.C' in Wallich's own herbarium, except that the 
latter also holds an inflorescence of Amoora cucullata, ^N'ow this 
sheet is without a ticket, and has merely the distribution number 
and H.B.C written in pencil in the left-hand bottom corner. On 
the other hand there is a label pinned on to a sheet written up in 
pencil (left-hand bottom corner) '' 1277 H.B.C." This label, in 
Wallich's writing, runs, ^^ Sphaerosacme (Aglaia?) spectahilis, 
Wall.— H.B.C, Octob., 1824. E Goalpara introd^ ab amiciss^ 
Hamiltonio, M.D.," and across it, "If EoxburgVs Andersonia 
was tenable this would be a spec, thereof." To which is added in 
the centre of the label, in pencil, " 1277." The plant on this 
sheet is Amoora EohituJca, a plant represented by several sheets in 
Wallich's herbarium under the name, '' Sphaerosacme poly- 



Wall., in Herb. 1823 



yy 




It is, therefore, not to be assumed tliat tlie label beginning, 
" Sphaerosacme {Aglaia'?) spectahilis," was intended for tlie 
lant with whicli it is at present associated in the Wallichian 
erbarium. It was very probably attached to it by accident, and 
received the number 1277 originally given to Sphaerosacme pohj- 
stachya after it had become attached. But if it was not intended 
for SpJiaerosacme pohjstacliya, we can hardly escape the con- 
clusion that it is the missing label of 1278 i. It was written m 
1824 4 or 5 vears before the distribution numbers and the pre- 
paration of the catalogue. But if we transfer the label to sheet 
"1278 i.," the specimen which bears at present the label^ becomes 
unlabelled. Xow there is among the sheets referred io Sphaerm- 
acme by Wallich one, and only one, with two field labels. The 
plant mounted on it is Ainoora RohituU and the labels run {a) 
(left-hand top corner), '' Eanna I»itrasa-Goalpara, 8 beptr., 
1808," and (6) (right-hand top corner), "Eanna Pitrasa-Eishi- 
kund 8 ipril 1811." The specimen itself does not suggest that 
it is made up of two collections ; in fact, the appearance of the 
several parts of which it consists, and especially the state of pre- 
servation, indicates its homogeneity I am, therefore, inclined 



comer 



TO assume ijuul tiac: ic:j.c ^^^^. ^ v ^ ' i j ^ui, fl^A 

to this sheet by mistake, and was originally connected ^^th the 
sheet now holding the " Sphaerosacme spectahths label, ims 



B 



242 



i." 



leaves 1277 C of tlie Catalogue with the Eisliikunda* label and 
allows one field label for each of the sheets enumerated in the 
catalogue, whilst at the same time it makes Wallieh's naming*, 
consistent. The confusion arose evidently, like many similar 
cases, when the distribution sets were made up. Sheet " 1278, 
is quoted in the catalogue under " SpTiaerosacme Rohituka, 
Wall.; Andersonia Rohituka, Eoxb." This Sphaerosacme 
Rohituka, Wall., is really Amoora cucullata, and the quotation is 
correct as far as the detached large inflorescence of that sheet 
(left-hand bottom corner) is concerned. Otherwise it represents, 



tabilis, Miq. 



aerosacme 



Amoora spec- 



I may add that the tree of Amoora spectabilis in the Botanic 
urarden at Calcutta, from which Wallich took specimens in 1824, 
was most probably introduced there in 1808 when Hamilton 
stayed at Goalpara. Wallich 's uncertainty as to the Eox- 
burghian species of Andersonia is easy to understand. Although 
they are mentioned already in Hortus Bengalensis, 1811, they 
were then still undescribed. It was not until 1832 that the 
descriptions which Eoxburgh drew up subsequently were pub- 
lished m Wallich's edition of Eoxburgh's Flora Indica. 

Whilst writing this note I came across a very fine drawino- of 
Amoora spectabilis (A. Wallichii), in our collection of drawings. 
it is no. Sol of a set which was taken over from the East India 
Museum, and marked on receipt, " Eoyle, Carey & others." It 

^A r^-'*J^^,.?P °^ ^^^ ^^^^'' ''Sphaerosacme spectabilis. Wall. 
AgUia? MilneaV and then, written at a later date, "This 
belongs to Boxburgh's Andersonia, which has since been super- 
seded._ All this is in Wallich's handwriting. On the front, 
there is written against 351 " Sphaerosacme spectabilis, Wall.," 
mEoyles hand. There is then no doubt as to what -Wallich 
meant hy SphaeTosacme spectabilis, namely the plant you are 
dealing with. Eoyle helped Wallich with cataloguing, and that 

Snll V ■ % ^w Tr,'^"^^ ^^^^^ *l^^ drawing," which is most 
probably one of Wallich's own collection, rnfortunatelv our 

here .r^ n^l / ^^^™g« breaks off with no. 208, after which 

to 835) ^^ ^ "" ^'^^' "'^''^ ^^^^ ^^g^^^ numbers (up 



XXXVII.-JEFFERSONIA AND PLAGIORHEGMA 



J. HUTCHIK^ 

Genera Plantarum, vol. i. p. 44 



lively. 



genera Jef^ersonia, Bart., and -Plagiorhegma, Maxim 
-fciastern United S+n+oo o^;i A-^.i^^TT.. i ^i .' 



and Xorth-East Asia, respec- 



remark 



congener "detr Flore adW '," "|-^ '/^f.'^"-""- HM^ae 



normes 



* Eendered Rohilkund~ln~7i^ ~~n~ ~~ 

Hamilton was in MoBcrhyp i^ioiT /^*^ ^ticb is clearly an error 

t Saould be tab. 11^ ' ^^ Hishikiinda is near MonghjT. 



243 



It is true that Maximowicz had only a fruiting specimen before 
him when he described Plagiorhegmay and, in failing to discover 

trace of stamens, he came to the erroneous conclusion that 



any 

the 



flowers were unisexual . 



But I can see no reason 



for the statement that the flowers were abnormal. Maxi- 

is an excellent one and depicts P. duhia 



mowicz s 



figure 



just lite his type specimen, and as the plant grows in the Rock 
Garden at Kew. Subsequently flowering specimens were gathered 
in North-East China by John Ross, and were received at Kew in 
1877, an additional specimen being received from the Petrograd 
herbarium in 1910. 

in the flowers, as well as in the leaves and fruits as noted by 
Maximowicz. These differences are shown in the following 
table : 



On dissecting these I find srood differences 



Jeffersonia, Bart 

Leaves bifoliolate (fig. A). Sepals 4. 
Petals 8. Stamens 8. Capsule 
(fig. B) opening by a horizontal 
slit near the apex (half circum- 

scissile). 
Xative of the Atlantic States of 
North Araerica, in woods. Eastern 

New York an d 



Pennsylvania, 

Ontario to 



Wisconsin, Iowa, 



Plagiorhegnia, Maxim, 



Leaves unifoliolate (fi„ 

3. Petals 6. 



C. and D). 

Stamens 6. 



"Virginia and Tennessee, ascending 
to 2500 ft. in Virginia. 



Sepals 

Capsule (fig, E) opening by an 
oblique and almost verticals slit 
extending from near the style to 
almost the ba^e of the capsule. 
Native of North-Eastem Asia, from 
Shengking Province (China) and 
Corea to the Amur Eiver. 




A and B, leaf and fruit of Jeffersonia diphylla; C, D, £, leaves an^ 

fruit of Flagiorhegrna duhia. 

B 2 



2U 



Tliese three important difierences in the leaves, flowers and 
fruits, coupled with the separate geographical distribution, seem 
quite adequate for the re-establishment of Plagiorhegma as a 
valid genus. Bentham and Hooker no doubt paid little attention 
to the 'difference in the distribution because of the analogous cases 
in other genera of Berheridaceae* some of which show a close 
relationship and ancient connection between the floras of North- 
Eastern Asia and J^orth America, especially Atlantic N"orth 
America. The following genera or species of Berheridaceae are 
common to these two areas : — 

Podophyllum {P. ijeltatum in Canada and E. Un. States; five 
species m China and Himalaya). 

Diphylkia {D. cymosa, high altitudes, Virginia to Georgia and 

1 ennessee, and in Central and Western China ; D. Grayi in 
Japan). . ^ 

Achy Is (Pacific N. Amer. and Japan; 2 very closely allied 
species. A, triphylla, DC, and A. japonica, Maxim., respec- 

Caulophyllum (C. thalictr aides, Atlantic N. Amer. and I^.E. 
Asia and Central China). 

I give below a revised description of the genus and single species 

01 riagiorhegma. o i 

iorhegma, Maa^im. Prim. El. Amur. 34, t. 2 (1859) ; descr. 




Pla 

emend. 
Herb 



V^oo,-k ■ \•^ , — '"^- i'^^t^^i Lciiui buuerecto loiiorum 

basibu. Taginantibus membranaceis costatis persistentibus induto. 
toim radicaha, unifoliolata, longe petiolata, apice leviter et late 
biioba, basi cordata, palminervia. Scaxms nudus, uniflorus. 
bepala 3, petaloidea, mox decidua. Petala 6, plana, sepalis multo 
majpra. Stamina 6, libera ; antherae extrorsae, valvulis 2 sursum 
rnniTr ?7^f ^ ^sessile, stylo brevissimo crasso in stigma 

tXZ^ ''ff''^. Y'^^^^ dilatato; ovula numerosa, ad ven- 
corHn.? t' ^^.^-^f ^^^*^' adscendentia, anatropa. Capsnla parva, 

Wter'.^^m'?''' 'i? ^'^^' ^^ Y'^"" °^^^^^^ dehiscens. Semir^ 
breviter arillata, anllo carnoso demum lacerato. 

P. dubia, Maxim. I.e. 

Jourf li;t t^'""' ^'''ih rl^^'^'^- ^- '^ ^^^^^ -t Moore In 
68 lOlsf > ^T- ^^^ ^^'^)' ^^^'^- Ctron. Ixiii. 149, fig. 
(ISSO) ^* ^^«c?iMne^«., Hance in Journ. Bot. ix. 258 



suWctZ'T.dtrr'^^'.^;f " -^"^ "^ -3^ ^^- ^1*^' ^^-°-- 1-^^' 

Sn, T,' • .^v^""' ^^T'' numerosis instructum, foliorum 
numero^n ?fr' ^^^'t ,^^^^^^^^^^«is arete indutun . Folia 
STtt %n\^X r 1^^^ basi cordata, apice late 

nndulat^^obukta,"^ TuSe m X taTora ° j\ ""'^^^f '"^ 
minute denticulata), usque ad n n^^ T . '"^ l''^^^''^ 

O-lO-nervia r^^j-^i. U • ^^ ^^' diametro, palmatim 

^ xu nervia, nervis utrmque roTi«;mmiTa Tv,,,f4.' • .• -i- 

straminei, sulcati o-labn' k 7 ^ 7 i ^^^Itiramosis ; petioh 

, suicati, giabri. Peduncuh flonferi 9-12 cm. longi, 



La 



Bentliam 



245 



fructiferi usque ad 20 cm. longi, sulcati, glabri. Sepala 3, 
petaloidea, mos decidua, oblongo-lanceolata, subobtusa, circiter 
6-5 mm. long-a, striata, glabra. Fetala 6, obovata, 1 cm. longa, 
6 mm. lata, ad basin augustata- Stamhia 6, ovario aequilonga; 
filamenta complanata, 2 mm. longa; antlierae 4 mm. longae. 
Ovarium 4 mm. longum, glabrnm; stylus crassus, fere 2 mm. 
longus, in stigma cupularem undulate lobatum expantio, Capsula 
1-4 cm. longa, carnosa, extra rugulosa, stylo persistente 3 mm. 
longo coronata. Semina brunnea, oboToidea, 3 mm. longa. 

Mancburia: Lower Amur Eiver, in piiie forests near Pacbale, 
fr., Maximowicz] near Vladivostok, fls., PalczevsJcy in Herb, 
Koviarov 734. Corea : Chemulpo, fr., Carles 68.. Sbengking 
Province: ?=liady wood, Fungslian, fls., Ross 29; wooded valleys, 
Corean Gate, fr,, Ross. Mukden to Yaloo Eiver, near Laoling, 



W 



Mancb 



Hance (see above) proposed the new name mancTiuriensis for 
dulia, because of the latter's unsuitability ; a course, however, 
which we are unable to follow. For such a trivial reason the 
changing of specific names would have no end. 



XXXVIII.-DECADES KEWENSES 

Plantaeum jSTovaetjm IX Herbario Horti Eegii 

Cons er vat arum . 

DECAS XCIX. 

981. Xantliophyllum Biirkiili, Dnimmond et Dunn [Polj- 
galaceae]; e speciebus adliuc cognitis vix uUi arete affinis, floris 
magnitudine et structura ad X. ScJiort echini, King, aliquanto 
approximata ab ea ob filameuta pilosa, ovarium vix longe-stipi- 
tatum, folia chartacea aliasque notas facile distincta. 

Arbor modicae altitudinis, ramis inegulariter flexuobis, cortice 
cinereo-albido. Falia lanceolata, ovato-oblonga vel elliptica, 
basi cuneata vel subrotundata, versus apicem subito acuminata, 
apice subobtusa, basi obscure quin^ueuervux, omnmo glabra, 
superne virentia, subtus glaucescentia, duobus nervis margmali- 
bus marginem ^ubcrassam formantibus, lateralibus ad decern 
intra marginem anastomosantibus conspicuis pallidis petiolis 
coloratis circa 7 mm. longis suffulta. Flores usque ad 16 cm. 
longi, in racemos cernuos circa 3-5 cm. longos paniculatim con- 
fertos dispositi; pedieelli puberuli, bracteolis e jmbif orm ibus 
basalibns apice villosis circa 1-5 mm. longis muniti. Sepala b, 
imbricata, inaequalia, pubescentia, posticum quam alia conspicue 
maius. Petalab, omnia fere longitudine aequalia, sepalis 3-plo 
lon-iora, vix unguiculata, dorso carinata, carina versus basin 
angustata. Filamenta basi dilatata, pilosa, duo cum alis inferne 
connata, tertia petalo siiperiore plus minus adbaerens, caetera 
libera, stamina ad basin connectivi pilis satis longis ornata. 
Discus patelliformis, margine crenato. Orantm distmcte stipi- 
tatum, obverse turbinatum, sericeo-pubescens ; stylus circa 3 mm. 
longus, subulatus, pilis sericeis mstructus ; stigma capitatum , 



246 



ovula ad octo, per duo series erecta, dissepimento inconipleto 
imperfecte divisa. 

Eastern Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills, Pasigliat. Bur kill 
36767, 36864. The flowers appear to have been of a pale yellow or 
cream colour, deepening to gold brown on their backs and also on 
.the sepals. Mr. Burkill notes "tree with young pendent lilac- 
flushed leaves." The species represents a new type in the genus 
of which it is at present the most northerly known representa- 
il\^' ^"^^ undescriBed species collected by Lace in Burma (Lace 
4*56 and 4771) are allied, but the material is unfortunately in- 
sulbcient for determination. 

982. Impatlens Beccarii, Hook. f. 3IS. [Geraniaceae-Balsami- 
neae]; 7. lat^fohae, Hook. f. et Thorns., affinis, sed floribus 
mmoribus, alis dorso vix auriculatis, calcare incurvo distincta 

Herba erecta, glabra, 30 cm. alta; caulis simplex superne 
loliosus. Foha alterna, lanceolata, apice acuminata, tasi acuta, 
b-10 cm longa 3-4 cm. lata, serrata, subtus pallidiora, nervis 
7-8-panbus ; petioh 2-4 cm. longi. PeduncuU ex axillis supe- 
rioribus ^-flon, 6-10 cm. longi; pedicelli 1-2 cm. longi, bracteis 
parvis lanceolatis basi sufulti. Flores calcare incluso 3-4 cm. 
longi, rosei. Sepala 2 lateralia ovata, acuminata, 6 mm. longa, 
D-nervia, temna; posticum ex ore cymbiformi acuminato 1 cm. 
orbirnlnti'^L 9""^ semicirculare 2 cm. longum abiens. Ve^Ulum 

J^rni^^Tl '"^^'^^ attenuatae ; lobus basalis oblongus, dis- 

1 cm longa "''''' '' ''^^^^' ^"^^^^" glabra, lurgida, 

AuT'l8?rT/' ^%^i^%°f Padang: Ajer mantjoer; 300 m., 
Aug. 1878, Beccan; SinguBong, 2140 m., June 1903, mchoUtJ. 

983, Ixora mniitimTi n.^^1.1' rr^ 1 



M 



e-lxoreaej 



furaceo pXnU s TT\ "'"^f'^ '"^"'''''^ "'*™i'' "-i-^^te f ui- 
oeolato/apke aoumill™ '"''''^'T''';'^''' l'"«=«"lata ^el oblan- 

&jJ cm. lata; neivi utrinque 8^10 



4-8 cm 



Tati et arcuatim prope mXi.p^ ' ^ r"^ ?'v'' ^^^'^^^ ^^"- 
mm. longus; stipuke ovr^? f^ juncti; petiolus gracilis, 5-8 

sessiles, iaJteis^ basalXir i.^^''r,.'^^^l"*° ^^^^^^^^- ^V"^^' 

^■amorum triurpeduncnircircl?^^^^^^^ ''''f' ^ .^'^- l^^^^' 

parvum multifloJum destnentes cirv^r"". ""^''.-^ corymbum 
teoHs multis linearibus runit ' rS ? f^' ^^f'?"*^° ^^■^^- 
circiter 1 mm lon^ Cf ^"^.^ ^''^''' ^* lo^i aequales 

gracilis, 7 mT Wus loW b^'''''^'^'''^'-"^ ^''^^^^^^ ^"^"^ 
2 mm. longf Ed tfl '^r^^"'^^ niinute puberuli. vix 
sagittatis. Ftyluf^r^oili. cS f ^' ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^evibus, aniherls 
bus. Fructui globes u^ofi^''.^^^ P^^enti- 

persistentibus coronatus! ^ ' '^' ^^«^«tro, calycis lobis 

South I^'DIA -" tt;' t, xrr 
Madura T>i;+rW' .. onn^LJ^^^ Mountain" near Cumbum 

May 1917, Blatter and Hall- 



247 

984. Ixora Lawsoni, Gamble [Eubiaceae-Ixoreae] ; species 
distincta, calycis lobis liziearibus ciliatis et cymis corymbosia 
maxime congestis fere capitula formantibus msig-nis. 

Arbor vel frutex elatus, ramulis validis nodosis ultimis pubes- 
centibus fere complanatis. Folia coriacea, glabra, ovata, elliptiea 
yel oblongo-lanceolata, apice acuta et mucroaata, ba^i rotuiidata, 
JTiniora aliquando attenuata, 8-16 cm. longa, 3-6 cm. lata; Dervi 
laterales fere Korizontales, utrinque 10-16, primum recti, deinde 
curvati et prope marginem arcuatim juncti, supra impressi; 
petiolus brevis, vix 5 mm. lougus vel nullus, crassus; stipulae 
ovatae^ apiculo dorsali longo subulato. Cymae terminales, corym- 
bosae, maxime congestae, vix 4 cm, latae; pedunculus 0-5 cm. 
longus, bracteis ovatis foliaceis munitus; bracteolae permultae, 
lineares, conspicue ciliatae, 4-5 mm, longae, duae ultimae ad 
basim ovarii oppositae. Calycis tubus glaber, brevis; lobi 4, 
lineares, ciliati, additis aliquando 1-2 intermediis brevioribus, 
4 mm. longi, persistentes. Corollae tubus cylindricus, gracilis, 
glaber, 8-13 mm. longus; lobi 4, ovato-oblongi, apice curvati, 
acuti, circiter 4 mm. longi, erecti vel patentes, fauce glabri. 
Stamina recurva, filamentis brevibus, antheris linearibus. Slylus 

glaber, stigmatibus 2 gracilibus, Fructus globosus vel 



didymus, siccitate niger, glaber, ad 1 cm. latus, 6 mm. altus; 



pyrenae crustaceae. Semina peltata, excavata; embryo curvatus, 
5 mm. longus, cotyledonibus cordatis foliaceis, radicula longa 
crassa infera. 

South India. Coorg, Wight in Herb. Kew. Manantoddy, 
Wynaad, Malabar, about 1000 m, alt., Jan. 1884, M. A, Lawson 
43. Tliere is no indication on the sheets of this distinct species to 
show its size, but from the specimens it would seem to be a small 
tree. The colour of the corolla is not given. 



[Rubiaceae-Ixoreae] 



soni, Gamble, affinis, calycis lobis brevioribus sparse hirsutis, 
bracteolig filiformibus, inflorescentia hand congesta difFert. 

Arbor parva vel frutex, ramulis griseis scabris ultimis pubes- 
centibus fere comj)lanatis. Folia coriacea, elliptiea vel elliptico- 
ovata, siccitate grisea, apice acuta, basi attenuata, supra glabra. 



10-15 cm. lonsra, 4-6 cm. lata; nervi 



laterales an^ulo ad circiter 60^ costam relinquentes, utrinque 



10-15 



scabrae, 



petiolus brevis, crassus, D mm. lon^us; sujjuiae u^^x^aj:, ^^^x^^ 
longe acuminatae. Cymae terminales, breviter (circiter I cm.) 

pedunculatae, bracteis 2 foliaceis 1 cm. longis ornatae; ramuli 6, 
^ • 1 +: -r^i-.Tvac^oTi+Qc, r^nTTrmKis narvTs naullo con- 



form 



lymbis 



Calvcis Jti&«5 'brevis, tirsutus; lobi lineari-lanceolati birsuti, 



marermibus mcurvis 



Corollae tubus 



cylindricus, gracilis, glaber, l-l'S cm. longus; lobi 4, oblonP 
acuti, 4 mm. longi, reflexi, fauce glabri. ^tern^n^ recurva, fab 
^^.-.+;o -K^a^'Knfi antberis linearibus mucronatxs. Stylus gracili 



ramis 



Frvctus didymus, stcci- 



248 



tate niger^ glaber, 8 mm. diametro; pyrenae crustaceae* Semina 
peltata, excavata; embryo curvatus, cotyledonibus foliaceis. 

South Ixdia. Puluey kills, Revd, A, SauUere^ 63T, 684. 



986. Coffea crassifolia, Gamble [Rubiaceae-Ixoreae] ; sec- 
tionis Lachno stoma, species C. Khasianae^ Hook, f,, affinis sed 
raniulis et fpliis crassioxibus, fructu ellipsoideo diiiert. 

Frutex erectxis, ramulis crassis, ultimis pallidis snbtetragonis. 
Folia coriaceaj elliptica, apice abrupte acuta, nasi paullo 
attenuata, glabra, supra lucida, 8-10 cm, louga, 3-5 mm. lataj 
nervi utrinque 5-6, curvati et reticulatione siccitate prominente 
juncti; petiolus crassus, 5-10 mm. longus; stipulae triangulares, 
acuminatae, glabrae. Flores minimi, in cymis parvis axillaribus 
brevibus; pedunculus circiter 3 mm. lougus; bracteae et brac- 
teolae minimae, calyculum formantes. Calycis limhns brevis, 
truiicatus, vix dentatua. Corollae tuhus breyis, 2-3 mm. longus, 
intus villosus; lobi 4, oblongi, 2 mm. longi. Fructus ellipsoideus, 
glaber, 7-8 mm, longus, calycis tubo persistente coronatus- 
Semina 2, dorse convexa, intus paullo concava, utrinque rugosa, 
embryone minimo. 

South Lxdia. Ayerpadi, Anamalai Hills, April 26, 1903, 
C. A. Barber 54T4; Peermade, in Travancore, at 1500 m., Dec. 
1910, A. Jleebold 12860, 



reticulatione conspicuis juncti ; petiolus 5-10 mm, longus; sti 
mtrapetiolarestubum cylindricum pallidum formantes. Fi 



987. Morinda reticulata, Gamble [Eubiaceae-IMurindoae] ; 

M. uvibellatae, Linn., affinis, calycis limbo carnoso conspicuo 

foliis coriaceis glabris lucidis et foliorum nervatione reticulata 
differt. 

Frutex scandens, ramulis teretibus pallidis. Folia coriacea, 
glabra, lucida, oblanceolata vel lineari-oblonga, apice abrupte 
caudato-acuminata, basi attenuata, 8-16 cm, longa, 2-4 cm. lata; 
nervi laterales utrinque 10-12, paralleli,angulo circiter 60^ costam 
relmquentes, demde ad marginem curvati et nervis secundariis et 

pulae 

-, , . . ^. , ^ Florum 

pii^ia termmalia, umbellata, pedunculis circiter 5 ad 1 cm. 
longis. talycis tubus crassus, carnosus; limbus conspicuus, paullo 
elongatus, pulvmi annulati ad instar, lobis 0. Corollae tubus 
brevis, intus yiHosus ; lobi etiam breves, crassi. Stamina 4, ovata, 
inclusa, tUamentis brevibus. Ovarima crassum, 4-loculare, ovulis 
4; stylus brevis, lobis stigmatosis 2 rotundatis. Syncarvium car- 
nosum, globosum, circiter 1-5 cm. diametro, e baccis inverse pyra- 
midatis, pyrenis 4 cuneiformibus osseis triquetris. Semina 

oblonga albumme carnoso, cotyledonibus minimis ovatis, radicula 
Xonga mferion. 

fiOo"!^™! J^'T" '.^J^n^'^^T H^^^^ ^f Travancore, at Mercbiston, 
^I'^y^^^^^ ^91; at Kulatkurpolay, June 

lyij, 31, Kama Eow, 1281. x j' ' 



988. Psychotria Barberi, Gamble 



ycliotriael 



zzit:f:-^^-jti!:^z-''---- -'^^^^^^^^^ 



249 



Frutex erectus, ramulis teretibus pallidis. Folia late obovata, 
apice rotundata^ apiculo bievi acuto, basi cuneata, cLartacea, 
glabra, 12-16 cm. longa, 5-9 cm. lata; nervi paralleli, utrinqne 
circiter 15, primuin recti, margineiu versus curvati et arcuatini 
juncti; nervuli transversi, irregiilares, distantes; petiolus crassus, 
l"5-2 cm. longus ; stipulae cylindraceae, truncatae vol fissae, extus 
xufo-pubescentes. Cymae terminales, -breviter pedunculalae, 
bracliiatae, rufo-pubescentes, fructiferae ad 9 cm. longae, 12 cm. 
latae; bracteae et bracteolae deciduae, minimae. Calycis tubus 
brevis, pubescens; lobi 5, lanceolati, patentes, acuminati. 
CoroUae tubus 3-4 m.m. longus, iiitus albo-Yillosus ; lobi 
1-1-5 mm. longi. Antherae iuclusae, breves, filameiitis subnullis. 
Fructus ellipsoideus, fere 1 cm. longus, siccitate niger; pyrenae 
dorso 4-sulcatae. Semina pyrenis confoi'mia, sulcata, rugosa' ; 
cotyledones parvi, ovati; radicula inferior, crassa. 

South India. Anamalai Hills, Coinibatore, at Udamanpnrai, 
May 15, 1903, C A. Barber 5906. Travancore, at Pisga Camp 
near Munaar, 1500 m. alt., May 10, 1915, K. Venkoba Row. 



989. Psychotria globicephala, Gamble [Eubiaceae-Psyebo- 

triaej ; P. Thwaitesii, Hook, f ., affinis, floribus in capitulo globoso 
aggregatis, calycis lobis late obovatis ciliatis, foliis angustioribus 
tenuioribus nervis plurimis inconspicuis difi'ert. 

Frutex erectus, ramulis teretibus pallidis glabris. Folia cbar- 
tacea, oblongo-oblanceolata, apice abrupte acuta, basi attenuata 
in petiolum decurrentia, supra glabra, subtus juniora solum 



3-5 



curvat 



cm 



intermediis et nervo marginali juncti; petiolus crassus, circiter 
1 cm. longus J stipulae late ovatae, acumine subulate et intus pilis 
rufis ornatae, cito deciduae. Flares parvi, in capitulo peduncu- 
lato globoso circiter 1-1-5 cm. lato aggregati; pedunculus 1-2-5 

longus. crassus; bracteae stipuliformes, crassae; bracteolae 
parvae, obtusae, deciduae, cum pilis multis rufis persistentibus 
mixtae. Calycis tubus brevis, campanulatus; lobi conspicul, late 
obovati, obtusi, ciliati, 2-3 mm. diametro, CoroUae tubus cylin- 
dricus, latus, 3-4 mm. longus, intus villosus; lobi 1-2 mm. longi, 
reflexi. Stamina paullo exserta, antberis oblongis.^ Stylus vix 
exsertus, lobis stiffmatosis obtusis. Fructus ignotus.— P. 



Hook 



part. 



South IrsroiA. 



Wight 



1440) 



990. 



[Rubiaceae-PsTcliotriae] 



L. dichotovio, Wight, affini", ramulis cinereis, foliis paucinerviis 



duncul 



Frutex erectus, ramulis cinereis appresse pubescentibus 
elongatis. Folia subcoriacea, elliptico-lanceolata vel obloBgo- 
lanceolata, apice caudato-acumiuata, mueronata, basi attenuata 
vel subobtusa, supra glabra, subtus praecipue ad nervos appresse 

1 i..- -r in «™ l^v,rT.r. 9-51 nm Infa • iiPrvi ntrinaue O— ± CltO 



260 



curvatij deinde apicem versus product! ; nervuli trausversi nume- 
rosi, prominentes, parallel! ; petiolus 3-5 mm. longus, tortus; 
stipulae triangulares, cinereo-villosae, circit-er 4 mm. lougae* 
Cymae axillares, dichotomae, cinereo-villosae, pauciflorae, 1 cm. 
longae; pedunculus 5 mm. longus, aliq[uando brevior; bracteolae 
lineares, longissimae. Calycis tubus brevis; lobi 4, lanceolati, 
4 mm. longi, appresse villosi, apice setosi. Corollae tubus brevis; 
lobi oblongi, utrinque villosi. Fructus glaber, apice depressus, 
4 mm. diametro, siccitate niger. 

South I^^dia. Kalivayalpil, Tinnevelly, May; 31, 1901, C. A. 
Barber 3014; Kannikatti, Tinnevelly, June 9, 1899, ib. 454; near 
iS'aterikal, Travancore boundary, March 4, 1917, K. Rangachari 

1450. 



XXXIX.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Joiix Chisjs-all Moore. — We record with regret the death of 

Mr. J. C. Moore, late Sunerintendpnt, of 



May 



IgTiculture, Grenada, 



Moor 



her, 1893, and left in June, 1895, on his appointment to the 
Curatorship of the Botanic Station, St. Lucia [K.B. 1895, p. 155). 
In the year 1898 he was made Agricultural Superintendent of 
that island, when the Agricultural Department was re-organised. 
He held the post until 1914, when he was transferred to Grenada 
as Superintendent of Agriculture {K.B. 1914, p. 345), and owing 
to failing health he retired on pension in 1919 [K.B. 1919, 
p. 447). Mr. Moore had only recently returned to enjov his 
retirement in England. 



Saplndus trifoliata, Linn, or S. laurifolia, YaU.—li has been 

observed that the former name, which was used by Hiern in the 



VI I ^■"^""^"^J "-^ ojuiuoay, ana m otner works, by b. laurifolia, 
yahl, and an attempt nas been made to ascertain whether there 
IS any good reason for the change. 

Vahl himself treated 6^. trljoliata as a synonym of his S. 
launfolia, adding in a note: "Cur trifoliatam auctores banc 
dixermt, facile non liquet, cum folia pinnata uti ex figura 
descriptione Rheedii apparet I.e.; nomen triviale igltur utpote 
^^o^.'^^Y'^^ '^*^o^^Sruum mutavi." Trimen (Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 
i._d06) adopting VahFs name, says: "Hiern in Fl. Brit. Ind. 
gives the name 5. trifoUata, L,, to this [5. laurifolia-] and the 
next L^. evmrgmata-\ combined. The name is an absurd one, as 
neither plant is trifoliate. Moreover, the plant so called by 
Lmnaeus IS the ^Conghas ' of Hermann, which, as above noticed, 
isbchleichera tmjuga, Linnaeus afterwards added a quotation of 
Kheede s figure, and hence his name has got transferred to the 
present species; but it should not be Siaintained." Under 
^cMeichera tnjuga (I.e. p. -304) Irinien a<>ain states that it is the 



251 



as ' of Her 



Herm. Mus 



603 



Kow what are tlie facts? In Flora Zeylanica, p. 231, T.iunaeus 
includes *^ Coiij2:lias '' amoiiji: liis ^' Barbarae. Auniliilatae," and 



O" «^^v.-.w 



writes ** Conglias Herm. Zejl. 69. Saponaria arbor zeylanica 
trifolia, seTuine lupini. Harm. mus. 69, prodr. 373, Burm. Zeyl. 
209, ' ' etc. Subsequently, in Species Plantarum, ed , i. 367, 
against Sapindus tnfoliata, he writes, ** Sapindiis foliis ternatis/^ 
and quotes Hheede's Hortus Malabaricus, iv. p. 43, t. 1 only, 
not at all referring to Flora Zeylanica. So far tlien tliere is 
nothing to show that he meant the same plant in the two cases. 

Linnaeus quotes no number of Hermann's Herbarium as he does 
in other cases where he describes and names a plant in that Her- 
barium, Xor is there a specimen of *' Conghas'' in Hermann's 
Herbarium, or one of Sapo7iaria . . . trifolia in Linnaeus'. 
Hermann himself, as Dr. Eendle kindly pointed out to me, in- 
cluded ''Conghas'' among his species not properly known, 



and all he says about it is; 



fol 



Malah 



semine Iwpini. Conghas Zeylanens. Saponaria Spliaerxdae arbor 
Lugd. Nuculae Saponariae nan edules. C.B.P." This as far 
as it goes applies as well to Sapindus as to Schleichera, or even 
better. 

In the case of Burmann's " Conghas " the evidence available is 
less ambiguous. This is what Burmann (Thes. Zeyl. 209) says : — 
'* Saponaria arbor, Zeylanica, trifolia, semine Lupini. Par. Bat. 
Pr. pag. 373. Mus. Zeyl. pag. 69. Saponaria arbor, trifoliata, 
Zeylanica. H. Beaum. pag. 37. Saponaria arbor, Indica. Amm. 

H. Bosian. pag. 32. Saponaria arbor trifolia, Indica, //. L. Bat. 

~' ' «ay. GO. ubi jungitur cum Pruni- 

fera fructu racemoso, parvo, nucleo saponario. Ray hist. pi. pag. 
1548, hue spectat Purinsji H. Malah. part. 4 Ta,h. 19. ubi pig. 44. 
in notis vide varies fructus, quibus Indi saponis loco utuntur. an 
Arbor Prunifera, sphaerulas saponarias ferens, tetraphylla, ex 
India Orientali. Plukn. Phyt. Tab. 14. Fig. 6? & Almag. pag. 
47. CoxGiiAS nostra Zevlonensibus dicitur." All the refexences 
additional to Hermann's point rather to Sapindus than Schlei- 
chera. In support of that it may be added that Commelm calls 
the tree - Seepnoten," whilst Eay not only refers to it as the 
" Soep Tree," but also gives a description of the flowers wJaicft 
leaves no doubt that he is dealing with a SapimJus ;^^d^<^t wiiii 
a Schleichera. Burmann also quotes the Purinsji of Eheede (H. 
Malab. iv. t. 19). This, however, is the basis of ^^e-^^/^^'jf^J 
trifoliatus of Linnaeus, who evidently knew it o^^-V f^i'^Jf ^* 
source there bein- no specimen in his herbarium. This figuie of 
Rheede'st good,\nd considered in conjunction with his descrip- 
tion there is f o doubt that it represents YahFs Sapmdus lo-r.fohn 
The "Cono-has" of Hermann is therefore, presumable, and 



certainly, a Sapi 



Sapindus laurif^ 



pindtis tnfoliat 



or the 



h 



caZtTevent it^ ^^^'' ""^ " '' ^«" "" "^ '^'^ -'""'"' 



252 



H 

than many other names admitted; one leaf in Rheede's figure is 
trifoliolate, and on the other hand *' txifoliata ^^ may refer to the 
frequent occurrence of three pairs of leaflets ; moreover, seedlings 
have actually ternate leaflets. Lastly, Schleichera is no more 
trifoliolate than is Sapindus. 

It is a point of interest, not that it affects the argument, that 
Eadlkofer, who paid special attention to the Sapindaceae, also 



foliata as a synonym 



;/ 



I think 



ri folia 
laurij 



H. H. HAINES. 



We have received 



Sesbania sericea as a green manure crop.— 

the following letter from Mr, J. Sydney Dash, Director of the 
Agricultural Station, Guadeloupe, West Indies: — 

'* I am forwarding you specimens of a leguminous plant which 
I found growing wild on an islet in the harbour of this town, and 
which I have under experimental cultivation as a possible green- 
manure crop/ The nodules which form on thi ' ' 



roots 



quantity 



with which I am acquainted. It seems to be capable of reaching 
a height of four feet or more in good moist soil. At this stage, 
of course, it has a tendency to become woody. If employed as a 
green manure crop it would be well to turn it in before it gets 
too old. Sown thickly, it will produce a heavy yield of green 
material when two to two-and-a-half feet high. At this time 
an analysis of the plant was made in our laboratory, and I 
enclose a copy of the results, from which you will see that the 



nitrogen content is very high." 

Moisture 

*Albuminoids . 

fAmides 

^lucilage 

Cellulose 

Woody fibre . 
i Ash ... 



• • • * 



* * 



Stems. Eoots. 

69-17 

3-69 

1-39 
3-50 

5-80 
14-27 

2-18 



100-00 



Containing nitro'^en 
tTotal nitrogen 



« • « 



* • 



• • • 



* • 



•■ • • 



• * « 



^Containing pliosplioric anlijdride 



0-59 
0-25 

0-84 



0-83 



(P.O,) 



• * • 



>» 



Stems 
Root 



potassium oxide (KjO) 

Kilos 'per hectare. 



0-24 

0-20 



0-29 
0-20 



14, 103 
1,710 



118 
14 



r=o, 

34 
5 



K5O 
28 
3-5 



Totals 



• » 



15,813 



1 00 



39 



31-5 



253 



The jjlant proves to be beshania sericea, DC, a leguminous 
herb characterised by silky leaflets and straight veiy narrow pods. 
In the Herbarium there are specimens from the following places : 
West Indies: Porto Eico; sea shore at Mayaguez (Sintem's Gl) ; 
moist fields near Anasco [Sintenis 5594). Jamaica; on the road 
from Kingston to Spanish Town [Harris 9051). Bahamas; near 
!N^QSsau [A. H. Curtiss 160). British Guiana: sea shore {Jenman 
4538). French Guiana: Cayenne [Sagot). According to Urban 
(Symb. Antill. iv. 286) it occurs also in Hispaniola, St. Thomas, 
Antigua, and Martinique. A single gathering has also been made 
in Ceylon, near Colombo (Ferguson). 




A, portion of Sesbama sericea, fnat. size; B, C, D, standard, wing, and 
keel petals, respectively, enlarged; E, iofructescence, f nat. size; 
F, fruit laid open ; Gr, seed; enlarged. 

There is besides, on the "West Coast of Africa, what appears to 
be almost an identical species named by De Candolle Seshania 
puhescens. It occurs in marshy places from Senegambia to Lake 
Chad, and on the shores of the island of St. Thomas. Should S, 
sericea prove useful as a green manure in the West Indies, no 
doubt S. puhescens would serve the same purpose in Africa, 

In Western Australia there is also a plant which scarcely seems 



254 



specifically distinct from S. sericea, named by Bentliam in the 



aculeata 



It 



is recorded from Flinders Eiver (coll?),- Sturts Creek {'von 
Mueller). Depuch Islands (Bynoe), and between the Asliburton 
and De Gray Elvers (Clement). 

The accompanying text figure of Sesbania sericea should give 
cultivators some idea of the appearance of the plant. j. h. 



New Zealand Plants and their Story, L. Cockayne.— The 

second edition (1919) of this well-printed and well-illustrated 
book, published as Manual 'No. 1 by the New Zealand Board of 

Science and Art, is virtually a new work. It presents a connected 
account of ■'■^'^ ^^ — *"*' — -^ tvt.^ r, t ■% -, . „ 

dispensable 



D lorm an 
Manual 



Zealand _ Flora " for a botanist studying the vegetation of the 
progressive Dominion. There are 99 photographic reproductions 
m addition to text-figures. 

The vegetation is chiefly considered from ecological and phyto- 
geographical standpoints. The first chapter deals with the history 
of botanical exploration in New Zealand, and the only prominent 
name we miss is that of Dr. Cockayne himself. A second chapter 
forms an introduction to the ecology of the country and contains 
a clear exposition of the commoner terms used in its study and a 
suggestive classification of growth-forms. Following chopters 
deal with the flora of the sea-coast, forests, lowland, heath and 
rock vegetation, plants of inland waters, swamps and bogs and 
the tlora^and vegetation of the outlying islands. A chapter 
entitled The evolution of a new flora and vegetation," records 
the influence of man and his domesticated animals on the vegeta- 
tion and another gives in outline a classification of New Zealand 
plants, carefully explaining the principles on which it is based. 
1 he penultimate chapter deals with the distribution of the plants 
m ^e_w Zealand, and includes a brief account of each of the 15 
hotaancal districts into which the author has proposed to sub- 
divide the country. The final chapter, dealing with the affinities, 
origin, and history of the floru is, perhaps, the most interesting 
m the book. It is pointed out that New Zealand species fall, 
according to their origin and affinities, into one of the six follow- 
mg groups: endemic, Australian, Fuegian, Malayan, European, 
onnT?" ■ '''•.v^V^' estimated 1780 species of VasJular Plants 
dLotvw'''^ *^^ flora T4 per cent, are endemic, while of the 
aielf ?^ T'H' '^;" P"" ^^^*- ^^e e^'l^^^c. 290 species 
?oVer?°l A ^r^^^^^^^d and Australia and 23 species 
nWsh^ '^ ""f T'^'^f ' ^'^^^^ ^^"^t 20 other New Zealand 

eWn^I^rIn7- ' v'^^ f ^"^^^ ^^^^^ i° ^^^^i^- The Malayan 
ioint Bosse l^n ^ T'^' Cryptogam., maW itself felt in the 
.lomt possession of certain genera rather than of species The 

rnTsSolT'l" ^"'^' -^. tie cosmopolitan cSytropfcaf 
that New CLd «^™^5^^^^^^.% evidence the view taken is 
Palaeor ..dfo 1 ?f'^'^^ a primitive flora of her own-the 
1 alaeozelandic-which probablv formed part of that of a wide 



255 • 



land-area, perliaps united to Antarctica ; that at an early date tlie 
oncestors of the present subantarctic element came in ; that later 
there was an invasion of tropical Malayan species, and perhaps 
also of the Australian element. 



W. B. T. 



Botanical Magazine. — The following plants were figured 
the number for October, JN'ovember and December, 1919 : 
Baildaea insignis, Benth. (t. 8819), from Tropical West Africa; 
Atraphaxis Billardieri, Jaub. et Spach (t. 8820), a native of Greece 



rinnu 



lunnan; Cotyledon oppontijolia, Ledeb. ex IS'ordm. (t. 8822), 
from the Caucasus; Euonymus alatus, Begel (t. 8823), a native 
of jN'orth-Eastern Asia; Thorncroftia longiflora, IS". E. Brown (t. 
8824), a native of the Transvaal; Sigmafostalix costaricensis , 
Eolfe (t. 8825), from Costa Rica; Rosa glutinosa, Sibth. et Sm. 
var. dalmatica, Borbas (t. 8826) from Dalmatia; Campamila sul- 
phurea, Boiss. (t. 8827), a native of the Orient; Hnicorthia CJial- 
ivini, Marloth et Berger (t. 8828), from South Africa; and 
Gaultheria cuneata, Bean (t. 8829), a native of Western 
Szechuan. The volume for the 3'ear is dedicated to Mr. E. H. 
Wilson, V.M.H., Assistant Director of the Arnold Arboretum, 
" Whose ardour as an Explorer and judgment as a Collector have 
added to our Gardens many Eastern Asiatic plants whose portraits 
embellish the Botanical Magazine." 



The Dwarf Coconut.— The following note is extracted from an 
article on " The Dwarf Coconut," by Mr. W. P. Handover, in 
the Agricultural Bulletin of the Federated Malay States, No. 5, 
1919, pp. 295-297. " The dwarf coconut known in this country 
as 'nyiur gading ' is remarkable for its early fruiting, palms only 
10 ft. high bearing abundant fruits touching the ground. The 
young palm grown under good conditions starts to flower in its 
third year and produces ripe fruit in about nine months from the 
appearance of the flower spike. The initial flower spikes contain 
only male flowers, but other spikes appearing in rapid succession 
are larger and bear an increasing number of female flowers also, 

spike from a six year old tree being counted with 200 young 
female flowers, whilst trusses of fruit from similar trees have 
been found with as many as 55 ripe nuts. It is generally of a 
brio'ht yellow colour, and Winstedt in his quotations from 



a 



Malayan Folk Lore speaks of ' nyinr gading/ tlie golden coco- 
nut only to be found in the Princes^ Gardens, 

*'Five hundred nuts to a picul (133^ lb.) of copra is a general 
average yield. With the leaf length only 12 ft, it was found 
convenient to plant the palms 24 ft. by 20 ft., which gave 90 to 
the acre, a nxxmber nearly double to that required when planting 
big palms. In the fifth year the trees yielded 30 nuts apiece, so 
that 2,700 nuts would be obtained from trees planted 90 to the 
acre, while in the ninth year, which is the sixth yielding year, 
J20 nut<; were yielded per tree in full bearing, making 10,800 
nuts per acre or 211- piculs of copra per acre. The big coconut 
does not produce till after its fifth year, but in the ninth year 
45 trees per acre would probably yield 40 nuts apiece or ISOO 



256 



nuts per acre, giving 8 piculs of copra per acre. The nuts of the 
dwarl trees can be easily and rapidly picked and also inspected 
for beetles and other pests. Almost 2| times the number of nuts 
per picul of copra have to be handled as compared with the larger 
nuts, but it is suggested that this may not be of great consequence 
when working with newly devised methods and machinery, deal- 
ing with large quantities/^ 



g 



F 

_ le of the Library. — The first printed Catalogue of the 
Library of the Koyal Botanic Gardens, Kew, was published in 
1899, and is a volume of nearly 800 pages, forming Additional 
Series III to the Kew Bulletin. Since its appearance an annual 
supplement, including the accessions for each year, has been pub- 
lished as an appendix to the Bulletin. The first supplement forms 
Appendix IV to the volume for 1899 and the last issued, com- 
prising the additions received during 1915, forms Appendix II 
to the volume for 1916. There are consequently 19 supplements, 
and the need for consolidating these was obvious. It was 
decided therefore to re-issue in one supplement all the additions 
to the library received since the catalogue was published, and the 
work of arrangement and revision was completed in the autumn 
of 1915 when, however, owing to difficulties arising from the war, 
it could not be printed. It was not possible therefore to send it 
to the press till last year, and as the usual annual supplement to 
the catalogue was suspended after that for 1915, the additions 
received after that year have been omitted and will form another 
supplement, to cover the years 1916-20, which, it is hoped, will 
be published next year. Like the original catalogue the supple- 
ment is printed on one side of the paper only, and the same 
arrangement of the entries into 4 sections (I. General, II. Travels, 
III. Periodicals, and IV. Manuscripts) has been followed. The 
volume consists of 433 printed pages, is priced at £1 net, and is 
^Id by Messrs. Gale & Pollen, Ltd., Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew. It should be mentioned that additions to sets of periodical 
and serial works which appear in the original catalogue are not 
included in the supplement, nor, as a rule, are excerpts from 
periodicals and other publications received in the library, though 
such excerpts are welcomed and are often found of much use as 

tracts, m which collection they are placed and are easily 
found without the aid of the catalogue. 

In the annual notes on presentations to the library, published in 
tiie b.ew Bulletin, it has been the practice to mention the more 
important additions received as such during each year. From 
tiiese notes it will be seen that the establishment is indebted to a 
wide circle of authors, publishers and other persons, to govern- 



Offi 



agricultural 

H 



sary, to give 



£ maintaining its library, t 
importance. It is not poss 

many 



wTiiVTi OT-r x^^i J J • .; . "-^^ uxAuy^ vaiuaoie presentations 
Sed that 11} \ '"^ ^^'l supplement. It may, however, he 

fimeofU^^l^"'t'^ T"^^^' ^^ *^^ ^°^t^ ^J ^^«^ors before the 
time of Linnaeus have been presented by the Bentham Trustees. 



'''"''' nfr'^'-^J^rltl ^„^V\^--"T:^ ..T.T.0J^KT O..XCK. 



S. A. S 



Lane, 



Kai- Bulletin, 1920.] 




Fh>. l.-The Grove of quercn, GalUprinos near Kebara, one mile from Enab in the 

Judean Hills, from a photograph taken in 1918. 




Fig. -l-Abraham's Oak (Querc 



To face page 257. 



Col rE D?^^^r'"^f?^"*ii'^"]>' f^°°^ ^ photograph taken by 

"'"s, u.±'.M., for Maior Portal in 1918. 



] 



\_Orown Copyright Restrved, 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



No. 




[1920 



XL.— ABRAHAM'S OAK. 

M. Portal. 

OVith Plate.) 

With, reference to the note in tlie Kew Bulletin^ 1919, p. 233, on 
Abraliani's Oak, Querciis coccifera, var, '^alaestina^ Boissier, I 

tsencl a photograph of Abraham's Oak taken for me in 1918 by Col. 
Robins, D,P.M., E.E.F., after the capture of Jerusalem. This 
venerable tree is, as the photugraph shows, protected by au iron 
railing, and its condition might be considerably improved could it 
receive the attention of a skilled forester. 

The great rarity in Palestine of Q. caUiprinos*' of any size is 
attributed to two causes^(l) perpetual grazing by flocks of goats 
on hillsides, (2) the scarcity of trees for fuel or building, combined 
with the methods adopted by the Turk for the raising of money. 
As one enters the pass up towards Jerusalem, one notes, climbing 
the mountain sides, numberless? small plants of Q. calliprinos 
growing out of clefts in the rock, eaten close to the rock face by 
the flocks of goats, herded by small hill children. This has gone 
on for many hundreds of years, and thus the oak has never had a 

chance of developing. 

It is diflicult to explain how these small oaks have become estab- 
lished in the places where they now exist in the Judean hills, as 
no trace of an acorn-bearing tree or bush is to be found except near 
Enab, a considerable distance away. It is however, worthy of 
note that the Syrian jays are very fond of carrying away acorns 
in the cups from the clump near Enab, afterwards sittmg on the 
top of a flat rock, trying to pick the acorn out. In that way some 
may drop out and "fall in the clefts between the rocks. It is 
possible also that the herd boys may pick up a number of the 
acorns under the clump when they bring ^the goats down to eat the 
fallen ones, and take them away as playthings and drop them. 



* This name is used here in preference to that ffiven ^:^l^^^^]' 
ahove for reasons stated iu the article (No. XLL), which follows. 

(1076.) Wt. 135. -p. 47. 1,000. 9/20. J. T. & S., Ltd. G- 14. Sell. 12. 



25 S 



Tke Turk, de^iiriug ahvays to raise taxes with, tlie least amoiiiit 
of trouble, puts a tax of £Ei per tree on certain trees of any 
«ize, A notable example of tiie effect of this tax is that of the 
01iv« forest formerly existing between Gaza-Ascalon and 
Meidel. still shown on our maps as ''Olive forest.'^ 



only very large Olive tree stools, tlxe whole having been cut down 
by the owners and the wood sold, thereby avoiding the annual tax 
of £E1 per tree ! 

An oak forest of considerable size is shown on the maj^s of 1878 
behind El Jelil marshes, some 17 miles north of Jalfa, but this 
also has vanished, and, though some fair-sized tree stools remain. 



the rest is scrub and of no size. 



Q 



liiinois existed recently near Zimmarin, about 20 miles south of 
Mount Carmel, but only scrub now remains, the Turk having cut 
the larger trees or saplings for firewood. At the dump I saw no 
log exceeding 12 in. in diameter. On the slopes of Mount 
Carmel this oak forms certainly four-fifths of the scrub, and one 
sees many bushes with thick branches 8 or 9 ft. long, growing 
out of the rocks on hill sides, in many cases bearing acorns. 
But these slopes are in many parts too steep even for goats, and 
no flocks appeared there such as we saw on the Judean hills. The 
oak forest below Zimmarin starts, apparently, where cultivation 
ceases, and extends up the lower foothills and eventually round 
the spurs of hills to the Carmel range, but never actually reaches 
the hill tops. 

There is no reason why, in the fertile soil and good climate 
of Palestine, groves of Q. calliprij^os and other trees should not be 
grown again and protected under Government supervision. It is 
particularly noticeable how successfully the German-Jewish 
Colonies have planted trees, usually Eucalyptus. The growth 
thf^ have made in a comparatively short time is remarkable. 

The country badly needs re-afforestation, which would under 
proper care, soon be a paying proposition. The chief 'enemv 

""2" X, \ f ^"""-'^^ ""^ '^'''''^^ °^ ^^^^P' ^«t tliese could be fenced 
ot with barbed wire. On rare occasions flights of locusts occur 
which consume most of the green things they meet, but I did not 
see any Q ealh^ynnos scrub or Eucalyptus which showed signs of 
former attack by them. Palm trees, Olive trees and, of course, 

teTfl r'' ^^^.,f,^^^!^ ^«^-«^ely, and in gardens which had 
been left to run wild the trees were often in a dying condition. 



XLI.-THE BOTANICAL HISTORY OF THE 'SINDIAN 

AND THE AGE OF ABRAHAM'S OAK 



0. Staff. 



Q 



Abraham^ n A r • ^ . '^"^^'^"•^ to which the famous 



of the bm-,^*.. »^ -'-xai luuesover, and partly on account 

^Titer. have aonL17'Tr ^''" "* '^'' '^''^'^ ^^^^^ successive 
v^iitei^ ha.e applied to the group of which it is a member. The 



259 



following lines are intended ari a contribution towards a clearer 
and, at the same time, practical concept of the type of oak in 

que,5tion, _ • 

As the Arabs of Palestine have long known it by the name 
" Sindian/' we may, for the sake of greater clearness, speak here 
of it as the Siudian Oak, and thus keep it distinct from the Kermea 
Oak of South Europe and North Africa, wath which it is frequently 
associated. Both belong to the " cocci/era " group, Quetcus 



■/ 



Kermes oak. These " Cocciferae " represent a type of evergreen 
oak, widely distributed over the whole of the Mediterranean 
region from the Atlantic to the Levant. They form a character- 
istic element of the " maquis " or "macchie," that is, the scrub- 
formation of the coastland of the Mediteri^aneau, ascending here 
and there in the adjoining mountain ranges to altitudes of up to 
over 4000 ft. Mostly shrubs from a few to 10 ft. high, they 
grow occasionally into small trees up to 20 ft. high, or, as in 
the eastern section of the area, into quite stately trees. The 
small, hard evergreen and mostly spinous leaves vary in size, 
shape and the degree of spinosity in the same individual, or in 
the individuals of a given colony, or, as it appears, from race to 
race. The fruits show a similar range of variation with regard 
to size, shape of the phyllaries or scales of the cupules, the length 
of the acorns relative to that of the cupule, and the time they 
take to mature. Here the variation is partly of the nature of 
response to conditions of nutrition or possibly age, individual 
fluctuation, or of a fixed character indicating the presence of dis- 
tinct generic units. This partly real and partly apparent insta- 
bility of the characters which 'challenge discrimination is very 
difficult to appreciate in detail, and apt to lead to one of the two 
extremes of tasonomic' treatment, excessive "lumping" or 
excessive " splitting," Both have had their apostles. The con- 
ception of one extremely " variable " or polymorphic Q. coccifera, 
covering the whole group, is contrasted with the creation of almost 
a score of species proposed in the course of time for this same group. 
In eitlier case it seems that too much has been merely assumed, 
and it will require prolonged observation and experiment to dis- 
entane-le the stable and the unstable element in this apparent chaos 
of forms. 



rection 



the material at my disposal, I have come to the conclusmn that 
so far only one type of the coccifera group is known to exist in 
Palestine. It occurs either as a shrub or a tree of varying^ am! 
occasionally considerable size ; it has leaves, no doubt, of variable 
size, but on the whole larger and more oblong than those of the 
Eermes oak, and its fruits have large to very large cupules with 
rather long linear- or lanceolate-oblong phyllaries or scales, mostlv 
free from the middle upwards and erect or more or less recurved 
and covered with a fine greyish down. This oak is a common, if 
not the most common, constituent of the scrub or the maqui^ 

s all over the southern and western slopes 



ocelli's 



Hebron to Mount 



of the Tudean plateau from the latitude of 

Carmpl. entering here and there deeply along the valleys mto the 

a2 



2G0 

latter, tlieu coTers much of tlie hills around the plain of Esdraelou, 
and finally continues northwards, facing on one side the 
Phoenician plain and merging on the other in the richer wood- 
lands of Upper Galilee and the Lebanon. Tristram also records 
it from Gilead on the other side of the Jordan, but I have not 
seen any specimens from there. Farther north, however, at 
Banias, it was collected by Post, and, according to Kutschy, it 
also occurs in the Antilebanon, Beyond this region it extends 
through the Jebel Nur into the Cilician Taurus, here, as in the 
Lebanon, ascending to over 4500 ft. It has also been found in 
Cyprus from the coast hills to the mountains of the interior. The 
Arabs distinguish this oak, as has already been stated, as Sindian* 
Dr. E. Robinson records this name for the Abraham's Oak of 
Hebron and a similar tree at Seilun (Shilo) in Samaria. Brocchi 
heard the same name applied to the " coccifera^^ oak" of the 
Lebanon, and Sindyaneh or Sendianeh, N.E. of Kaisariyeh, near 

the Zimm.arin of Maior Portal, dprivfts no rlnnht its na-mp fvnm 



the same vernacular. This oak has been repeatedly figured. 
^ Linnaeus had evidently no first-hand knowledge of the Pales- 
tine Oaks*. The only reference to them is in Species Plantarum, 
ed. ii., 1413, where Judaea is quoted among the habitats of 
Quercus coccifera. This he had from Gronovius (Elor. Or., 1755, 
p. 119), who, in turn, quotes Eauwolf. The latter (Beschraib. 
Eaiss. Morgenl. 1583), mentions " Ilex minor " from the hills 
above Tripolis (p. 59) and " Ilices " from east of Rame (p. 460). 
Belon, who was at Rame about 27 years before Rauwolf , mentions 
them as " Chenes verds." It was not until 1812 that this oak 
received critical attention, when Labillardiere, who had collected 
it himself in the Lebanon, described and figured it, identifying 
it, however, with Desfontaine's Q. pseudococcifera from Algeria. 
Then m 1838 Webb, pointing out its distinctness from the Algerian 
plant, named it Q. calUprmos. Unfortunately he included in this 
species an oak of which he had collected some imperfect material 
m the mountains near Tetuan in Morocco. Th. Kotschy, during 
his travels in the Orient in 1853 and 1855, paid much attention 
to the oaks and amassed considerable material for study, which 
was distributed generously and was also to form part of the basis 
ol a monograph of the European and the Oriental oaks. He was 
evidently much impressed by certain differences, particularly in 
the structure of the cupule, and without careful collation attached 
Ireel;^ new names to the specimens he dispersed. Some of them 
remamed^ nomma nuda," although they were quoted by subse- 
quent writers or used for the designation of subordinate forms. 
^Jtliersjie connected with very full descriptions and splendid 

Umo^rTf; ''1^/'°"'' Palaestina. UBually c,noted Linnaeus, Flora Palacstina 
rcXaofT?Litnir"T't-^'^I^-'^r^^^°^ Quercus. one of them Q.uercm 

his « DeSion of tl^'p . "^^.^'•- ?"<^«^t^y the oal<a listed by Pooocke in 



261 



-figures in his folio '^ Uie Eiclien Mitteleiuopas iind des Oiieuts/' 
wliicli appeared in parts from 1858-18C2. In this work lie dis- 
tinguished four species of the '' cocciferae^^^ which he recognised 
as a group ^' Phyllocentron '^ among the evergreen oaks of his 
section '' Ale sole pidiiim.^' Among these Q. imlaestina covered the 
Oak of Hebron, whilst the corresponding oak of the Lebanon is 
not accounted for. Q. palaestina is also mentioned by Kotschy as 
growing around Hebron, in a paper on the spring flora of South 
Palestine (in Yerh. Zool.-Bol. Ges. Wien, 18G1, 16) ; but in two 
later papers, *' Der Libanon und seine Alpenflora'^ and ^' Die 
Sommerflora des Antilibanon '* (ibid. 1864), he mentions Q. calli- 
•priiios (pp. 451, 455, 748) and Q. pseudococcifera (pp. 748, 764), 
and identifies the latter with the '' Sendian ^^ of the natives. 
Thus Ivotschj^s account of the ^^ Cocci ferae '' renmins inconijilete 
and confused; but it seems as if he had meant at some time to 
extend his concept of Q. palaestina so as to include more northern 
representatives, for he distributed specimens collected on Jebel 
IS^ur (Niir Dagh, S.E. Cilicia), in 1859 under the name '' Qnercus 
falaestina,^' It was only a few years after Kotschy's travels in 
Palestine and the Lebanon that Sir J. D. Hooker (1860) visited 
the same regions. He, too, studied the oaks of the Holy Land in 
the field as well as in the Herbarium. With much of Kotschy's 
material before him, he came to the conclusion that there was only 
one prickly evergreen oak in Palestine, very closely allied to the 
Kermes oak, but still sufficiently different to require a distinctive 
name. Although considering the differences as " no more than 
enough to establish a variety upon,'' he decided for Labillardiere's 
name Q. pseudococcifera^ quoting, however, Desfontaine as its 
author, w ith this inclusion the area of the Syrian oak was ex- 
tended automatically to Algeria and the Iberian peninsula, land 
its distinctiveness practically obliterated. Hooker's paper was 
read before the Linnean Society in June, 1861, and printed the 
same year. Three years later (IS'ov., 1864) followed A. De Can- 
dolle's exhaustive monograph of the Cuptdiferae (Prodrom. vol. 
xvi. ii.), in which an elaborate attempt was made to classify the 
numerous fonns of the " cocciferae " which had by that time been 
distinguished in one form or the other. It resulted in the recog- 
nition of three species, Q. coccifera with the Kermes oak, and Q. 
caUiprinos with the Sindian as leading types, and Q. Fenzlii 
based on the oak figured by Kotschy under that name. Eight 
varieties were recognised under Q, coccifera, and ten under Q. 
calliprinos. Desfontaine's Q. pseudococcifera was transferred as 
a vnr. pseudococcifera to Q. coccifera, and Webb's specimen of Q. 
caUiprivos from Tetuan, to another variety (queried) of Q. cocci.- 
fera namely, tomentosa. Q. calliprinos was thus confined to the 
eastern part of iYie Mediterranean region ('' In oHentaliregione 
Maris Mediterranei '^), and all the Palestine and Syrian cocci. 
ferae," with the exception of <?. Fenzlii, oaks came now under 
this heading. Kotschv's Q. paJacstiva. as described and figured 
bv him on tab. xix. of his monograph, is quoted as a synonym of 
var. arcuata, a name originally used by Kotschy himself on one 
of his distribution labels. The Lebanon form of Labillardieie, a. 



262 



already stated^ constitutes the nucleus of the species^ whilst other 
iorms are described as distinct varieties, namely (7; iiiojjs (Leba- 
non, ^o^^cAt/), {8) consohrina (Beirut and Lebanon, /vof^c/ii/), {t) 
brachyhalanos (Beirut, Carmel, etc., Kotschyl Hove, Gaillardot), 
and {t) pachybalanos (Carmel, Tabor, Gaillardot). To judge by the 
authentic specimens of those varieties which I have seen, 1 can 
see in them nothing but unstable fluctuations or races not worthy 
of being distinguished at present. For practical and especially 
economical purposes, at any rate, they may be safely considered 
as a specific unit, which, under the existing rules of nomenclature, 
would have to be given the name Q. calliprinos, De Candolle's 
account of Q. caUiprinos implies a considerable extension of the 
species beyond Syria and Palestine, through the Taurus and 
Western Asia Minor to Constantinople, and to Cyprus, Crete, and 
the island of Zanthe; but from the material I have been able to 
examine I am inclined to restrict the area in its western and north- 
western extension to Cyprus and the Cilician Taurus. 



Q 



certain discrep- 



ancy between the original description and figure (Kotschy, Eich 



Mittel 

that name. Kotsclij states tliat tlie oak in question was collected 
"in regione montana Xyf tlic " above Tarsus in Cilicia, between 
3500 and 4000 ft., and distributed under the Nos. 397 and 398, 
and that it was distinguished hj its small delicate (zart) leaves* 
and closely cbmpressecl phyllaries or cupular scales. The specimen 
numbered "Kotschy, It. Cil. 398" and localized "in regione 
montana Zyftlik '' at Kew is, in my opinion distinctly Q. caUi- 
prinos, with an immature acorn whose cupule has "^phyllaries 
typical of the species and just beginning to spread out. They are 
neitlier as short nor as appressed as shown in the plate. No. 397 
of the same set, at Kew, was distributed as Q. caUiprinos, Webb, 
it 18 stated to have been collected " in regione montana prope 
Lrullek Boghas ' " in the Cilician Taurus at 4000 ft. Both are 

i'^'^lJ^r.PV.-^^^^' ""'^^ *^^ altitude given for both is 4000 ft. 
iNp 63 i IS laid out very amply and is undoubtedly Q. callinrinos 
with acorns in a more advanced state. Neither specimen corres- 



Q 



Kotschy, in his book "Reise in den Ciliclschen Taurus, 



19 



Q 



zone 



bi. zu 2000, and on p. 369 he says that it descends in the hill 

--the upper limits of which he places at 2000 ft.-to 1000 ft., 

+U"- TT-/ 7Tf ''' F- ^'^^ °''^^^^ ^^'°^^ 2000 ft. upwards. In 

onOO fi ^'""''* are entered under the same number in the 1000- 

3000 ft' T' ''"- .t '"'''^^'^ ^^^ "^ ^'^^ 1000^2000 and 2000- 

Sder's of H. T ,^.^^^ P^r^"™'"- ^^'^<^^^'^ " Zjftlik " on the 
mF'Zhi n 't2t't'^'^ Vt on August 24 ami 25, and no 



Q 



Q 



on that occasion and distributed 



* In the description the leaves are described as "subcoriacea riHda." 



2G3 



as No, 40 '^ Quercus callijjrinos^ Webb, var/' To unravel the eon- 
fusion it will be necessary to see the original field labels. At any 
rate, so much is certain that the Sindian occurs in the Ciliciau 
Taurus and that Q. Fenzlii is either in part or in toto identical 



with it, I may here add that Kotschy collected in the same region 
another oak of the ^' cocci fer'a " group which he identified with 
Q. rigida of Willd. (Spec. PL iv. 404 J, and figured on t. 8 of his 

folio work. It has all the appearance of Q. caUiprinos except for 
the usually intensely glaucous underside of the leaves. Will- 
denow's plant was collected by C. Schwarz in '' Caramania," 
which means no doubt in this case the western continuation of tlie 
Cilician Taurus and its foothills- A. de Candolle (I.e. 56) 
reduced it to a variety (K) of Q, caUiprinos^ and it may indeed 
represent only an excessive xerophytic condition of the latter. 
According to Xotschy it is not uncommon near Giilek Boghaz. 

Boissier (Flor. Or. iv. 1879; p. 1169), treats our oak under the 
varieties caUiprinos (including Q. Feiizlii)^ psendococcifera and 
palaestina of Q. coccifera^ distinguishing them mainly by flie 
pliyllaries whether they are erect and more or less appressed or 
more or less spreading or squarrosely recurved or finally "eximi^ 
retrofractae.'' Post (Flor. Syria and Palestine, 189G; ]^. 739), 
follows Boissier, including, however, the var. palaestina under 
var. pseudococcifera. 

It seemed worth while to make an attempt to get at an approxi- 
mate estimate of the age of the famous Sindian of Hebron. For 
that pui^ose the following data were available, J. 1). Hooker on 
the authority of Porter who measured it about 1850, gives the 
girth of the trunk of the tree as 23 ft. A somewhat excentric 
section of a trunk or more likely a' branch of a Sindian oak from 
Hebron in the Museum at Xew (Yester coll. no. 34), has 37 annual 
rings. The first 10 rings show over the longest radius an annual 
average increment of 3 mm., the following 5 of 1*9 mm., and the 
remaining 22 which are fairly evenly distant of 1*5 mm. Assum- 
ing that the trunk of the tree grew after the first 30 years at an 
average rate of 1-5 mm., the age of the tree may be estimated 
roughly at 700 years. This would make the date of the starting 
of the tree the year 1150 or thereabouts, that is the time of the 
Second Crusade. It is therefore not surprising that we hear 
nothing of it for a very long time after. Even Belon, a verv' keen 
observer and naturalist, who visited Hebron in 1548 does not 
mention it, although the diameter of the trunk of the tree must 
have then measured about 4 ft. with a girth of about 13 ft. At 
that time it would have been, as oaks go, a fair-sized, but by 
no means very striking tree, particularly if, as we may assume, 
large trees were then less rare in Palestine than they are now. 
This, however, is certainly not the full explanation of Belon's 
omission to mention the tr^e. It is rather to be sought in the 
fact that in those days the legend of the Abraham tree attached 
to a Terebinth {Pis facia Terebinth us). This is what Belon (Obsery. 
Plus. Singul. p. 145 verso), says — '' Le lieu on Abraham estoit 
lorsqu'il en veit trois et en adore\m. Tres vidit et unum adorai^t, 
nous fut mon.>tre hors le village d'Ebron, dessus le fosse d un 



264 



champ oil fut cree Adam et esf merqiie d'uii TerebiiitKe, qui a trois 
arbrea sortant d'un trouc." This field ^vas evidently not the same 
where the present Abraham's oak stands, but farther north where 
the Jewish tradition has for a long time located the house of 
Abraham in Mamre. {See Eitter, Erdkunde, XYI. iii. 225.) 
"When this terebinth disappeared is not known; it does not seem 
to have been seen by the numerous travellers wdio visited Hebron 
after Eelon. But it seems that following on its destruction the 
tradition of Abraham's house was transferred to the great Sindian 
oak to the west of the present Hebron. 

Some kind of tree cult seems to have been attached to the great 
trees of Hebron since the earliest times, perhaps as a reJic of 
real tree worship. It has been suggested (Rosenmtiller, Bibl. 
Natuig. 232), that tlie old Hebrew word for them. Allon or Aelon, 
signified originally any big tree, just as " oak " is frequently used 
in the same sense. If that is so, the oak and the terebinth must 
always have had the monopoly of the claim to that name although 

we may not be able to decide which of the two was Abraham's 
tree. 



XLII.-ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI AND ITS 

DISTRIBUTION. 



w 



M 



isiy, IS one of the Nomina Conservanda of the Vienna Eules 
being antedated by Razoumowskia, Hoffm. Hort. Mosq., 1808. 



name 



m.,tead of ArceutJiohium. About 18 species are known, all except 
tour being confined to Xoith America. The genus is allied to 
I' iscum but IS well distinguished by the anthers being distinct 
irom the petals and not adnate to them for the whole or groater 
part of their length. *= 

.l^f'^/f'''''''?."'^' ^'^'"''''''^ ''^ ^^'^ ^'^^^^^^ entitled " tJberblick iiber 
tn.Ti i^\.^^^^^.^ Arceuthobmm [Razoumowskm) mit 

^Xn^Z^^r^^^^^^^ ^i^^^S^^ -^^^ praktLchen 

niovp PQT^anioii -i-CiZ ' 7 -' ^^- ^^»^2M. This paper deals 

Z'tion^ co.!L7 1 -^f fJ^-^«^i<^^l^ pbysiological and practical 
question, connected with the genus and is chiefly concerned with 

^Tc^"^ve;'Tn"i;t ?^ tf ^-t- ^f ^e exfrain^ericln spect 

no meS one 1 A T "^ VI r ° '^ ?' -^^^"^^^^ ^^^^^ibed ones are 
Of thp f ^^ bibliography is appended. 

referred to herr" 1 """' H'^ ^" ^^"^^"^^ '^^'^ ^^^ ^^ ^^-fly 
IiWed to Ka bn;> "^''Z "\'^'^. ^nnutissimum, Hook, f., is 
It is one of f^ and Nepal where is occurs on Finns ea:cdsa. 
^UnZ inL )t TV'-* ^^'^^'^'^S^^^ k^own, being only 

Tito noiV '^ Ac/, ^-^^^^^^ .^^,^^ ^ s j 

IT^ flQl^^ f ^ m Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus., vol. vi. p. 

on tl pP.i; ?'p ''*'" «B, ^^^2/^"'"^ Beccarii - near the camp 
onthePadang, Gunong Tahan, Pahano-. ^ 



2G5 



The species with which we are now chiefly concerned is Arceu- 
thobiuvi Oxycedri, M.Bieb., I.e., a plant having a wide distribu- 
tion in the Mediterranean Eegion and well known as a parasite 
on various junipers. The following list of localities from which 
it has been recorded has been made as complete as possible. An 
exclamation mark indicates that the writer has seen a specimen 
from the place named. 
Spain. Old Castile, Cabreros ! Near El Escorial and near S. 

Lucar de liarrameda (Willk. et Lange, Prod. Fl. Hisp. 

vol, i. p, 24). 

France. Basses Alpes, Sisteron ! Several localities between 

Sisteron and Montpezat (liouy et Fouc, Fl. de Fr., vol. 
xii. p. 284). Hautes Alpes, Eibiers I Yar, several local- 
ities (Alb. et Jahan, Cat. PL Yar, p. 422). Bouches-du- 
Khone, Mimet, Marseille (Rony et Fouc, I.e.). 

Istria. Distr. Capodistria, between Brezzi and Puzzole ! Carcauzze ! 

Xear Corte d'Isola, on the eastern slopes of the Yanderinga 
Yalley and near Borutto (Po-spichal, Fl. des Oestorr. 
Kiistenl., vol. i. p. 421). 

Croatia. Zengg (Beck, lUyr. Lander, Engl, u, Drude, Yeg. der 

Erde, vol. i\. p. 73). 

Dalmatia. Near Fiume ! Between Buccariza and Porto-Ilee ! 

Epirus. Near Syraku, at the foot of Mt. Peristeri (Halacsy, 

Conspec. Fl. Graec. vol. i. p. 696). 

Albania. Distr, Hoti, Bukovik ! Distr. Janina, between Paleochori 

and Syrareon [ Mt. Tomor ! 
Greece. Mt. Oeta I Mt. Parnassus I Thessaly, near Chaliki, 

Krania, Klinovo, Sermeniko in Pindus (Halacsy I.e.). 
Macedonia. South Macedonia, without precise locality ! Xero- 

livadon (Yandas, Eeliq. Formanek,, p. 251). 

Serbia. Kopaonik, Stol, and Cacaker (Beck, I.e. p. 93), 
Bulgaria. Above Stanimaka (Yelenovsky, Fl. Bulg. Suppl. i. p. 



140). 

Azores. Mt. Pico! . ^,, , , 

Alcveria. Prov. Oran, Yaida ! Near Batna ! Gharrouban ! 

° Dhaya! Lella-Khadidja, Teniet, Aures, etc. (Batt. et 

Trab. Fl. del'AIg., p.786). _ ^ . t c- 

Asia Minor. Amasia, Ak Dagh ! Taurus, Cilician Gates! Sivas. 
Syria. Lebanon, Amonus and Akher Dagh (Post, Flora of Syria, 

Palestine and Sinai, p. 712). 
Armenia. Riltzagadsch ! Alliper Dagh I 
Kurdistan. Orooniah ! 
Caucasus. Tiflis ! 
Crimea. Sudak, Mt. Pertscli ! 
N.E. Persia. Near Radkan (Boiss. Fl, Or. vol. iv. p. 1068) 

Punjab-Himalaya. Lahul ! 

Tropical Africa. Aberdare Mountains! ^ 

The plant has also been said to occur in Portugal and Corsica, 
but no specimens bave been seen from these countries by the 
writer, nor liave trustworthy records been traced. The ^^rc.tif A^^^ 
hmm Oxycedri of Hooker, Fl. Bor, Amer., vol. i, p. 278, tab. 



266 



xcix., appears to be cliiefiy A, campyloijodum, Eiigelm., tlio\igh 
the plate also contains figures of the European A, Oxycedri, M. 
Bieb. A good figure witb dissections of tlie European A. Oxycedri 
is to be found in lleiclib., Ic, El. Germ., VoL sxiv. tab. 141. 

The Tropical African locality gi^'en above is of exceptional 
interest since the plant has not previously been known to occ\ir 
outside the Azores, the Mediterranean Region, and Western Asia, 
The specimen was collected by Mr. W, J, Dowson on the north- 
westeiTL slopes of the Aberdare Mountains in British East Africa, 
at G500 ft. altitude, growing parasitically on Jiiniperus procera, 
Hochst. This Juniper has been fully dealt with in the Elora of 
Tropical Africa, vol. vi. Sect, 2, p. 336. It is the only species 
of the genus occurring in Tropical Africa and is widely distri- 
buted in Eritrea, Abyssinia, Somaliland, Uganda, British East 
Africa and Nyasaland. The tree is a most valuable timber tree 
in East Africa, as indicated by Hutchins, Rep. Forests on Kenia 
in Col. Rep, Misc. No. 41 (1907), p. 15. Since Arceuthohium is 
a parasite comparable in its effects on the host to the mistletoe 
and other Loranthaceous parasites its presence in East Africa may 
be of some economic importance. 

In connection with the record of Arceuthohium on the Aberdare 



rence an 
the Kew 



Mountains, a paper on ^^ Forms juniperiiyus and its occur 
British East Africa/' by Miss E. M. Wakefield in i 
Bulletin, 1915, p. 102, may be mentioned. Fames juniperimis is 
there recorded for the first time on Jiiniperus procera in East 
Africa. Its previously known distribution was United States and 
Russia. The geographical distribution of fungi is known often 
to be erratic, but the partial coincidence in distributipn between 
the two juniper parasites Arceiithohiiim and Fames jiimpennus 



18 mterestiuf^. 



It is well known that Arceiitliahitim has explosive or sling 
fruits. A paper by Dr- T. MacDougal in Minnesota Botanical 
Studies,^ vol. ii. p. 169, 1899, deals in detail with the exi.losive 
mechanism of an American species. The American representa- 
tives of the geiuis like the Old World ones have very local ond 
discontinuous distribiition, and in this connection the methods 
of seed dispersal have to be carefully considered. In MacDougars 
paper, quoted above, it is pointed out tbat the only localities 
which offer suitable conditions for the germination of the seeds 
-are the tips of branches or the shoots of youug trees underneath, 
and no animals are to be found in the habitat of the parasite 
which would in ordinary usaj^e carry the seeds to these locations. 
Studies m Isorthern Aiizona showed that the distribution has a 
direct connection with the vertical movements of the air. Bising 
air expands and cools, and in consequence the dew point is 
lowered or the relative humidity increased. This gives a condi- 
tion most favourable for germination of the parasite, which is 

found in abundance along the margins of hills and the xims of 
canons. 

E. Heinrlclier, in Centralbl. f. Bakteriobiolofjie, vol. xlii. 
p. 705, 1915, states tliat the seeds of Arceutliohium will only 
germinate under the follo-^ing conditions : presence of a liTing 



2ti7 



or organic substratum, liglit, and a clieniical stimulus (probably 
tliat provided by cellulose) . Otker autbors bave urged tbe impor- 
tance of moisture or even liquid water for germination. 

Tbe explosion wbicb accompanies tbe destruction of tbe fruit 
will sboot tbe seed some 30 to 40 ft., but some otber cause must 
account for tbe wide and discontinuous distribution of Arceutho- 
hium Oxycedri. Tbere is no evidence tbat tbe fruits are eaten by 
birds, but tbe possibility of an exploding fruit bitting a bird 
must be considered. Tbe likelibood of tbis bappening is decidedly 
increased by tbe fact tbat tbe jerk of a bird aligbting on a slender 
brancb wordd cause all tbe mature fruits near to explode and to 
scatter tbeir seeds in all directions. Many species of birds are 
widely spread in tbe Mediterranean Begion, and tbe long migra- 
tions of some species would enable tbom to transport seeds stuck 
to tbem for great distances. Tbus, a colony of tbe Yellow Wagtail 
[MotacUla campestris), is found from Soutb-East Russia to 
Turkestan in summer, and winters in Soutb Africa. Tbe cbances 
seem in favour of sucb a bird now and again getting a sticky seed, 
such as one of Arceutliuhmvi, stuck to its featbers and getting rid 
of it eitber en route or at its destination. Tbat Arceuthohhuii 
is not more widely distributed by tbis means is j^robably due to its 
dependence on a narrow range of bost-plants and on certain con- 
ditions for germination, but it is difficult to see bow its spread 
to Tropical Africa can be otLerwise explained. "Warming," Botany 
of tbe Faeroes," pp. 676-G78, gives very strong evidence against 
birds acting as regular fruit and seed dispersal agents over long 
distances, but it is to be noted tbat tbe observations quoted were 
all made in tbe colder NoTtb Sea area, and in any case do not 
eliminate tbe possibility of occasional transport by birds from one 
countrv to anotber. As regards tbe discontinuous distribution of 
tbe genus Arceuthohium in tbe Xortb Temperate Zone a classifi- 
cation of it witb the " Tertiary Relicts " wbicb are sp conspicuous 
a feature in any analysis of European vegetation is suggestive. 
However, from what lias been said above, it seems more reasonable 
to think of ArceuthoUum Oxycedri witb its distinctive inetbod of 
seed-dispersal apart from the majority of such Tertiary relicts as 
Forsythia, Ramondia, etc., and to conclude tbat it owes its 
present discontinuous distribution, in part, at least, to causes 
still working rather than to changing climatic and topographic 
conditions having broken up a once continuous distribiitional 
area It is of course, extremelv probable that the wide gap 
between the Tropical African and Mediterranean or Asiatic 
stations will be more or less bridged by tbe discovery of Arceutho- 
hium. in intermediate localities, perhaps on the jumpers o± 
Eritrea, Somaliland, Abyssinia or South Persia. 

Tbat Arrruthohiu m Oxycedri is not alone among Mediterranean 
plants found on Tropical African mountains is evident from a 
studv of their flora. Thus, Engler, in a paper in the Annals of 
Botanv vol. xviii. p. 523 (1904), records the following species or 
.^enera'with closelv allied species which occur both m the 
Mediterranean Region and in Tropical Africa : Z«.u7a, Antho.an- 
thvmKoeleria cristate, Arahis, Suhnlaria, StenophragmaThaha- 



268 



'hum, Cerastium, Sanicula euiopaea, SamhucuSj Veronica, and 
Vopulus eupJiratica. To tliese miglit be added Erica arhorea. 

Gruppy, who was tlie first to record Arceuthobium O^-ycedri 
from the Azores ('* Phuits, Seeds and Currents in the West Indies 
and Azores/' pp. 426-427) conies to the following conclusion: 
"It is thus likely that birds actively disseminate the species, 
carrying the seeds firndy adhering to their plumage. In this 
respect Arceutliohium resembles Ijuziila , . . and it is note- 
worthy that the two genera have a similar distribution.'' 

The genus Arcenthohinm has not been definitely recorded in the 
fossil state, but L or antlw cites siiccineus, Conw,, Patzea Johmana, 
Conw., and P. Mengeana, Conw., described and figured by Goep- 
pert, Menge und Conwentz, Flora des Bernsteins, pp. 135-138, 
tal). xiii. ff. G-20, could well represent the ancestors or relatives 
of our genus, though, since the structure of tlie fruit is unknown, 
nothing can be said definitely on this subject. 

The following species of Junipervs have now been recorded as 
host-plants of Arceuthohiiivi Oxycedri : /. Oxycedriis, covivninis, 
rufe.^cens, clrui^acea, Sahina, hrevifoJium (Azores) and procera 
(Trop. Afr.). 



was 



XLIIL— THE ARBORETUM AND PINETUM 

AT BICTON. 

AY. J. Bean. 

Sixty to eighty years ago no garden in the south of England 

It owed its fame then 



cliiefly to tlie excellent cultiTation carried on there of orchids, 
stove and greenhouse plants, pine-apples and other indoor fruits, 
as well as to its flower gardening in the open air. At the present 
time the pilgrim to Bicton is attracted thither chiefly by its 
collection of conifers. 

But the garden proper is full of charm. Largely formal in 
character, it has that serene dignity which comes with age to 
all such gardens designed at the outset on broad, adequate lines. 
There are no irritating trivialities here, unless one tiikes excep- 
tion to a row of bay trees severely trimmed to low standards, each 
a naked stem surmounted by a l)un-shaped top of 1)ranches. The 
garden is situated on a slope, and the lower section is an arrange- 
ment of water at different levels, canalised and in rectangular 
pools, with smooth perfect lawns between, the whole diversified 



gard 



lead 



clothed with vegetation, outside which lofty trees make a perfect 
trame for the whole. 

The Bicton of early Yictorinn days was the home of Lord 
Kolle. an ardent patron of horticulture, to whom tree-lovers of 
our own time are indebted for the foundation of the magnificent 
1 inetmu ahoiit 1841 Unhappily he died, comparatively young, 
m 1842, probably before the planting was completed, but the 
work he initiated wos vigorously carrfed on by Ladr Bolle, his 



269 



widow, who lived until 1885. At lier deatli tlie property came 
to the late Hon. Mark Eolle, from whom it passed to Lord 
Clinton, the present owner. 

In old accounts of Bicton, the collection of conifers and hardy 
trees and shimbs was said to occupy between thirty and forty acres. 
As some new ground has in late years been planted with conifers 
by Lord Clinton, the area is no doubt greater to-day. The 
arrangement is unusual and interesting. The collection of broad- 
leaved trees and shrubs occupies a comparatively nanow grassy 
belt surrounding one section of the park. This" belt is enclose-^ 
on each side by an iron fence and is traversed by a gravel path, 
between which and the fence the trees and shrubs are planted on 
either side. The arrangement is one probably unique in a private 
garden in this countiy, and is pai^tieularly interesting to one 
with a Kew training, for it is purely botanical and the plants 
come in sequence in their genera and natural orders. ^Near the 
house a commencement is made with what, in 1840, were con- 
sidered the ''early'' orders, such as Magnoliaceae, Tern- 
stroemiaceae, etc.; passing on in succession through the 
Leguminosae, Rosaceae, etc., we come to the "later'' ones, 
including such trees as elms, birches, planes, oaks and poplars, 



'/ 



until 

\\ miles 

to a comparatively narrow belt, like the broad-leaved trees and 
slirubs, but occupy a widespread undulating and picturesque 
site, between the bills and bollows of wbicb are pleasant winding 
walks. Leaving the Pinetum one reaches the formal garden 
previously alluded to, and the precincts of the house again. 

The Arboretum, as distinct from the Pinelum, has not been 
maintained in late years, and many species originally planted 
there have no doubt disappeared. jS"or is the soil app4irently so 
good as that occupied by the conifers. So that whilst tliere are 
numbers of finely developed broad-leaved trees and shmbs well 
worth more study than I was able to give them in one visit, they 
have not the attraction that the magnificent firs, pines and spruces 
possess. In the Pinetum one walks amongst an assembly of trees 
60 to over 100 ft. high, probably unrivalled in England in their 
combination of siice and variety. 

Pines. — Of the genus Finns there is a particularly fine collec- 
tion, although a considerable number of the older trees show 
signs of failing. Many of the names imder which they are 
grown are no longer in vogue. 

In the south-western maritime counties, Finns radiata (P. 
innqnis) is very often remarkable for its fine development but 
there cannot be manv so fine as one at Bicton. It is probably 
the same as one measured by Mr. Elwes in 1902, which was then 
75 ft hiffh and about 15 ft. in girth ; I made its finely rugged 
trunk to be now 18 ft. in girth. Not far from this tree is one 
of F. contorfa (liere grown under its synonym F. Bolanrien) a. 
very healthy, shapely tree with a trunk 7 ft. 6 m in girth. 
There are but few examples of the true pitch pine of the Si.. 
United States {F. australis) in this country, and the one m tins 



2T0 

collection must be ainongst the largest; it is an old, rugged 
S|)€ciiuen witli the characteristic long leaves in conspicuous tufts 
at the ends of the branches, its trunk 4 ft. 4 in. in circumference. 
Of the sugar pine (P. Lamhertiana)^ whose \yonderful cones are 
sometimes 21 in. long, tliere is a fine tree 80 to 90 ft, high, its 
trunk girthing 9 ft. 4 in. ; this tree occasionally bears cones. 
The Jack pine {P, Banksiana)^ although introduced nearly 120 

years ago is not common in England in any great size ; here is 
one over 30 ft. high, bearing many of its curious small cones 

tapered and curved at the end and retaining them on branches 
several years old. Of a series of forms of the white pine (P. 
StrohusV one of the most noteworthy is a tree of the var, 7iivea 
of slender, pyramidal form, its grey smooth trunk girthing 5 ft. 
The western representative of the white pine in North America 
h P. monticola, of which there is here a fine tree 80 to 90 ft. 
high with a trunk G to 7 ft. round. A specimen of P. yonderosa^ 
although scarcely so impressive as the faiiious tree at Bayford- 
bury, in Hertfordshire, must be one of the finest in this country ; 
I estimated its height to be about 90 ft., and its trunk- measures 
9 ft. 5 in. in circumference. One of the least imposing of pines 
is the Jersey, or scrub, pine {P. virginiana or P. mops), from the 
Eastern United States, and it is rarely planted now; at Bicton a 
tree of spreading habit and horizonttil branching is 4 ft. 8 in. 
in girth of trunk. 

Of the^ Mexican pines the most notable in this collection, 
perhaps, is P. patuJa. It is only in the south-western counties of 
England and in places with a similar climate that this species 
can be seen in really good condition, but there its long, slender, 
pendulous grey needles make it one of the most distinct of all 
pnios; at Bicton there is a very good example over 50 ft. high 
dividing near the ground into^two great limbs, beneath which 
the trunk measures 11 ft. 9 in. in girth. From Mexico also comes 
/ . Aijacahuite, represented at Bicton by probably the finest tree 
m England; it is apparently over 70 ft. high, canopied with" 
rich green foliage, its trimk girthing 10 ft. 2 in. A tree grown 
a^ /_ Do/i. Pedn. is also P. Ayacahuite. A third Mexican pine is 
/ . Jeocote, hearing its long, stiff, spreading leaves in threes, a 
tree at Bicton is over 60 ft. high, its trunk 7 ft. in girth; this 
tree is extremely rare in cultivation. A commoner one, also 
Mexican 13 P. Ilarticegii, sometimes regarded as a sKort-leaved 
variety of P. Montezumae. Of two trees at Bicton one approaches 
80 ft. m height and is about 6 ft. round the trunk. This is pro- 
hahly the hardiest of the Montezumae group of pines, and there 
15 a good tree m Windsor Forest. Under the name of P. 
J^eroniaim there is a tree of the true P. Monteznmae. 25 ft. or so 

I 

Among European pines none 13 more interestinjj than a speci- 
men of the Maceclonian pine, F. Peule, which is Tmdoubtedlv 
one of jhe best m Britain; it is 50 ft., or perhop. more, high, its 
trunk o ft. 1 m in ^irth. Although rlosely allied of P. excelm 
this pme IS very distinct in its slender prra ' ' 



^ ^ rt ry T ' ' ' -*v.iiv*^t |/>xaumiai nauii aiiu closer 

frrowth P. Laricw is represented W a fine series of forms of that 



peoi 



^ of verv larfre size. Of 



271 



the iiiaritime pine [P. Pinaster)^ I noted two trees of j^articular 
interest, one named var. Hamiltonii was 8 ft. 9 in., the other, 
var. dictrilisj 9 ft. 11 in. in girth uf trunk. A pine called P. 
altissima belongs probably to P. Pinaster also, 

. Silver Firs. — No trees enjoy the soft, moist climate of the 
6<mth- western counties more than the silver firs, and on the whole 
they are better developed at Breton than the pines. For this 
country many of them are giants, and more than any other 
conifers they helj) to produce the deep shady mosses of vegetation 
whose luxuriance is so impressive at Bicton. Of the American 
species the two finest are Abies Loiciana and .1. grandis; a tree 
of the former has a trunk 10 ft. in girth, and I judged it to be 
between 80 and 90 ft, high; whilst of the latter, one is 10 ft. 6 in. 
in girth and perhaps 10 ft. higher than the A. Loiciana. One of 
the rarest of silver firs to be seen in fine condition in tlie British 

h 

Isles is A, aviahilis (it grows naturally to u])wards of 200 ft.); 
at Bieton it is only 25 ft. high, but very bealthv. A. hracteata, 
so remarkable for its long ueedle-2:)ointod leaves, its large brown 
buds and formidably armed bracts, is represented by two trees, 



but neither is very healthy, although the larger one is perhaps 
45 ft. high. 

Qf the Old World firs the finest at Bieton is a superb example 
of A. cephalonica, its trunk 16 ft. in girth; in the bulk of timber 
it contains this tree is probably unequalled amongst its kind in 
this country. The allied A. Pinsapo, most distinct of European 
firs and confined in a wild state to a comparatively small moun- 
tainous region in the south of Spain, is in good health, one tree 
being 14 ft. 6 in. in girth of trunk, its head of branches making 
a fine pyramid 55 ft. high. There are finer trees of A. Pinsapo 
in the country, but few that excel one of .4. Nordmanniana at 

Bieton ; it is in perfect health and probably 80 ft. high, its 
trunk 7 ft. 4 in. in circumference. 

The interesting A . iiumidica^ rare in cultivation and con- 
fined in a wild state to a small area on Mount Babor in Algeria, 
is represented here by a tree whose dimensions exceed those of 
any other tree I have seen recorded in this countiy; I estimated 
it at some 70 ft. in height and its trunk measured nearly 7 ft. 
round. Equally as rare as the Mt. Babor fir in cultivation is 
A. cilicica; here at Bieton is one over 50 ft. high and 4 ft. in 
girth. To us in the dry, hot Thames Valley, where the common 
silver fir (-4. pectinata), can scarcely be kept alive, much more 
grown to any size, no tree at Bieton is more impressive. I 
measured one*^ as carefully as I could, and made it about 125 ft. 

hiii'li. 

Of Japanese firs, A, hrarhyphjjUa is 4 ft. 10 in. in girth or 
trunk and some 60 ft. high, its health superb; even finer is a 
magnificent A. firma, 65 ft. Jiigh and girthing 5 ft. 9 in. 

The Himalayan A. Pindrow is about 40 ft. high. 



Spruces. Amongst the spruces (Picea), none is finer than two 

specimens of the Hinmlayan Picea Morinda — also known as P- 
!<nuthia)ia — so distinct among its kind for the long, weeping 
branchlets- the larger one in the Pinetum girth.s 8 ft, 1 in. and 



272 

ii> perhaps 80 ft. liigli, the other groAvs in the garden proper and 
is not so iarge^ but is clothed with leafy branches to tlie base and 
forms a perfect pyramid. Perfect, too, in shape and in health 
is a splendid tree of F. orientalis^ 6 ft. 1 in. in girth and pro- 
bably 80 ft, high; this beautiful spruce is very hardy and one 
of the most thriving in the London district, and the shortness of 
iti leaves (they are only | to ^ in. long), gives its branchlets a 
very characteristic and graceful appearance. Although intro- 
duced nearly sixty years ago, there do not seem to be any large 
trees of P. polita in this country, notwithstanding the fact that it 
is hardy, succeeds well in a small state and, in Japan, o^ets to be 






to 8U ft. Ligli ; at Biotou there is a healthy tree 35 ft. high and 

3 ft. iu girth of stem. 

Of the flat-leaved spruces the largest, of course, is P. sitchemis, 
one tree being 13 ft. 6 in. in girth of trunk and, therefore, one 
of the bulkiest in this country, but like so many other Sitka spruces 
m cultivation, the large quantities of grey, lifeless twigs towards 
the base of Jhe tree spoil its appearance as a garden feature. The 
Japanese flat-leaved spruce known qs P. ajanensis and P. hon- 
doensis (both now regarded by Mr. E. H. Wilson as synonymous 
with P. jezoensis), is represented by a healthy tree 50 ft. or so 
high. There are smaller trees of the Serbian P. Omorica and the 
Californlan P. Breiceriana. 

Araucaria imbricata.— An avenue at Bicton, some 500 yards in 
length, is tlie most famous and impressive representation of this 
Chilean tree in the British Isles. It is formed by fiftv trees, 
twenty-five on each side, and they stand 54 ft. apai-t in the rows. 
According to Veitch's " Manual of Coniferae " (Ed. i. p. 195 , the 
avenue was planted in 1843-4 under the direction of Mr. James 
Veitch. The trees now average about 60 to 70 ft. in height and 
7 to 8 ft. m the circumference of their boles. Most of them have 
lost their lower branches, but this does not detract from the 
general effect, and reveals the curious wrinkled, swollen base of 
tlie trunks. 

Amongst junipers the most notable one I saw at Bicton was 
J^m^perus recurva, a Himalayan species; this was about 40 ft. 
high branching into several stems near the ground; being in fine 
health It shows the striking pendulous character of the branchlets 
rerj' well; a smaller one is about 35 ft. high, and both bear fruit 
ireolv. Of about the same size is a tree of 7. flaccida, but not so 
healthy There are good plants of the dwarf ./. squamata and J. 

JTT ^'t! ?? '" ?^^^* ''^ ^^^^ ^^^'J '"^''^ J- WalUchlana, only 

4 ft. high, but bearing fruit. 

There is a very good collection of cypresses, and it has recentlv 

been increased considerably by Lord Clinton, who hns added manV 

varieties oi Cupressus Lmrsoniana, amongst which is the finest 

specimen I have seen of the curious variety Wisselii-^ slender 

apermg tree about 30 ft. high. Of the more tender cypresses 

here are C. tor^dosa, a tall columnar tree with a trunk 4 ft. 7 in. 

TJX}!: '"1 ^Q-T' °/.^; ^"^^'^^^^'^^^ one over 50 ft. high; C. 
^n^^nr^"' '''''' ^''' ^^^ ^P-"--^ -i C. tlujoides and C. 



273 



On the lower part of tlie garden are two of the finest trees of 
Ijihocedius decurrens in the eouutrj, making a pair of stately 
columns; one of them is over 8 ft. in girth of trunk and about 
65 ft. high; Elwes mentions another one near the house which is 
even finer. In the Pinetuni is a magnificent Thuya plicata {T, 
gigafiteajy its trunk clothed with rich brown bark and 13 ft. in 
girth; I estimated its height as between 90 and 100 ft. Even 
taller are some splendid Douglas, firs in grouj)s, one that I 
measured girthing il ft. A redwood [Sequoia sempervirens), has 
a similar girth. It is very unusual to find any but quite young 
-trees of Cuntiingliamia sinensis looking really healthy, and a tree 
^t Bicton, although 60 ft. high and 5 ft. round its bole (and, 
therefore, one of the biggest in England), is no exception. 

To the lover of rare and interesting plants there* is no tree at 
JBicton which will make a greater appeal than PhyUocla^vs 
■aspleni folia. Thi.s curious conifer belongs to a genus allied to the 
jQ'^Sy but distinguished by curious leaf-like organs of rhomboidal 
shape termed '' phyllodes." Sir Joseph Hooker remarks of the 
-species of Pliyllocladus that they are remarkable for having 
*' leaves of two forms, some minute and scale-like, others linear, 
^een only in young plants, but which in older are united into flat 
fan-shaped organs resembling simple leaves, which bear the in- 
jQorescence at their edges/' (New Zealand Flora, p. 259.) The 
tree at Bicton is 32 ft. high, of slender pyramidal form, and in 
luxuriant foliage and perfect health. I do not know of any other 
tree in our islands equal to thi.-^ ; it would, itself alone, give 
distinction to any garden. 

Of Fitzroya patagonica, from Chile, a not uncommon tree in 
the south-western counties, a very healthy and symmetrical speci- 
men is 20 ft. high and 10 ft. wide at the base. Another Chilean 
conifer, PTumnopitys elega/is, is represented by a tree which must 
he one of the finest in this country; I estimated it at 36 ft. in 
height, and the spread of its lower branches is 20 ft.; it was 
-bearing its small male flowers in great numbers. 

The Himalayan hemlock [Ts^iga B nnioniana) , is rarely seen in 
-good condition in any but the warmer counties or specially 
favoured spots; a perfectly healthy tree here is 15 ft. high; and 
another is in the form of a i-ounded bush 25 ft. through. 

A conifer of which Bicton has reason to be proud is the larger 
.of two Deodars growing on the garden lawn; it is about 80 ft. 
high and its trunk \^ ft. in circumference. In regord to the 
-cubic contents of its timber, this is probably the finest tree ui the 
British Isles. In habit it stronglv resemi^ies the Cedar of 
Lebanon, of which also there is a notable tree with a huge trunk 
22 ft. 6 in. in girth. 

The Arboretum. — The Pinetum at Bicton is so extensive and 
full of interest, and took up so much of my time, that an inspec- 
tion of the non-coniferous trees and shrubs was necessarily rather 
hurried. A full day might profitably be spent with them. 

A -t i._i -J! :-.4^..,»/^ 4- Ti.^- in vii(^ATif t-am^c TiAPTi takpn in the 



So 



o 



i^9 



n 



B 



^ 

y 



1 
■^ 
V 



274 



several fine examples in tlie south-west, but I have seen none to 
equal the one here. Its head of branches is over 50 ft. high and 
about 40 ft. in diameter^ and its trunk, which branches low down,, 
measures 9 ft. in girth 18 in. from the ground, 

Xear the greenhouses is a Black Italian pojjlar [Populus sero- 
tina)y whose immense trunk is 18 ft. 2 in, in circumference; it is 
one of the largest in the kingdom. There are also some fine grey 
poplars [l\ canescens), in the Arboretum. 

At the lower part of the garden there is a remarkable lime tree 
with very slender, pendulous branches, some of which are 20 ft. 
in length, yet no thicker at any part than a man's finger. This 
character is most developed on the lower part of the tree, which is- 
a lofty one with a trunk 14 ft. in girth. 

In the colfection of oaks founded 70 to 80 vears au'o there are 
now many notable specimens. Among evergreen species the rare 
Qvercus acuta from Japan is a bush 12 ft. high and 18 ft. in 
diameter; it was introduced by Maries in 1878. Its ally, Q. 
glabra, also rare and Japanese, is 20 ft. higli, 20 ft. through^, with 
the main stem 2 ft. 2 in. in girth; both this and the Q. acuta are 
probably as large as any in the country. Of several forms of 
Holm oak {Q. Ilex), the most striking is the big-leaved variety 
latifoha, with leaves b\ in. long and 2\ in wide; the tree itself 
has a trunk 10 ft. 10 in. in girth. Another variety here called 

Q. crassifolia," but probably Q. Ilex var. Genahii, has rounded 
leaves not so long as those of var. latifolia, but 3 in. wide. A fine 
Lucombe oak is 15 ft. in girth of trunk. Of the common oak 
there are manv fine trees at Bicton; the noblest of them, wliick 
unfortuiuitely collapsed some montlis ago, had a trunk 25 ft. 2 in. 
lu giitli at 3 ft. from the ground. There is also a fine speci- 
men of tlie pendulous Q. pediuiculata. 

A snowdrop tree {Jlalesia Carolina), of notable size has a trunk 

girthing 5 ft. Some interest has recently been taken in the living 
speeimeii 

" Gardenei 



( ( 



ee 
ee 



s of the tea plant {CameUia Thea), in this country {s 
lers' Chronicle," Aug. 18, 1917) ; there are at least thr 
at Bieton which have long been grown in the open air, the largest 
a bush 8 ft. high and 12 ft. through. A camphor tree [Cinna- 
momiim Camphora), is 35 ft. hio-h. 



CoUetia cruciata is a remarkable shrub from Uruguay which 
assumes two distinct forms; one is armed— in fact, almost consists 
ot— flat triangular spines \\ in. wide at the base; the other form 
has ratber bodkm-shaped, comparatively slender spines 1 to li in. 
long. The large-spmed form was first" nnsed at Bicton, and by 
liindiey was named (\ hirtoniemu. A bush there is now 25 ft. in 
diameter. 

It would be possible to go on naming many other interesting 
trees and shrubs, such, for instance, as: Acaeia dealhota, 30 ft. 
^f,,-]^ P*^^^^^* health; Vaccinlum ovatvm, 10 ft. high and, 
lb tt. in diameter, much the largest I have seen ; the Himnlnvan 
huonymus pendulus, 8 ft. high and in flower; lUicivm anisatum, 
with frno-rant leaves and wood and pale vellow flowers; the small 

AG/TOza latiJoliu,\Tiovin as var. myrtifolin, 8 ft. 

a iripetala, 



f 



I 



275 



an old but no longer comnion species, 28 ft. high and 5 ft. in 
girth of ti imJc ; and a fine healthy tree of the newer Japane-^e J/. 
hypoleuca over 30 ft. high. 

There is a fjood collection of hardv bamboos on the lower, 
damper iravi of the garden, and it was interesting to see PJttjllo- 
stacliys aurea flowerings although not gratifying, since it portends 
the flowering and consequent death of the species throughout the 
country. 



XLIV.— BOCCONIA AND MACLEAYA. 

J. HUTCIIINSOX. 



l^) 6oHH^l;j 



The genus Bocconia [raijacentceae) was founded by Linnaeus 
in 1737, the type species being IL frutescen^si from the West 
Indies and Central America. Since then several species have 
been described, of which seven stand as l)eing authentic in the 
Index Xewensis. These are natives of Central and South 
Anierico, with the exception of two species, B. cordata^ Willd., 
and B, microcarpa^ Maxim., from yorth-Eastern Asia. AVhilst 
tlie close affinity of the floras of North Americni and Xorth- 
Eastern Asia has been well established, there is little, if any, con- 
nection between those of Xorth-East Asia and South America, 
(Hid the association of Papaveraceous plants of peculiar type from 
these two regions in the same genus, were it tenable, would be of 
considerable phytogeograpliical interest. That two very distinct 
genera are involved, however, is shown below. 

In the Appendix (p. 218) to the Narrative of Uenliam and 
Clapperton (1826), Eobert Brown makes the following observa- 
tion : '* Eespecting Bocconia cordata, though it is so closely allied 
to Bocconia as to afford an excellent argument in favour of the 
hypothesis in question, it is still sufficiently different, especially 
in its polyspermous ovarium, to constitute a distinct genu^;, to 
which I have given the name [Macleaya cordatn) of ray much 
valued friend, Alexander Macleay, Esq., Secretary of the Colony 
of IS'ew South Wales, whose merits as a general naturalist, a pro- 
found entomologist, and a practical botanist are well known. 
In spite of this trenchant remark, however, Bentham and Hooker 
considered Macleaya to be congeneric with Bnrconia, although 
Endlicheri had in 1839 su])ported the views of Eobert Brown, a.^ 
did also subsequently Prantl^ and, lastly, Fedde, [| 

I give below the diiferences observable between these two genera, 
'and a revision of the species r>f Bocconia so far as we know them 
at present. 



* Linnaeus, Gen. ed. i. 132 (1837). 

t Linnaeus, Sp. PI. 505 (1753). 

+ Endlicher, Genera Plantarum, ii. 855 (1839). 

§ Prantl in Engl, et Prantl. Natiirlich. Pflanzenf. iii. 2, 140 (1889). 

11 Fedde, Monogr. Papaveraceae, 216 (190P). 



\^ 2 



276 



Bocconia, Linn. 



Stems perennial. Leaves pinnate- 
ly nerved or lobed; ovary lon^- 
stipitate, with a single basifixed 
ovule; valves of the fruit fleshy, 
opening from below upwards; seed 
lare:e and nearly filling the loculns, 
surrounded at the base by a lar^e 
cupular wrinkled aril — See text 
fi":ures A-E. 




Uacleaya, R, Br. 

Stems annual. Leaves palmately y 
nerved and lobed ; ovary subsessile, 
with one basal or few parietal ovules ; 
valves of the fruit membranous, open- 
ing from the top downwards ; seeds 
small, with a lateral crested aril — 
See text figures F-I. 




r ^"^T-^°-/«'«« arlorea, Wats. :-A, upper leaf; B, pistil; 
C, opemng fnut ; D. .eed; E, persistent' placentas of fruit 

Maxim. ; leaves A rat. size, remainder eular^ed. 



Folia petiolata : 



Claris specienim Bocconiae. 



Folia plerumque plus miuusve pluuati- 



lobata : 



Folia 



angustis 

inferiora 
tita : 



(praesertim superiora) 

lubis 



acute cuneata 



basi 
lateralibus 



acute- acuininati^ 



profunde 



folia 



pinuatipar- 



Stamina circiter 12; sepala 1 cm. 
longa ; stigmata crassa, 4-5 
mm. longa, den^e tomentosa ... 

Stamina circiter 20; sepala 
cireiterO-8cm.Ionga;stismata 



angusta, puberiila 



1, B. arhorea 



• V 



2, B. Pearcei 



277 



m 

Folia basi pleiumqiie rotundato, lobis 
latei^alibus satis latis apice rotim- 

acutis 



datis vel breviter 



( 




acuminati.s) ; folia iuferioia baud 
ultra medium lobata: — 



Foliomm iiif erioriim lobi laterales 



pleiumque 
dentati : — 



5-10, 



serrato- 



Bracteae glabrae vel glabre- 



sceutes : stamina IG 



« • 



Bracteae dense tomentosae ; 
stamina 10 



« « • 



Polioriim inferiorum lobi late- 
rales 2-5, obscure et remote 



3. B. frutesccns. 

4. B. puhihractea 



denticulati 



Folia 



hand 



lobata 



serrata 



vel 



5. B. lafisepala. 



crenata : 



Folia infra pnbernla ; nervi laterales 



nnmerosissimi : 
Folia obtuse 



serrato-crenata ; 



species austro-americana 
Folia profunde repando-dentata; 
species centrali-amerieana 
Folia infra f^lauca, orlabra .,, 



6. B. infegrifolia. 

7- B. gracilis, 
8. /?. glojfci folia. 
Folia sessilia, orebre et obtuse serrulata ; 

bracteae glabrae; species guatemalensis 9- B. vulcanica. 

^. Bocconia arborea, Wats, in Proe. Amer. Acad, xxv. 141 
(1890); Fedde Monogr. Papaveraceae, 219 (1909). 

ArhoT usque ad 8 m. alia; rami annotini fere glabri, circiter 
8 mm. crassi, bornotini foliati, lanato-tomentosi. Folia inferiora 
petiolata, profunde pinnatipartita, usque ad 45 cm. longa et 30 
cm. lata, supra glabra, crebre reticulata, infra albescentia, 
papilloso-puberula, lobis lateralibus lineari-lanceolatis usqueadl5 
cm. longis et 2*5 cm, latis serratis; folia superiora circiter 15 cm. 
longa, basi acute cuneata, supra primum lanato-pubescentla, 
infra praesertim in costa lanata et albido-papillosa, lobis latera- 
libus ascendentibus acute acuminatis obscure denticulatis vel fere 



integris ; petioli lanato-tomentosi. Paniciila circiter 20 cm. 
longa et 12 cm. lata; bracteae oblongo-lineares, subobtuse 
acuminatae, apice puberulae, usque ad 1 cm. longae; pedicelli 
fere 1 em. longi, 
1-1-2 cm. longo, ^ ^^ *^.... ..,v«, ^ 

hvalinis. Stamina circiter 12; filamenta filiformia, 2 mm. longa; 



glabri. 



Sepala oblongo-elliptica, acuminata. 



3-3-5 mm. lata, glabra, marginibus sub- 



antherae 7 mm. longae, acutae. Ocarivm 5 mm. sti])itatum, 
^ mm. longum; stylus 4 mm. lono-ns. ramis divere-entibus 4-5. 



mm, longis ad basin stigniatoso-puberulis. Fructus 7 mm. stipi- 
tatus, nutans, ellipsoideus, carnosus, 1 cm. longus, stylo per- 
si^teute elongato coronatus. Semina (immatura tantum visa) basi 
arillo crustaceo rugoso. 



Ce>'Teal America. 



Mexico : Jalisco State ; rich canvons of the 

1889, r. G. 



mountains near Lake Chapala, young fr. Dpc 

Pringle 2445'(type). Moielos State : lava fields above Cuernavaca, 



278 




2200 in., fi. Sept. 1900, C. G. rringle 9145; fr. Nov., 
C. G. PriiKjJe 9682. Guatemala: Cunen, Quiclie Depart., 2000 
m., fls. Apr. 1892, Ileyde Sf Lux in Donnell Smith Herb. 
Costa Eica: Sau Jose, 1100 in., /. D. Smith 4739; Eio Tirriti, 
1100 m., young fr. Mar. 1896, /. D. Smith 6430; Mar. 1894, 
J. D. Smith 4739. 

•^2. Bocconia Pearcei, Ilutclunson, sp. iiov. 

<^. fnite-scens, forma ylaucescens, Fedde, Mouot^r. Paj 
averaeeae, 218, ])artim. 

Arbor tenuis, ramo.sa, usque ad 6 em. alta, omnibus partiLu^ 
gluucis succo cinnabarino seatens [Svnice] ; raniuli ultimi glabri, 
circiter 8 mm. crassi. Folia iuferiora usque ad 45 cm. longa et 
24 cm. lata, jirofimde pinnatilobata, lobis oblongis subacutis 
serrato-dentatis, supra glal)ra, infra albida, crispato-puberula ; 
costa infra sulcata, circiter 6 mm. lata; folia superiora basi longe 
cuneata, paucilobata, breviter petiolata, circiter 25 cm, longa et 
14 cm. lata. Panicula magna, usque ad 40 cm. longa, ramo- 
sissima;^ braeteae oldongo-lanceolatae, subacute acuminatae, 
pedicellis circiter dimidio breviores, marginibus puberulis ; pedi- 
celli graciles, 0-8-1 cm. longi, glabri. Sei)ala elliptica, brevis- 
sime abrui)te acuminata, 1-1-2 cm. longa, glabra. Stamina cir- 
citer 20; filanienta filifonnia, 2 mm. longa; antlierae 7 mm. 
longae. Ovarium^ 5 mm. stipitatum, 2-5 mm. Ion gum; stylus 
4 mm. longus, stigmatibus acutis circiter 3 mm. longis breviter 
puberulis. Fructus glaiicus, ellipsoideus, circiter 1 cm. longus, 
longe stipitatus, stylo persistente 5 mm. longo coronatus. Seminn 
nigra, 6-5 mm. longa, arillo coccineo. 

South America. Bolivia: Yungas, fr., M. Bang 441. Cor- 
vico, May 1866, Pt-arc^tvpe). Peru : near tbe Eiver Alau, at the 
43m t'ampana, in moist woods, fr., '^ox. 1855, /?. Sprnce 

This species will l)e found in herbaria under B. frutescens, 

winch it resembles very closely. Their differences ore shown in 
.the kov. 

^. Bocconia frutescens, Linn. Sp. PI. 505 (1753); Lam. 

l^'J^:'-f^' 111- *• 394; Descouit. Fl. Ant. i. t. 54; Macf. Jam. 
22; Gnseb^ II. Br. W. Ind. 13; Urb. Svmb. Ant. iv. 250; Fedde, 
Monogr. Papa vera ceae, 216, partim. ' 
--B gUi,ra Sali.b. I'rodr. 397 (179«i). li. qnerd folia, MoeDch. 

« n«;o^''i^«- ^T ^^^^^)- ^- '^^^'"^ifoha, Stokes, Bet. Med. iii- 
» (181._). /A ..w/,foy/,e«;o..«, L'Heiit. ex Stabl, Estud. Fl. Puer- 

f o' n?no\- "xV?/^^P^- ^''''">^'" '-^^'nosa, etc., Plum. Gen. 35, 
TTM • lOP io^ ""L"' >'"']"■''■ '"boreum, etc., Slonn, Jam. 82; 



Frute.t; ramuli ultimi lauato-pubescentes. Folia iuferiora 
petiolata fere ad medium pinnatihd,ata, basi trinuatu vel 
rotundata. 15-3o cm. longa, 10-20 cm. lata, tenuiter meiu- 
branaceo-chartacea supra glabrescens, infra i.rimum subdense 



oeHo^f 1 -" 'i^^^'- ' ^"^'^ ^^M^eriora minus lobata vel subintegra ; 
petioh .3-. rm. longi. tomento^i. Panimla usoue ad 40 cm. lono-a. 



279 



laxe ramosa ; hracteae oblon^o-lanceolatae, acute acumiuatue, 
pedicellis multo brevioies, marg-iiiibiis puberulis ; pedicelli circiter 
i cm. longi, graciles, glabii. Sepala oblongo-elliptica, abrupte 
obtuse acumiuata, circiter 1 cm. louga. IStaimna circiter 16; 
filameuta filiformia, 3-5 mm. longa ; antherae 6 mm. longae. 
Ovarium 4-5 mm. t,tipitatum, 3 mm. longum; stylus 1 mm. 
longus, stigmatil)u.s 2-5 mm. longis recurAati.s breviter tomentosis. 
Fructus anguste ellipsoideus, utrinque acutus, 7-8 mm. longus, 
carnosus, longe stipitatus, stylo persisteiite corouatxis. Semina 
6 mm. longa, leviter muricata, basi arillo crustaceo ciiicta. 

West Ixdies. Cuba: WriyJa 6; rocky slope, San Antonio de 
los Bauos, Havana Province, Mar. 1905, A. H. Cvrtiss 687. 
Jamaica: banks of rivers everywbere, Piirdie; Moneague, Dec. 
1849, Alexander Prior; Si. Marys, 18:^9, ^fdVah; ^vitbout locality, 
McFadyen; J. Bryce\ Distin; Marsh 876. Santo Domingo, 
Schomhargk; Eygers 1742. Porto Rico: Sintenis 181. Mar- 
tinique: Sieber 129. Dominica: E y ge rs 41S2. 

Cexteal Ameeica. Mexico: Tamasopo Canvon, San J.uis 
Potosi State, shrub 5-15 ft., Xov. 1890, E. G. Pringle 3374. Vera 

Cruz, Mar. 1839, Linden 28. Vera Cruz to Orlzalia,' F. Mueller. 

Xalapa, Mar. 1840, Galeotti 7007. Vallee de Cordova, Jan. 186G, 
Bouryeau 1750; without definite locality, Joryensen 492. Guate- 
mala : Misco, 2000 m., Apr. 1890, T)o)meU Smith 2177: Acate- 
j;eque, 1400 m., Mar. 1892, Dounell Smith 2505. 

w 

^. Bocconia pubibractea, Hutchinson, sp. now 
Frvte.r sejnperyirens 5-0-5 m. alius [Pearce); lanniVi ultinii 
primnm lauato-pubesceiite.s luox glabri. Folia iaferioia petio- 
lata, piiinatilobata, circiter 40 cm, longa et 18 em, lata, mem- 
brauaceo-papyracea, supra mox glabra, infra piaesertim in nervis 
et venis lanato-pu]>esceutia, lobis usque ad 4 cm. long-is 
iriangulari-oblongis ^]}\ce rotundnti.s uiarginibus crenatis; folia 
superiora non visa; petioli 6-7 cm, longi, circiter 5 mm. lati, 
lanato-pubescentes. Fanicnla gracilis, laxiflora, circiter 40 cm. 
longa, ubique lanata ; bracteae demum subglabrescentes, oblongo- 
lanceolatae, acute acuminatae, pedicellis njulto brevioies; pedi- 
celli giaciles, 1—1-5 cm. longi. Sepala obovato-elliptiea,- abrupte 
acute acuminata, 1 cm. longa, glabia. Stamina 10; filamenta fili- 
formia, 1-5 mm. longa; antberae 4 mm, longae. Ovarium 3 mm. 
fttipitatum, 2 mm. longum: stylus 2 mm. longus, stigmatibus 
5 mm. longis recurvatfs. Frvctns ellipsnideus, carnosus, 1 cm. 
longus, siccitate valdc rugosus, longe stipitatus, stylo persistente 
7 mm. longo coronatus. 

South xVmerica. Colombia: slopes of mountains about Muua, 
2G00-8G00 m,, May 18G3, Pearce (type). Boqueron, nmuntains 
near Bogota, IG Xiiv. 1S52, /. F. Holton GT9: Triana 157. ^Andes 
of Popayan, I7(tll-2500 ju., LrJrmann 555; 5102. 

'^. Bocconia latisepala, N. 11'///.*?. in Proc. Am. Acad. xxv. 141 
(1890); Fedde, Monogr. Papaveraceae, 219 (1009). ' 

Ilerhacea iisqi^e ad 2 m. alta : rami juniores glabri, caeruleo- 
auci. Folia inferiora longe petiolata, usque ad 2o cm. longa et 



^1 



12 cm. lata, 3-4-pinnatib>bata, tenuiter cbartacea, snpra glabra, 



280 



infra cris2>iito-piibe8centia, glauoa, louis lateralibus oblongiij apice- 
rotuDclatis remote et obscure dentieulatis; petioli 5-5-5 cm. longi^ 
loiigitudinaliter sulcati, glauci. Panicula usque ad 30 cm. longa^ 
e basi laxe ramosa; bracteae obloiigo-lanceolatae, subaeutae, ])edi- 
celiis luulto breviores, margiiiibus puberulis; jjedicelli 2-3 mm. 
loiigi, glauei, glabri. Sepala valde imbricata, late elliptica, cir- 
eiier 6 mm. loiiga, abrupte acuminata, glabra, glauca. Stamina^ 
12-14 ; fibimenta filiformia, 1-5 mm. longa ; autberae 4 mm^ 
loiigae. Ovarium 3 mm, stipitatum; stylus 2-5 mm. longus^ 
crassnsj ramis curvato-dirergentibus 3 mm. longis. Fructus 
8-10 mm. stipitatus, niitans, ellipsoideus, carnosus, 1 cm. 
long us, stylo persistente 7 mm. longo coronatus, valvis demum 
deciduis- Seuiina ellipsoidea, 8 mm. louga, basi arillo Crustacea 
2 mm, longo ciiicta. 

Central America. Mexico: Guajiico, fl., E, Palmer 23. 
Nuevo Leon State; rich shaded canyons of tbe Sierra Madre, near 
Monterey, 3 July, 1888, C. G. Prmgle 1907. Hort. Gouan. 

6. Bocconia integrifolia, Hnmbl. .$- BonpJ, PI. Aequin. i. 119^ 
t. 35 (1805). 

^ Frntex ramosissimus, usque ad 5 m. altus ; ramuli juniores cir- 
citer 1-3 cuu crassi, farinaceo-pube^centes. Folia bveviter petio- 
lata, elongato-elliptica, apice triangularia, usque ad 30 cm. longa 
et 10 cm. lata, serrata vel crenata, rare ai>icem versus paucilo- 
bata, tenuiter diartacea, reticulata, supra glabra, infra albida, 
papilloso-puberula; costa infra valde promiuens, basin versus sul* 
cata ; nervi laterales utrinsecus usque ad 18, leviter arcuati, bifur- 
cati et multiramosi; petioli 2-3 cm. longi, supra concavi et dense 
lanato-tomentosi. PanimJa multiflora, ad 35 cm. longa; brac- 



/ 



teae inferiores foliaceae, magnae, ultimae oblongo-lanceolatae, 
sububtusae, gbabrae, pedicellis dimidio breviores; pedicelli 5-7 



1 



nm. longi. Sepala obovato-elliptica, abrupte acuminata, 1 onu 
onga, glabra. Stamina circiter 10; filamenta filiformia, circiter 
2 mm. bniga; antherae 5 mm. longae. Ocarhtm 3 mm. stipi- 
tatum ;\stylus 2 mm. longus, stigniatibus crassis valde recurvatis. 
Frvctus carnosus, ellipsoideus, circiter 1-3 cm, longus. Semina 

oblongo-ellipsoidea, 6 mm, longa, basi arillo crustaceo verrucoso 
2 mm. longo cincta. 

Soi-TH Amekica. Colombia: Cbipnque, Bogota, 2400 m., 7. 
ina/m Bogota, Jan. 1846, young fr., Pnvdie. Bolivia: neat 
Sorata, 2GaO-280n m., Feb.-:\lar. 18G0, G. Mamlnn 88G. ^ 
near Lascas, ThimhoUt ^'Bonplanrl (tvpe)— not seen 



"*»■ 



ei'u 



• 



1. Bocconia g 



^«m, cnspato-puhescentes, iuteiiiodiis ciirifer 1 cm. longis. 
fo/.aelhptico-ol.lnnceolata, acute aciiminatn, basi breviter 
ciineafa, 8-16 em. longa 3-6 cm. lata, ohartacea, siibdupliciter 
repanrlo-serrata, supra glabra, infra rrispato-puberula ; nervi 
aterales utnnserus 9-12 areuati, prominuli ; petioli 2-2-5 cm. 
longvrninute puberuli. Panicula paticiiiora, laxv, usque ad 20 
em ouga; bracteae Imean-lanceolatae, acutae, pedicellis dimidio 
tkb e Jnl T^'T V^^^^r^Ai■. pedicelli 1-1-5 cm. longi, mox 
glabie^entes. Sei^ala oboxata, abrupte acuminata, glalmn, fere 



281 



1 em. loBga. Stamina 12; filamenta 2 mm. longa, filifonnia; 
antherae 5 mm. longae. Ovarium 5 mm, stipitatum, 2 mm. 
longum ; stylus 3 mm. longus, stigmatibus 3 mm. longis mox 
recurvatis- Friictus non visus. 

"I^Jentbal America. Guatemala : Pansamala, Alta A^eiapaii 
Department, 1300 m., fls. May 1887, H. von Tuercklicim in Herb. 
Donnell Smith 1236. 

Mr. J. Donnell Smitli lias identified this species v:ii\\ tlie un- 
published figure of" B, frntescens, var. cernva, DC, in Mocino & 
Sesse Fl. dii Mex. t. 14, -^'liicli, however, differs in haying lobed 
leaA-es. 



^. Bocconia glaucifolia, Hutchinson, sp. nov. 

"^B, integrifolia, Var. m€j:icana^ DC. Prodr. i. 121 (1824)? 

Ramuli glabri, glauci, internodiis vix 1 cm. longis. Folia 
oblongo-oblaneeolata, acute breviter acuminata, basi valde iu- 
aequalia et rotundata, 7-12 cm. longa,2-4 cm. lata,tenuiter iluu- 
tacea, serrata, glabra, infra conspicue glauca; nerri laterales 
utrinsecus 14-16, o-raciles, areuati; petioli 1-5-2 cm. longi, glauci. 
Panicula pedunculata, usque ad 35 cm. longa, laxiflora; bracteae 
oblongo-lanceolatae, subobtuse acuminatae, ultimae circiter 5 
mm. Tongae, glabrae; pedicelli circiter 8 mm. demuni 10 mm. 
longi, robusti. Sepala late elliptica, subacute acuminata, cir- 
citer 1 cm. longa, glabra. Stamina circiter 12; filamenta fill- 
formia; antherae 5 mm. longae. Ovarium 5 mm. stipitatum, 
2 mm, longum ; stylus 4 mm. longus, stigmatibus 4 mm, longis 
crassis spiraliter contortis. Fructus non visus. 

■'^ErsTEAL America. Guatemah^ : San Miguel Uspantan, 
Quiche Department, about 2600 m., Apr. 1892, fl., Heyde ^' Lux 
in Herh. Donnell Smith 2899, 



^. Bocconia vulcanica, 7. D. Smith in 13ot. Gaz. xvi. 1 

(1891); Fedde, Monogr. Papaveraceae, 220 (1909), 

Arbor; ramuli apice dense foliati, circiter 8 mm. crassi, gk^bri. 
Folia sessilia^ obovata vel elliptico-obovata, subacute et abrupte 
acuminata, 10-14 cm. longa, 4-5-5 cm, lata, tenuiter chartacea, 
crebre et obtusissime serrata, xitrinque gLnbra ; nervi laterales 
numerosi, graciles, areuati. Panicula densiflora, peduncuhita, 
usque ad 2b cm. longa; bracteae oblongo-lanceolatae, acutae, pedi- 
cellis breviores, glabrae; pedicelli circiter 5 mm. longi, robusti, 
Sepala elliptica, caudato-acuminata, 1 cm. longa, subcoriacea^ 
glabra. Stamina 10-15; filamenta filiformia, 2 mm. longa; 
antlierae 5-6 mm. longae. Ovarium 2 mm. stipitatum, 3 mm. 
longum, glaucum; stylus crassus, 1-5 mm. longus, stigmatibus 
3 mm. longis acutis, Fructus immaturus glaucus, carnosus. 

»^E>iKAL America. Guatemala : Volcan de Agua, Zacate- 
pequoz, 3200 m., Apr. 1890, Donnell Smith 2172 (type). 

Imperfectly k?}ow?i species, 

B. ferruginea, Roezl in Belg. Hort. xxiv. 39 (18:4)^^eru 

nomen nudum. 




-' 



282 



Macleava, I{, Br. in Denliam et Clapp. Narrat, Append. 218 
(182G); Fedde, Munogr. Papnveraceae, 215 (1909), 

Stamina 25-30 ; capsiila oblaneeolata, 

seminil>us 4-6 ad suturas sessilibus ... 1. M. cordata. 
Stamina 8-12; capsula orbicularis, seniine 

solitario basifixo erecto 2. M. microcarpa. 

^\. Macleaya cordata, A'. Br. I.e.; Fraftcli. et Savat. Eiium. 
PL Jap. i. 27 (1875) ; Fedde, Monogr. Papaveraceae, 216, Fig. 
27, A-G, incl.'^ar. yedoensis, Fedde (1909). 

"^occonia cordata, Willd. Sp. PI. ii. 841 (179T); Bot. Mac?, t. 
1905 (1817); DC. Prodr. i. 121 (1824). 

CiriXA. Western Hupeh : E. H. Wlhou (Yeitch Exped.) 1403. 
Patunn- District, A. Henry 31G2, 5213. Kaiito and mouutains to 
nortkward, A. Henry 1882. Sliaiisi Provinee': Ta ho kuan, F. N. 
Meyer 1870. Cliekiang- : Hang-eliow, //. J. Iliclan. Hillsides, 
Clu'kinng-, Juh' 1854, Fortune. 

Japan. Tokyo, Science Coll. Ita[). University [Japan) Herh. 
Ypkoliauia, Ma.rimowicz; Oldham 210. Yokoska, Savatier 58. 
Aoniori, Faiirie 578. "Central Mts.," Maries. 

Macleaya microcarpa, Fedde iu EnL'l. Bot. Jalirb. xxxvi. 



B 



BeM. 82, 45 (1005); Mono<n'. Pa])averaceae, 217, fin-. 27, J-0 
(1909). ^1 . o > 

ocronia micrucdrpa, Maxim, iu Act. Hort. Petrop. xi 45 

(1889). ^ 

CniXA. Eastern Kansu : Potanin (1885). Ilort. Kew. 1895. 

Northern Sliensi : Giraldi 760, 4468-4472 (ex Fedde). 



XLV .-BAMBOOS AND BORING BEETLES. 

L. A. Boodle & W. Dallimore. 

Tlie faei- tliat Bamboos used in India for building- purposes in 
the normal condition are very liable to injury by boring- beetles, 
wliereas those that have been well soaked in water before use are 
usually left alone, led to the following experiments being made 
with a view to determining the reason. 

M '{'^'^\"^'j|^'ifl ^i^^^f^ iti the experiments was grown in the Poval 
Jiotanic bardens, Kew, part being examined in a fresh state, 
imit after soaking for three mouths in tl.e pond near the Palm 
f .^IS'/"; r«^t after soaking fur three months in water heated 
to .S0° Fahr. in the tank in the Yietoria Kegia House, the exami- 
nation m each case being conducted in the Jodrell Laboratoiy. 

E.ran>imifion of two portions of Bamhoo stem (Dendroralarnns 

pujanteus), from the Palm House, one fresh and one after being 

snnk n> ihv pond near the Palm House for three months. 

The untreated piece of stem contained a1)undant starch, and a 
considerable amount of solul)le carl^ohvdrate, consisting of or 
inc uding glucose or some oiher sugar, giving a precipitate with 
xehliiitr s solution. ^ ^ i i 

In the ^tem from the pond, soluble carbohydrate was present in 



283 



4 

extremely small quantity, and may perhaps have consisted of 
glucose, as it may have been insufficient to detect by Fehliiig'^s 
reaction in the small amount of material used for examination. 
The quantity of starch is, on the whole, considerable, though 
decidedly less than in the other specimen, and also varying a 
good deal locally. Starcli had practically disappeared from the 
cut end of the stem for a distance of 2-3 mm., and was most 
abundant towards the middle of the length of the specimen. 

If the presence of a considerable amount of starch were a 
necessary condition of attack by the boring insect, the treated 
specimen would probably meet the requirements, but it must be 
remembeied that the removal of starch from a piece of stem 
immersed in water might be more rapid in a hot clinn^te. 

The possibility that sugary contents miglit render the stem 
liable to attack is countenanced by the approximate absence of 
sugar in the soaked specimen, Por com])arison, a piece of small- 
stemmed bamboo (received from Mr. J. C. Fryer, Entomologist 
to the Ministry of Agriculture), actually attacked by Dinoderus 



miuiitus, F. (the commonest boring beetle attacking dry bamboo- 
stems in Indiii, etc.), Avas examined. Sugar in this specimen was 
relatively scanty, but probably not sufficiently so to jixstifv the 
rejection of sugar as a possible factor favouring attack. As far 
as nourishment is concerned, it may be supposed that certain kinds 
of boring beetles can obtain sufficient from the digestion of woody 
fibre, apart from the presence of sugar or starch. 

The matter has been discussed with Mr, Frver, who holds the 
opinion that scent is the special factor determining attack, that 
is to say that some odour, perceptille to the insect concerned, is 
the means bv which it recognises tlte stem as bamboo, or as one 
of the plants which it attacks, and that if tins scent is removed 
or sufficieTitlv masked, the plant is avoided. 

The effect of soakino^ in water mifjht be to remove some chemical 
compound on which the odour depends, or, if the matter i^ one ot 
masking, this might be due to an added scent, either produced 
bv decomposition of some com])ouent of the wood, or absorbed 
from the water, if, for instance, the wood is sunk in a pond 
containing decaying organic matter. 

The specimen from the pond had at fiist a very offensive smell, 
and still retains some of it, the smell being rather suggestive of 
organic sulphur-compounds. Tliough the mud of the pond may be 
responsible for this, it should l^e noted that a Bamboo (Bamhusa 
arundinacea), is quoted as having a rnther high sulphur-content 
in the ash of its leaves, 10-7 per cent, reckoned as SO3, as against, 
3—6, representing commoner values. 

E.mmination of .sections of 



f 80^ Faln\ for three montlis. 



)00 



the Victoria regin tank for tlnee moutlis. This treatment was 
found to remove all the sugar present, hut only a small proportion 

of the starch. . • 

One niav assume that, in the case of similar treatment in a hot 
climate, a stem, originally containing ahundant «tarch, would 



284 



&till contain plenty after soaking, but tliat all the sugar, or niijst 
of it, would disappear. It may be concluded also that immunity 
from attack would not be due to such reduction in starch-content 
as takes place, but that tlie removal of sugar may perhaps be the 
change which confers immunity. 

The following experiment was carried out with a view to testing 
the value of these deductions : — 

Three boring beetles {iJinoderus minutus), were placed in a 
corked glass-tube M-ith three strips of bamboo. The pieces of bam- 
boo were from a stem containing abundant starch and a consider- 
able quantity of sugar. One of the strips was untreated, wdiile the 
other two hud been soaked in the pond, and had thus lost most of 
their sugar. After six days it was found that all three beetles 
had bored into the untreated piece, one having first made a short 
burrow in one of the treated pieces. The effect of soaking is thus 
comparable to that obtained in India. The fact that one beetle 
made a preliminary boring in a treated piece, when there was 
plent}^ of iintrcited bamboo at hand, does not appear to favour 
the suggestion, made in describing tlie first experiment, that 
immunity might depend on the removal or masking of some 
characteristic odour possessed by the bamboo. An increased pro- 
bability therefore attaches to the view that the removal of sugar 
mav be the determinant. 

A second untreated strip Tivas placed in tlie tube with, the 
beetles; this also was attacked, a new brood of beetles was pro- 
duced, and eventually tlie material of botb. untreated pieces 
became nearly exhausted, wlien a slight further attack of the 
treated piece took place. 

Further experiments were prevented from being carried out 
by the death of the beetles. 

The powder produced by the beetles in boring an untreated 
piece of bamboo, in wliich starch and sugar were abundant, was 
found to contain, besides tlie woody fibre, plenty of starch, but 
only a very small amount of sugar!^ Practicalh'"^ all this powder 
had no doubt passed through tlie alimentary canal of the insects, 
but some fragments which had not been ingested may have been 
present, and possibly the sugar detected may have belonged to 
these. 

Further Experiments. 

Four more beetles having been obtained, thev were put into 
two jars with treated and untreated pieces of" bamboo, three 
beetles in one jar (A), ond one beetle in another jar (B). In 
both cases the piece of bamboo attacked by the insects was an 
untreated one containing plenty of starch and a considerable 
amount of glucose. In both cases also a snmll ])oring had been 
first_ he^un m a treated piece from the same stem, that in jar B 
having been soaked m the pond, most of the glucose being thus 
removed, while tlie piece slightly bored in jar A was one which 
had been similarly treated and afterwards soaked in glucose 
soliition (o per cent.) and dried. Thus untreated material was 
preferred to treated even when glucose had been restored to the 
treated bamboo. It ,s possible, however, that an unsuitable 



285 



in Victoria regia tank, starch present. 



amount of glucose may have been added, or that the re-sugared 
material may have been insufficiently dried. 

It is to be noted that both the bamboo attacked and that visibly 
sampled by the beetles contained sttirch. The other pieces of 
bamboo included in the jars and apparently untouched were as 
follows : — In jar B. — Untreated pieces from two thinner- 
stemmed bamboos, having no starch and very little glucose. 
It is not surprising that these did not prove attractive. In 
Jar A. — (1) Untreated, thin-stemmed, no starch and little sugar; 

(2) untreated, rather thin-stemmed, no starch, plenty of glucose ; 

(3) thin-stemmed, no starch, originally very little sugar, but 
treated by soaking in glucose-solution; (4) thick-stennned, soaked 

__ ^ tlie ab:5ence of any 

l)oring in untreated bamboo, in which there was plenty of glucose 
but no starch, nmy indicate a preference for a diet containing 
starch. It is possible, however, that the sugnry but starchless 
specimen was rejected because it was from a thin-stemmed 
bamboo. The fact that all the specimens definitely attacked, as 
well as those in which small borings were begun, were from the 
same thick-stemmed bamboo, maj' have some significance. 
Perhaps thick-stemmed material is chosen first for a trial, if at 
Tiand, or preference may be given to certain species of bamboo. 

These later experiments scarcely help towards a general con- 
clusion. The tentative boring of treated bamboo, however, is 
confirmed, and, as this was more than a mere tasting of the 
material, it appears that the bamboo was not unpalatable, but 
ihat t'he short boring probably served as a trial of its nutritive 
quality. The latter was apparently found to be below standard, 
presumably on account of the very small amount of sugar present. 
There is thus some probability that the removal of most of the 
sugar is the action by which soaking in water renders bamboo 
unattractive to boring beetles, and it may be supposed that the 



•experiment with re-sugared bamboo was in some way an un- 
satisfactory-one,* perhaps owing to insufficient drying. 



XLVL— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Mr. J. ,S. J. McCall, Director of Agriculture, Xvasaland 
Protectorate, has been appointed l)j tlie Secretarj of State for the 
Colonies, Director of Agriculture' in the Tanganyika Territory. 



Mr. E. J. WoRTLEY, F.C.S., Director of Agriculture, Ber- 
muda, has been appointed by the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew, Director of Agriculture 

z^ j^T,„ A.- „r. r. r, 1 c n rl PrnfopfnrMtp in i^nrnesssinTi tn Mr. McCall. 



286 



Mr. F. M. IvOGEKs, a member uf tlie {^aidening staif of tlie 
Koyal Botanic Gardeus^ has been appointed by the Secretary 



of State for the Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew^ Head 
Gardener at the Amani Institute, Tanganyika Territory. 



Mr- C. Matthews, a member of the sardening staff of the 



t"* "-"D 



Eoyal Botanic Gardens, has been appointed by the Secretary of 
^tate for India in Council, on the recommendation of Kew, a 
Gardener in the United Provinces, India. 



Mr. J- W. BESA^'T, a fornier member of the gardening staff 
of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and for some time Foreman 
in the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, has been promoted to 

the post of Assistant to the Keeper, Eoyal Botanic Gardens, 

Glasnevin. 



Mr. James Eeid, a probationer forester in the Eoyal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh, hag been appointed by the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew, Forest 
Officer in the Falkland Islands. 



Lady Haxbuky. — AVe record Avith deep regret the death of 
Katherine Aldam, Lady Han])ury, widow of Sir Thomas Han- 
bmy, of La Mortda, on 2nd September, at Castle Malwood^ 
Lyndhurst, 

It was Tiady Hanbmy's constant care to maintain La Mortola 
as a garden of scientific value and to develop it on the 
lines laid down by Sir Thomas. This aim she fulfilled in a 
remarkable degree as she sought every means of enriching the 
collections and of making the resources of the gardens as widely 
available as possible. Among the latest interests was her desire 
to establish the ilate plant, IJex imraguayensisy at La Mortola. 

With Kew, Lady Hanbury always maintained very close 
associations, very greatly to the benefit of this institution, since 
she was alwajs ready to supply specimens and seeds of rare and 
interesting plants from the collections. Kpw Avas also able to 
communicate tender plants for trial in the open in the more 
genial climate of the Eiviera. 

It was characteristic of her generous and unselfish nature 
that she felt that her priceless heritage must be shared as fully 
as possible, and to this end both botanists and the public 
generally were given free access to the gardens. In addition 
to this the hospitality of La Mortola was extended by Lady 
Hanbury to many to whom the sunshine and ease might result 
m restored bodily health. To such tifuests the charm and kind- 



ness of their hostess must have ensured far more than physical 
betterment. 

Of her kindly consideration and loving care for all her 
employees and for the villagers and peasants of La Mortola and 
th.e countryside, it is for others to speak, but her wonderful love 



287 



of doing good whenever possible, with a studied avoidance of 
all ostentation, will ever remain as a beantifiil nioniory in the 
hearts of all those Avhose privilege it was to have known her. 



Botanical Magazine. — The following plants have been figured 

in the six numbers for the months January to June of this year. 
Stanhopea Costaricensls, Heirhb. f. (t. 8830) from Costa llica j 
Rhododendron ledoides, Bait. f. et W. W. Sm. (t. 8831) from 
Yunnan; Ilex verticiUata, A. Gray (t. 8832) a native of Eastern 
North America; Cornus Kousa, Buerg. MSS. apud Miq. (t. 8833) 
from North Eastern Asia; RJwdodendron vernicosvm, Franch. 
(t. 8834) from Western China ; Erica Haroldiana, Skan (t. 8835) 
from South Africa; Primula jmlvinata, Balf. f. et Ward (t. 
8836), a native of Yunnan; Symphyandra asiatica, Nakai (t. 
8837) from Corea ; Pavetta ahyssinica, Fresen. (t. 8838) from 
East Tropical Africa; PleurotluilUs punctulata, Eolfe (t. 8839) 
from Colombia; Rihes Jessoniae, Stapf (t. 8840) from A\^e.>lern 
China; Rhododendron serotinum, Hutchinson (t. 8841) also a 
native of Western China; Bvlhophyllum wacrohulhnm, J. J. 
Sm. (t. 8842) from New Guinea; Uoheria popuhica-, A. Cunn. 
var. lanceolata, Hook. f. (t. 8843) from New Zealanti; In^ 
IIoo(]iana, Dykes (t. 8844) from Turkestan; Vcnidium rnacrnce- 
phaium, DC. (t. 8845) a native of South Africa; Mctronderos 
collina, A. Gray (t. 8846) from Polynesia; Lilium Farren, 
Turrill (t. 8847) from China; Salvia hrevilahr a, Franch. (t. SS48) 
from Western Szechuan ; Rihes nircinn, Lindl. (t. 8849) a native 
of North-West America; Podophyllum Emodi, Wall. var. 
chinense, Sprague (t. 8850) from AYestern China, and Rhododen- 
dron lutescens, Franch. (t. SS51) also from Western China. 



Sir J. D. Hooker.*— The Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge has published an admirable sketch of the life of Sir 
J. D. Hooker, by Professor F. 0. Bower, which forms a vohime 
of its "Pioneers of Progress" (Men of Science) series. In a 
paper wrapper it may be purchased for a shilling, and as the 
matter is compressed as inuch as possible, without, however, 
neglecting any of the more" important features of Sir Joseph's 
long and active life, the volume may be read through in an hour 
or two. After a brief but interesting Historical Introduction, 
Professor Bower gives his record in chapters, entitled : Birth and 
Education, Foreign travel, Kew, Authorship, The Species Ques- 
tion Personal Characteristics, and Hooker's Position as a 31an 
of Science. At the end is a useful list of the dates of the greater 
events in Sir Joseph's career, followed by a select list of his por- 
traits and a brief bibliography. The portrait appearing [u this 
volume has not, so far as we can ascertain, been published before. 

We have noted a mistake regarding the area of Kew Gardens — 
a mistake so obvious that no reader knowing Kew at all well would 



* Joseph Daltou Hooker, O.M., &c., by Prof. F. O. Bower, Sc.D., F.R S., 
London (S.P.C.Iv.), 1919, 62 pages and portrait. Is. in paper wrapper, 
2s. cloth. 



288 



be deceived by it. On p. 26 it is stated tliat " at tlie present day 
some G50 acres are under the Director's control." Tbe precise 
area of the Gardens is 288 acres and 2 rods. A trivial slip occurs 
on p. 59. Sir Joseph's funeral took place on Friday, December 15, 
1911 (not December 17). 



Practical Plant Biochemistry.* — A proof of the advance in 

scientific knowledge within recent years has been the bridging 
over of luuuy uf the artificial gaps bj which the various branches 
of science have been separated one from another. Correlated 
with this are the imexpected nature and the practical and 
academical importance of the discoveries which have been made 
in the past few decades on the borderland of two or 
more sciences. The result to the student of botany in particular 
lias been an enormous increase in the subject matter with which 
he has to become acquainted. None of the more recent 
subdivisions of botany can show greater advance than 
plant chemistry, either in number or importance of dis- 
coveries. For this reason, if for no other, Mrs. Onslow^s 
book '* Practical Plant Biochemistry " would be welcomed. The 
work is primarily designed as a text-book for laboratory work, 
and in this respect is supplementary to '' The Chemistry of Plant 
Products'' by Haas and Rill. General statements and discus- 
sions are followed by definite instructions for enabling the student 
to extract from the plant itself the chemical compounds under 
•consideration and to learn something of their properties. One 
hundred and fifty-eight such experiments are detailed. There is 
■an all too brief chapter on ^' the Colloidal State/' in which the 
general outlines of colloidal chemistry are given. This chapter 
might with advantage have been extended, although perhaps its 
subject belongs to physics rather than to chemistry. As one 



enzyme 



a 



prominent place, and, besides a chapter on ^' Enzyme Action, 



mam 



sidered after the chemical constitution of each group of 
compounds has been iuA-estigated, Thus we have carbo- 
hydrates and their hydrolyzing enzymes, fats and lipases, 
aromatic compounds and oxidizing enzymes, proteins and pro- 
teases, glucosides and glucoside-splittiug enzymes. It would, 
erhups, have imduly extended both the scope and the 
ulk of the book, but one cannot help feelin"^ that it would have 
been more useful and certainly more interesting to the general 
botanist if fuller infornmtion from the physiological standpoint 
had been given and the position which the various compounds 
probably hold in the plant's system of metabolism indicated. 
A select bibliography is given'' at the end of each chapter. 

W. B. T. 




.* Practical Plant Biochemistry. Muriel Wheldale Onslow, Cambridge 
Lmversity Press, 1920. 15s. 



Printed unler the Authority of His MajS3ty*3 STATloyBRT Officb, 

By Jaa. Tru3cott and Son, Ltd., Suaolk Lane, E-C. i. 



[Gy'own Copyright Reserved. 



\ 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



OF 



MISCELLAKEOUS INFOUMATION 



No. 9] 



[1920 



XL VII.— FUNGI EXOTICI: XXV. NOTES ON 

UGANDA FUNGI. 

II . — MiCEOFUNGI. 

^ 

E . M . WAKEriELD . 

Tlie present contribution towards a fungus-flora of Uganda 
enumerates a number of fungi, chiefly micro-forms, which occur 
on cultivated and wild plants, many of them as parasites. The 
list is compiled from records which have accumulated during the 
past six years, from collections made by Messrs. Diunmer, Small, 
Maitland, and Snowden. A feature of the list is the large 
number of Uredinales, and it should be mentioned that in addi- 
tion to those named many uredo-forms have been received which 
it has not been possible to identify satisfactorily. 

The species of Colletotrich^i7n on various hosts are listed 
separately, but as remarked under C. incarnatnm it is probable 
that further work will show that many of these are identical. 
I am indebted to Mr. W. Small for correcting names of localities, 
and reading proofs. 

Basidiomycetes . 

HelicobasiJlum longisporum, Wakef. in Kew BvlL 1917, p. 
310. 

On root of young Cacao, Mvuba, Buganda, Small 463. 

TJSTILAGIIS'ALES . 

■ 

Ustilago CynoJontis, Bref. Untersuchungen, XII, p. 105; 



Henn 



1891, p. 369. 

Fairly common on Cynodon DactyJon^ Kampala, Jan. 1915, 

Small IGG. 

U. Digitariae, Rahli. Fung. Eur. Ko. 1199. 

Fairly common on Digitaria Tiorizontalisy Willd. Kampala, 



ft/ 



Small 5. 

i 

(1162.) Wt. 135-^P. 47. 1,000. 10/20. J. T. 4 S., Ltd. ff. 14. Sell. 12. 



290 



U. heterospora, P. Ilenn. in Engler, Pflanzenwelt Ostafr. 

1895, p. 48. 

Tilletia Ayresii, Berk, ex Mass. in Kew Bull. 1899, p. 146. 
On Fanicum maximum, Yictoiia JNyanza region, 'L. D. Mait- 
land, 1914; on Setaria aurea, JS^aaunoa, Dec. 1916, Dummer 

3052. 

U. Schweinfurthiana, Thuem. in MycotL. Univ. No. 726. 

On Imperata arundinacea, near Nkoko, Dec. 1916, Dummer 
3057. 

U. tritici {Pers.) Jens, in Kell. & Sw., Rep. Kans. Ai?r. Exp. 

Sta. II, 1890, p. 262. 

On Wheat, Walasi, Bugishu, J, D. Snowden 529. 
Sphacelotheca Reiliana (Kuhn) Clinton in Journ. of Mycol. 
VIll, 1902, p. 141. 

On Millet, S.E. Bugishu, foot-hills of Mount Elgon, Small 165. 

S. Sorghi (Link) Clinton in Jouru. of Mycol. VIII, 1902, p. 
140. 

On Sorghum sp., Kipayo, IN'ov. 1914, Dummer 1324. 
Cintractia axicola (.Berk.) Comu in Ann. Sci. Nat. VI, 15, 
1883, p. 279. 

On a Cyperaceous plant, Kijude, Dummer 2516. 

Tolyposporium pliiiippiiiciise, Syd. in Ann. Myc. X, 1912, 

p. 78. 

On Hyparrhenia cymbaria, Stapf ( = Andropogon Cyviharius, 
L.), Nagoge, Oct. 1916, Dummer 3011. 

Schroeteria Cissi {DC.) de Toni in Sacc. Syll. VII, p. 501. 
Kirerema, Xor. 1913, Dummer 617. 



Urbdinales . 



Uromyces Wi6.tnXH,' Lagerli. in Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr. XI, 1895, 



p. 213. 



ml 



U. iMelantherae, Cooke in Grevillea, X, 1882, p. 127. 



MelantJi 



UTRTner 



U. Ipomaeae (Thuem.) Berk, in GreTillea XI, 1882, p. 19. 
On ConvolYulaceae, Gegede, July 1916, Dummer 2874. ' 



/ 



3012. 



amanyonyi, Oct. 1916, Dummer 



Acad. Nat. Sci., XI, 1883, p. 15. 



Minnes 



Hypericum Lalajidii, Kirerema, IS"ov. 1916. Dummer 



U. Polygalae, Grove in Kew Bull. 1916, p. 269. 
On Poly gala sp. Kipayo, Dummer 2324. 

U. appendiculatus [Pers.) Link, Observ. II, 1816, p. 28. 
On Yigna sinensis, Kamuli, 1913, Small 1; on Phaseolus 
Munga, Kipayo, Dummer 1121. 

1869-72"^*Tl ^'^''°'^' ^^^^'^'^'^^' S^^l^^- ^^^- f- ^aterl. Cultur, 
On cultivated Lucerne, Mulange, Jan. 1920, Dummer 4420. 



?91 



V. Hypoxydis, Cooke in Grevillea X, 1882, p. 127. 

On Eypoxis sp., Xijude, Dunnner 2508. 

U. Aloes [Cooke] Magn. in Ijer. deutscli. bot. Ges. X, 1892, 



p. 48. 



\ 



U. aloicola, P. Heun. in Engl. Bot. Jalirb. XIV, 1891, p. 370. 
On Aloe sp., Xipayo, June 191-4, Dummer 9Uii. 

U. Commelinae, Cooke^ in Trans. Eoy. Soc, Edinb., 1887, 
p. 342. 

On Covimelina sp., Kiwafu Dummer 919; Mabira Forest, near 
Miibango, Bummer 1331 ; Kirerema, Dummer 1G4. 

U. Cyathulae, 1\ Renn, in Bull. Herb. Boiss., I, 1893, p. 
107, and Sjdow in Ann. Myc. V, 1907, p. 491. 

On Cyathula glohiferaj Moquin, Kipayo, Sept, 1914, Dummer 
1109. 

Puccinia Berkheyae, Wakef. in Kew Bull 1917, p. 312. 

On Berkheya Speheana, Nanaanyonyi, Dummer 2752. 
P. Coreopsidis, Wakef. in Kew Bull. 1918, p. 209. 
On Coreopsis sp., Kipayo, Sept. 1914, Dummer 1113. 

P. Kalchbrenneri, De Toni in Sacc. Syll. VII, p. 645. 

On Helichrysum sp., Kipayo, Nov. 1914, Dummer 1192; on 
HelichrysuTn undulaturUy Lumbwa, May 1917, Dummer 3233. 

P. Le-Testui, MauhL in Bull. Soc. Myc. Er. XXXII, 1906, 
p. 71. 

On Vernoma sp., near Xkoko, July 1916, Dummer 2858,. 
P. pulvinata, Rahh. in Hedwigia, 1871, p. 20. 

On Echiriops am.p7e.ricaulis fl^umhvrdi, Oct, 1916, Dummer 3008. 

P. holosericea, Cooke in Grevillea X, 1882, p. 126. 
On Convolvulaceae, Kivuvu, Dec. 1914, Dummer 1319. 

P. lateritia, Berk. ^' Curt, in Journ. Acad. iN'at, Sci. Phila- 
delphia, N"ew Ser. II, 1853, p. 281. 

On Spermacoce Ruelliae^ DC, Kipayo, Dec. 1913, Dummer 
616; on Spermacoce sp., Kirerema, Dummer 1470. 

P. Oldenlandiae, F. Henn. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb., XV, 1892, 
Beibl. 33, p. 5. 

On Oldenlandia sp., Kipayo, Jan. 1915, Dum^mer 1359. 

P. pentadicola, Grove in Kew Bull. 1916, p. 271. 

On Pentas verticillata var. puhescens^ S. Moore, Mubango, 

Dummer 1344. 

P. Pentadis-carneae, Wakef, in Kew Bull. 1916, p- 74. 

On Pentas camea, Kipayo, Oct. 1914, Dummer 1123. 

P. Thunbergiae-alatae, P. He/in in Engler, Pflanzenwelt 

Ostafr., 1895, p. 50. 

Uredo-stage on Thunhergia alata^ Namanyonyi, Jan. 1916, 

Dummer 2739. 

P. Hoslundiae, Syd,, Deutsch. Zentr.-Afr. Exped. 1907-08, 
II Band, p. 96; P. Hoslundiae, Grove in Kew Bull. 1916, p. 270. 

On Hoslundia sp., Magigye, Dummer 1312. 

This is the type material of 'Grove's species, but comparison 
with Sydow's description leaves no doubt tTiat the names are 
synonymous. Grove states that the apex of the teleutospores is 
not thickened, but re-examination of the material shows that it 

a2 



* 



292 



is sometimes slightly thickened, and this removes the onlj essen- 
tial dilierence in the descriptions hy the two authors. 

P. leonotidicola, F. Hetm. in Bot. Ereeb. der Kunene-Sambesi 
Exped. 1902, p. 3. 



't 



^ 



Dummer 



P- accedens, Syd., Monogr, Ured. I, 1902/ p. 309. 



Dmrnne 



The mesospores are less numerous than is described in the 
Brazilian type. 

P. necopina, Grove in Kew Bull. 1916, p. 271. 

On Tristemma sp., Kipayo, Dummer 2325. 

Puccinia Gouaniae, Holway in Ann. Myc. Ill, 1905, p. 21. 

IJredo stage only, on Gouania sp., Kipayo, Jan. 1915, Dummer 



1340. 



p. 50. 



He 



um, Eipayo, Jan. 1915, Dummer 2504. 



P. Abiitili, Berk. ^- Br., in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV, ISTs" 



p. 91. 



On Malvaceae, Kipayo, Nov. 1914, Dummer 1304. 



p. 356. 



^ 



On Ahutiloii sp., Kipayo, May 1914, Dummer 647: on Sida 
rhomhifoha, ISamilyango, Dummer 1488; on Sida sp., Lake 
shore Entebbe, Mar. 1918, Maitland 253. 

r^^' ^^\]^^:Jy^-' ^^onogr. I, p. 481, var. Hibisci, Grove in 
Kew Bull. 1916, p. 270. 



H 



P. leptosperraa, Syd., Monogr. Tired. I, 1903, p. 557. 

Ua Drymarm cordata, Kivuvu, Dec. 1915, Z}»?7n/;^r 2740. 
P. Ivraussiana, Cooke in Grevillea X, 1882, p. 126. 
Un bmilax Kraussiana, Kivuvu, Dummer IIIG 

P. cymbopogonis, Mass. in Kew Bull. 1911 p 224 

OnCymhopogon cUratus, Kampala, Small 7; the type material 
ot this species was from Entebbe 

ISOl^^p^'^o"'"' ^""'■' ^^'P' ^"^^- ^^^^-^ 1'9^ P- 39, and Syn. 

konv.'r*^^"^r''^''^'l*' ^°^°' '^^^^^ 28; on wheat, Wazi- 
Kon\a s, Bugishu, Snowden 527 

o; wbi'^r^^"^- '"'i^''^- ^^^^- ^^*-' ^^'- S. IX, 1899, p. 270. 

P Sorlhi ^.^^P^^ V^^^t«tion, June 1920, 5...;^.^ 662. 
If *^- I ' "^ . •' ^y°- ^^^^- -'^mer. Bor 1834 n 295 • P 
On cuW::rd' '" ^^^^i J^^--' -• i^^^l- Hilano ,1844 p 475: 

On cultnoted maize, Mulange Estate. June 1919, Dummer 

Pucdniosira Dissotidis, Wal-ef. in Ken- Bull. 1917, p. 313. 
^S^5 t 2 rj,^"^"4^-' ^--'-^-y-yi. Jnlv 1916 S....ne. 



4163. 



On 



izzta 



i 



-■ i 



293 



Hamaspora longissima (Thuem.) Koern. in Hedwiffia XVI, 
1877, p. 23. • ^ 

On Ruhus sp., Mubango, Jan. 1915, Dummer 1313. 
Hemileia Dioscoreae-aculeatae, Eac, Crypt, paras. Jav. Exs., 

No. 37. Uredo Dioscoreae-aculeatae, Rac, Paras. Alg. u. Pilze 
Javas I, 1900, p. 30. * 

On Dioscorea, Kirerema, Nov. 1913, Dummer 619. 

H. Scholzii {P. Henn.) Syd. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 45, 1910, 

p. 260, 

On under surface of leaves of Clerodendron^ Namanyonyi, 
Dummer 2751; Botanic Gardens, Entebbe, Maitland 229 partly; 
Kampala, Small 416. 

H. vastatrix, Berh. ^ Br, in Gard. Cliron. 1869, p. 1157, 
On native and cultivated cofiee, Kampala, W. Small. 
Uredo mkusiensis, P. Henn. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 34, 1904, 
p. 41, 

On Psychotria sp., Mulange, Mar, 1920, Dummer 4424, 
This species is probably tbe uredo-stage of a Hemileia, 

U. Pycnostachydis, Kalchbr, in Grevillea XI, 1882, p. 25- 

On Pycnostachys Dawei, N.E. Br., Mugomba, May 1914, 

Dummer G48. 

U. Gossypii, Lagerh., in Journ. of Mycol, VII, 1891, p. 48. 

On cultivated cotton, native garden, Kipayo, Dummer 2183. 

U. Erythrinae, P. Henn. in Ann, Mus. du Congo, II, fasc. 3, 
1908, p. 224. 

On ErytJirina tomentosa, 'Nor. 1914, Kipayo, Dummer 1311. 

U. Zorniae, Diet, in Hedwigia 38, 1899, p. 257. 
U. Zorniae, Berk, ex Cooke in Grevillea XX, 1892, p. 110 
{nomen nudum). 

On Zornia sp., Lumbwa, Sej)t. 1916, Dummer 3007. 

U» Achyranthis, P. Henn. in Engler, Pflanzenwelt Ostafr. 

p, 51. 

On Achyranthes sp., Kipayo, Jan. 1914, Dummer 1332. 

U. Fici, Cast., Cat. PI. Marseill. II, p. 87. 
On leaves of Ficus sp., Kipayo, Jan. 1915, Dummer 1334; 
Lumbwa, July 1916, Dummer 2870. 

U. Dioscoreae, P. Henn. in Hedwigia, 1896, p. 255, 

On Dioscorea sp,, Lumbwa, June- July, 1916, Dummer 2856. 

U. cypericola, P. Henn. in Engler, Pflanzenwelt Ostafr., p. 52. 
On Mariscus sp., and Mariscus Sieherianus Nees, Kipayo, Oct. 
1914, Dummer 1120, 1152. 

U. digitariaecola, Thuem,, Mycoth. TJniv, No. 2041. 

On Digitaria sp., Kipayo, Aug. 1914, Dummer 949; on D. 
yitata, Stapf, Terinyi, Bukedi, Oct. 1917, Snoivden 536. 

Aecidium Vangueriae, Cooke in Grevillea X, 1882 p^ 124. 

On leaves of a Eubiaceous shrub, Bupoto, Bugishu, iSov. 1916, 
J,D. Snowden 490; on Vangueria sp., Bulago, Mount Elgon, 
July, 1917, Snowden 521. 

A. flavidum, Berk, et Br. in Joum. Linn. See. XIY, 1S73, 

p. 95. 

On Pavetta sp., Mbarara, near Kivuvu, Dummer 3250. 



294 



A. acanthacearum, Cooke in Grevillea X, 1882, p. 124. 

On Justicia uncinulata, Oliv. var. tenuicarpa, C.B. CI., Small 
18 J Eipayo, Dummer 649; on Justicia sp., >:Small 19; Kipayo, 
Dumvier 900, 902. 

A. Leonotidis, P. Eeim. in Engler, Pflanzenwelt Ostafr., 
1895, p. 52. ' 



Ma 



A. Phyllanthi, P. Henn. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb., XY, 1892, 
Beibl. 33, p. 6. 

On Phyllanthus sp., Mulange, April 1919, Dummer 4022; 
Namanyonyi, Dec. 1916, Dummer 3055. 

The spores in these specimens average rather smaller than those 



of the type form. 

A. ( 

p. 94. 



^ 



On cultivated Hibiscus sp., ]Mugomba, Jan. 1915, Dummer 
1346. 

A. Glycines, P. Henn. in Engler, Pflanzenwelt Ostafr., 1895, 

p. 52. 

On Glycine javanica, Kipayo, Aug. 1914, Dummer 926; 
Dummer 1193. 

A. Crotalariae, P. Henn.' in Engler, Pflanzenwelt Ostafr., 

1895, p. 52. 

On Crotalaria sp., Kampala, May 1915, Si7iaU 330. 

A. Vignae, CooJce in Grevillea VIII, 1879, p. 71. 

On Pueroria phaseoloides, Vigna sinensis, and Vigna Catjang, 
^11 imported from Java, Kampala plantation, Small 127, 128, 
171 partly; on Vigna sp., Small 250 partly. 

A. cookeanum, De Toni, in Sacc. Syll."^ Fung. YII, p. 822. 
A. Loranthi, Cooke in Grevillea XtV, p. 13. 



M ait land 



Peri spoRi ALES. 



g 



Un Jephrosia paniculata, Kipayo, Dummer 924; on Vigna?, 
ipayo, Dummer 1105; on Pisum sativum, Mulanfrp. Jnn. 1920. 



Dumrner 4417. 



Eurotium herbariorum {Wigg.) Link. Spec. Plant. I, p. 79. 

Ascigerons stage on leaves, Small 124. 



Wint. in Hed 



On Convolvulaceae, Magigye, Dummer 1483. 

M. MoIIeriana, Wint. in Hedwigia 25, 1886, p. 98. 

Un Hibiscus sp., Kirerema, Dummer 1471 

n JV,*^***"."^^'."^'^'^^- i^ Hedwigia 25, 1886,' p. 99. 



123 



Small 



?L-,1""'' r.-;""'!- ^- ^-"; il HeclwigiaJT, ms, p. 288 



229 pj 

MaitL 



Maifl 



\ 



On S,tr 'T."f • '^S!?;' Fr/-.^-^g- i«s9. p- "6. 



Tnme 



295 

4 

M. palmicola, Wint. in Hedwigia 26, 1887, p. 31. 

On dead Phoenix reclinata pinnae, Kipajo, Ang. 1!J14, Dummet 
M. Pazschkeana, GailL, Le Genre Meliola, 1892, p. 95, 

On Markhamia flatycalyx, Naguuga, Sept. 1914, Dummer 

This form agrees with Gaillard's description, except that it 
Las somewhat smaller spores than the type. 

M. stenospora, Wint. in Hedwigia 26, 1886, p. 97. 

On Convolvulaceae, Xirerema, Dummer CIS; on Piper sp., 
Kipayo, Dummer 21G8. 

Parodiella melioloides {B. ^ C.) Wint. in Hedwigia 24, 1885, 
pp. 108, 257; Pat. in BnlL See. Myc. Fr., 8, 1892, p. 129. 

On leaves of an unnamed plant, Dumvier 159, 1117. 

There is no donbt that Exosporium lateritium, Syd., described 
in Ann. Myc. XI, 1913, p. 407, represents the conidial stage of 
this plant. These specimens contained mostly conidia, but a few 
perithecia were found intermixed. The conidial stage was figured 
by Patouillard. 

P. perisporoides {B, ^ C.) Speg., Fung. Arg., Pug. I, 1880, 
p. 178. 

Common on various Leguminosae. On Crotalaria sp., Kipayo, 
Dummer 1124; on Indigofera suhulata^ Namiljango, Dummer 
1491; on unnamed legume, Dummer 1490; on Vigna sp., Kipayo, 
Dummer 1306; on Tephrosia linearis, Namanyonyi, Dummer 

2749. 

Corynelia uberata, Fr., Syst. Myc. II, p. 535. 

On leaves of seedling Podocarpits nulangianus, Entebbe, June 
1D17, 3Iaitland 228. 

Sphaer[ales. 

Ceratosphaeria lampadophora {B, 4- Br.) NiessL in Verb, 
naturforsch. Ver. Brimn, XIV, 1876, p. 43. 

Associated with Hypoxylon sp., Wakigu Forest, Eeb. 1915, 
Maitland 95. 

Eutypella corynostoma {B, <^- Rav.) Sacc^ Syll. I, p. 156. 

On dead branch of Alhizzia moluccanay Kampala, June 1915, 

Maitland 199. 

MycosphaerelJa conferta {Speg,) Wakef. Comb. Xor. 

SphaereUa conferta Speg., Fung. Guar. Pug. I, 1883, p. SS, 
On AllophyUum sp., Mulange, Jan. 1920, Dummer 4416. 

Mycosphaerella depazeaeformis {Ces. ^ de Not,) Wakef. 
Comb. NoY- 

Sphaerella depazeaeformis Ces. & De Not. Scheni. Sfer. ital. 
in Comm. Soc. Critt, ital. I, part 4, 1863, p. 64. 

On O.ralis cornicnlata, forma, Kipayo, Jan. 1915, Dummsr 

33. 

Mycosphaerella Erythrinae, Koord., Bot. TJnters. 1907, p. 189. 

Common on Erythriva tomentosa, Kampala, Oct. 1914, Small 



167. 



:Myc 



On Protea madiensis, Lnmliwa, Julj 1916, Dummer 2863. 



296 



L. Sacchari, 'v, Breda^ in Meded. v. Het. Proefstat, v. Suikerr. 

in West Java, 1892, p. 25, 

On sugar-cane, common, Small 13. 

Gibberidea Zingiberacearum, Rac in Bull. Ac. Sc. Cracovie, 
1909, p, 385- 

On leaves of Amomum sp., Entebbe, Maitland 270. 
Engleromyces Goetzei, Henn. in Engl. Bot, Jalirb. XXVIII, 

1900, p. 327; Colletomanginia farddoxa, Pat. in Bull. See. Myc. 
Fr. Bamboo-zone, Mount Elgon, Dummer-Maclennan Exped. 

Jan. 1918, No. 3448. 

This extraordinary plant lias been received at Kew previously 
from the Aberdare Mountains, British East Africa, also on 
Bamboo. This is the first record from Uganda. 

I^osellinia asperata, Mass. ex Wakef, in Keiv Bull. 1918, p. 
209. 

On wood, Kampala, Small 315. 

Ustulina vulgaris, TuL, vSel. Fung. Carp. II, p. 23. 

On dead stump of Phoenix reclinaia^ Maitland 306; Dummer 

629. 

U. zonata (Lev.) Sacc, Syll. Fung. I, p. 352. 

Mount Elgon, Dec. 1914, Small 136, 215; IS'amampe, May 

1915, Maitland 192; Xipayo, DuTnmer 1453. 



DOTIIIDEALES. 



Auerswaldia examinans (Mont. & Berk.) Sacc. Syll. II, p. 
626. 

Mount Elgon, Dec. 1914, Small 135. 

Dothidina disciformis, Theiss. 4' Syd. in Ann. Myc, XIII, 
1915, p. 304; Auerswaldia disciformis, Wint. 

On Myrica sp., Gegede, Mar. 1916, Duvimer 2832. 

Catacauma repens (Cd.) Theiss. 8f Syd. in Ann. Myc. XIII, 
1915, p. 383. 

Phyllachora repens {Cd,) Sacc, Syll. II, p. 597. 

On Ficus sp., Kipayo, Aug. 1914, Dummer ^Yt. 

C. tilcerata [Mass] Theiss. ^ Syd. in Ann. Myc. XIII, 1915, 

p. o"". 

PhyUachora ulcerata, Mass, 

On Ficus ovala, VaM., leaves, Kampala, Small 17. 

PhyUachora Desmodii, P. Henn. in Engler, Pflanzenwelt 
Ostafr. 1895, p. 34. 

On Desmodium sp., LnmWa, Mar. -April, 191G, Dummer 2841. 

r. gramlnis (Pers.) FckL, Syml). Myc. p. 216. 

On Panicum sp., Naminyaraa Hill, July 1916, Dummer 2889. 



Hypocreales . 

Nectria flaTO lanata, BerJc. ^ Br. in Journ. Linn. Soc. XIV, 
1873, p. 114. 



Maitland 



,gw 



fl 



but Kas broader (5-6 fj.) and distinctly striate spores. Mixed witli 



297 



the normal form iu tliis material is a variety with spores 
20-24 X 7-8 /z. 

Petcli has pointed out (Ann. Eoj, Bot. Gard., Peradeniya, 
VII, 2, 1920, p. 103), that the spores of this species are subject 
to considerable variation. He thinks it probable that N. jtoccu- 
leuta^ V. Hoehu.j which only difl:ers in the smaller spores, may 
be referred here. As the striation of the spores may also vary, 
it seems possible that N, tjihodensis may eventually be found to 
be also a form of the same species. 

Nectria stigme, Rehm in Hedwigia XLIY, 1904, p. 2. 

On Ustulina zonata, Kipayo, Dumrner 629. 
The spores of this specimen are slightly longer than those 
■described, 5-8 x 4 //. 

N. Rickii, Rehm in Hedwigia XLIY, 1904, p. 2, 
On Bypoxylon sp. on a tree-trunk serving as a bridge, Kisubi 
Porest, Aug. 1918, Maitland 310. 

Spores 12 x 6-7 /x. In Saccardo's Sylloge Vol. XYII, p. 796 
the descriptions of this and of the preceding species are trans- 
posed. In both the spores ai-e brownish and warted when mature, 
but those of TV. Rickii are larger. Probably they are merely 
forms of one species. 

Calonectria guarapiensis, Speg., Fung. Guar., Vug. I, 1883, 
p. 102. 

On Acalyplia friiticosa, Sai, Jan, 1915, Dummer 1336. 
Megalonectria pseudotrichia, Speg., Fung. Arg., Pug. lY, 

1880, p. 82. 

Common. Kipayo, Dummer 641, 1144; Kampala, Sm^Il 4, 
292; Nakinyika Forest, Maitland 144; Xamampe Forest, Mait- 
land 188. 

Phycomtcetes. 

Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenh,) Lind.^ Danish Fungi, 1913, 

p. 72, 

On an Asclepiad, Kipayo, Nov. 1914, Dummer 1199. 

Sfhaeropsideae. 

Phyllosticta Crotalariae, Sacc, SylL XXII, p. 1291. 

The conidial stage of Sphaerella Crotalariae, Petch? See 
Petch in Ann. Eoy. Bot. Gard. Peradeniya III. 1906, p. 2. 
On Crotalaria sp., Kampala, May 1915, Small 329. 
Plioma Heveae, Fetch in Ann. Eoy. Bot. Gard. Peradeniya, 

III, 1906, p. 5. 

On dead twigs of Hevea hrasilieiisis , Kampala, 1913, Small 3, 

Ascochyta phaseolorum, Sacc. in Michelia I, p. 164. 

On leaves of Vigna Catjang imported from Java, and on Vigna 
€p., associated with Aecidium Vignae, Cooke, Kampala, Sviall 

171 250 partly. 

Darluca Fllum (Biv.) Cast,, Cat. PI. Marseill. Sup. p. 53. 

On Imperata arundinacea^ Masindi, /. D. Snoicden, 530. 

Aschersonia Zenkerl, P. Henn. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. XXIII, 

On Fluggea microcarpa, Nagoge, Jan. 1917, Dummer ^061 
partly. 



298 



&' Har 



A. tephrosiicola, P. Henu. in Ann. Mus. Coiiffo II, fasc. 3 

1908, p. 228. 6 , ^ 

Ou Fluggea microcarpa, Nagoge, Jan. 1917, Dummer 3061 
party. 

Associated with tlie preceding species on the same leaves. 
. .^TJi'^'in ^^^""VodiU West, in Bull. Acad. So. Bruxelles, 

XVIII, 1851, p. 396. 

On cultivated Chenopodium album, Mulange, Feb. 1919, 
Dummer 3943. The spores are a little smaller than those of 
the European form. 

S. Coffeae, Wakef. in Kew Bull. 1918, p. 210. 

On leaves of coffee injured by hail, Kampala,' Small 480. 

S. nesodes, Kalchbr. in Grevillea IX, 1880, p. 20. 

On Hydrocoiyle asiatica, Kipayo, Dummer 1338, 1478. 

vT^?*?o''noP^^'!o^. Theobromae, Pat. in Bull. See. Myc. Fr., 

Vlll, loy/Cj p. 136. 

iQ?/? ?''A*'o''^ ^ P""^™ {RapUa sp.?), Wallasi, Bugishu, Oct. 
19ib,y. /;. Snmvden, 478, 482; on petiole of palm leaf, Kitibulu 
Forest, Dec. 1918, Maitland 392. 

The specimens on palm fruits are the strongly-marked 
Lasiodiplodia form. Exactly the same form has been received 
Irom the Portuguese Congo on fruits of Sclerospora Mannii. 

Hendersonia Protearum, Wakef. in Kew Bull. 1918, p. 210. 

On leaves of Protea madiensis, Oliv., Lumbwa, Julv 1916, 

^^CoHetotrichum gloeosporioides {Pem.) Sacc, Syll. Ill, p. 

On lemon leaves and twigs, Kampala, T. D. Maitland. 
t. Camelliae, Mass. in Kew Bull. 1899 p 91 

MaitlanT^^' ^^^'^'^ ^""^ seed-vessels of tea, Kampala, T. D, 

C coffeanum, Noack in Zeitschr. f. Pflanzenkr., 1901, p. 202. 



Loffea sp Kampala 3/arfZani; on coffee twigs, Toro, Small 5i 
Mstin'J^ulh \?^ }^'' T''^' n^«^^"^« ^ G^omerclla which 

indistinguishable from G. cinaulata. R ^ .r Q.T.. 



cingulata, S. & v. Schr. 



13 



P 



^ ^ . ^.^^, ^. ^.nyuiuia, v5. OC V. Schr. 

C.^incarnatum, Ziram, in Centralbl. f. Bakt. u. Paras. 1901, 

On cocoa pods, causing hardening, Kampala, Small 481. 
tion of T.T ^^^PP°^^,d *° ^^ characterised by a blue colora- 
caTe Vult'v ""^ J^^\ ^'^''}'^ ""^ ^^^^^^ In the present 

vei^ tobnW r7.f-^°'^".^ t" ^^ °°* ^t all constant, and it is 
McJeod '. n '^'' 'f .?' ^"^^"^^^^ ^P^^^«« are identical. 
coffe^wTli f^f. f '' ^"^^^^ that Co/Zcfofr.c7Ln, ror..n..m from 
all these Col lit f'- 7"' ^^^/^^^-^rsely. It seems probable that 

forms of thr:v*".f^™^.°^ ^^°Pi^^^ economic plants may be 
lorms of the ubiquitous GlomereUa cmgulata. ^ 

^'^:^'^'^'^^^^ ^^^- - Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr., 
On stems of Cacao, Kampala, Maitland. 



29U 



HyPHOMYCETES . 

Beniowskia Penniseti, WakeJ. in Kew Bull. 1916, p. 75. 

Ou Fennisetum purpnreum, ychum.j and Sorghum vulgare, 
Small 251. 

Cercosporella Gossypii, Speg., Fung. Guar., Pug. I, 1883, 
p. 162, 

On cultivated cotton, native garden, Kipayo, Dummer 1335. 

Periconia byssoides, Pers., Syn. Fung. p. 68G. 

On coffee twigs, Small 29 partly, 31. 



p. 102. 



osporium Ravenelii, Curt, in Grevillea III, 1875, 



T 



1885, p. 63. 



8f C.) Ell. in Journ. of My 



Septoffloeum Arachidis, Rac. in Zeitsclir. fiir Pflanzenkr. 1898, 



p. 66. 



rated ground-nut, Kipayo, 1914, Dummer 1301; on 
Cassia corymhosa^ Mukono, 1914, Duminer 1302. 

Myc. Arg. V, p. 442, m Ann. ^us. Jfac. 



Buenos Aires XX, 1910. 

On SapiuTU Mannianum, Mulange 

C. cannabina, Wakef. in Keiv B%dl. 1917, p. 314. 
On cultivated Indian Hemp, Kipayo, Dec. 1914, Dummerl^2Q. 
C. Cearae, Fetch in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gar. Peradeniya, III, 
1906, p. 10. 

On cultivated Ceara rubber, Kipayo, Dummer 1495. 

C, Henningsii, Allesch. es F. Henn. in Engler, Pflanzeuwelt 

Ostafr., I, p. 35. 

Common on Manihot utilissima, Kampala, Oct. 1914, Small 

170; Kipayo, Jan. 1915, Dummer 1348. 



p. 99. 



4- 



ffea stenophylla and Coff 



322, 323, and 332; on nursery seedlings of cofPee, Kampala, 
Maitland. 

C. Chevalieri, Sacc. Syll. X'XII, p. 1431. 



H 



1908, p. 15. 



On Amorpho phallus sp. Nanianyonyi, Julv 1916, Dummer 



28T9. 



Raciborskii, Sacc. Sr 



On native-grown tobacco, Kampala, Small 15. 

Macrosporium Brassicae, BerJc. in Smitt, 1 



338. 



mer 



1499. 



M. Solani, Ell. ^- Mart, in Amer. Kat. 1882, p. WUS.^^ 

On Datura Stramonium, Kampala, Oct. 1914. Sm^U 1T3. 



Sacc 



Hevea. Mub 



D 



300 



The spores average slightly broader than those of the European 



form. 



Tuberculina persicina {Ditm.) Sacc, Tung, ital. tab- 964. 

On Cissus Afzeliij with Aecidium sp,, Xirerema, Dummer 



2747. 



He 




1895, p. 82. 

On cofiee twigs, Kampala, Small 29 partly. 

F. heterosporum, A^e65, in Nov. Act. Cur. IX, 1818, p. 235. 

On Panicttm maximum, common, Kampala, Small 8, 174; 

Kipayo, Dummer 14G8. 

Epicoccum vulgare, CJ., Icon. Fung. I, p* 5. 
KipRyo, Dummer 608. 

Sterile mycelia. 
Sclerotium Rolfsii, Sacc. 

Associated with a wilt of Carnations, Kampala, May 1919, 
Small 534. 



XLVIIL— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA 

OF SIAM. 

Add IT AMENTUM XI, 
W. G. CHAIB. 

Buettneria sianiensis, Craih [Sterculiaceae-jduettnerieae] ; 
species nova foliis hand lohatis, scpalis facie nentra glabris? 
petalorum appendicibus glabris, corona dorso hand rostrata 
cognoscenda. 

Caules lignosi, voliibiles, primo pilis stellatis brevibus ferru- 
gineis sat dense instructi, mox puberuli, cortice brunneo yel 
rubro-brunneo tenuiter longitudinaliter striato obtecti* Folia 
ovata vel elliptico-ovata, rarius rotundato-ovata, apice caiidato- 
acuminata, basi cordata, ad 20 rm. Imrtra. pf. 14- nm lata, char- 



tacea, supra ad costam nervosque laterales parce pubescentia, infra 

puberula i^isi in nervorum axillis^ pilosa, e basi 7-nervia nervis 

duobus infimis intramarginalibus tenuioribus et brevioribus, nervis 

lateralibus (e costa ortis) utrinque 6, nervis omnibus supra con- 

spicuis subtus prominentibus, nervis transversis numerosis supra 

conspicuis subtus prominulis, nervulis rete supra mox sat con- 

spicuum ef&cientibus, margine Integra, petiolo ad 11'5 cm. longo 

apice et basi incrassato subterete pilis stellatis brevibus parce vel 

subdense instructo striatulo suffulta, pulvino in ramulis brevibus 

valde prominente; stipulae cito deciduae, lineari-lanceolatae, 

pubescentes, circa 7 mm. longae. Inflorescentia axillaris, pedun- 

culo communi circa 2"5 cm, longo suffulta, multiflora, pedicellis 

ad 8 mm. longis cum alabastris dense breviter griseo-puberulis. 

Calyx vix ad basem in segmenta 5 late lanceolata apicem versus 

gradatim angustata acuta 4-5 mm. longa 1-75 mm. lata divisus. 

Petala subviridia (ex Kerr), 2 mm. longa, appendice 3-5 mm. 

longa glabra mstructa. Antherae filamentis brevibus suffultae. 

JJoi Sutep, 900 m., evergreen jungle, Kerr 3252. 



301 

Columbia Winitii, Craib [Tiliaceae-Grewieae] ; ab affiui C. 
flagrocarpa, 0. B. Clarke, caljcis indumento breviore inter alia 
distinguenda. 

Arbor parva (ex Winit); ramuli iuveutute densius pubesceutes 
praetereaque pilis longis divaricatis sat numerosis conspicue 
mstructi. Folia oblonga, apice caudato-acuminata, basi in- 
aecLualiter cordata, in ramulis floriferis ad 16 cm, longa et 8 cm. 
lata, alia 32 cm. longa et 15 cm. lata, cliartacea, pilis stellatis 



supra parce subtus densius instructa, e basi 5-T-nervia, nervis 
supra conspicuis subtus promiuentibus^ nervis e costae parte supe- 
riore utrinque circa 5, nervis transversis inter se parallelis subtus 
prominulis, nervulis reticulatiunem gracilem subtus conspicuam 
efficientibus, margine denticulata et saepe apicem versus lobulata, 
ciliataj petiolo 5-24 mm. longo apice incrassato sufFulta; stipulae 
reflexae, circa 6 mm. longae et 2'5 mm. latae, pubescentes, 
cito deciduae. Inflorescentia supra-axillaris et terminalis, foliis 
plus minusve dimidio brevior, e cymis racemosim dispositis con- 
stituta, pedicellis circa 4 mm. longis, bracteis deciduis. Sepala 
5, oblongo-lanceolata, acuta, 5'5 mm. longa, 2 mm. lata, extra 
pubescentia, intra superne parce pubescentia. Petala oblanceo- 
lato-spatulata, 6-5 mm. longa, 1-5 mm lata, basem versus ciliata, 
intra basi pilosa et glandula elevata orbiculari circa 0'5 mm. 
diametro instructa. Androgynophorum 0-75 mm. longum, apice 
10-lobulatum, ciliatum. Stamina numerosa, filamentis glabris. 
Ovarium dense pilosum; stylus 3'5 mm. longus, staminibus paulo 
longior, inferne pauci-pilosus. 

Lanipun, Me Lee, 480 m., deciduous Jungle, generally near 
streams; flower yellow, dotted scarlet, Khun Winit 340. 

Lao name, Yarp-cliang: Yarp-sam-harng. 

Acer Garrettii, Craib [Aceraceae] ; species nova A. jphilip- 
pinOy Merrill, similis, sed inflorescentia longiore baud glabra 
facile distinguenda. 

Arbor ramulis glabris cortice brunneo vel fusco-brunneo 
obtectis sparse lenticellatis. Folia simplicia, opposita, oblonga, 
oblongo-elliptica vel oblongo-oblanceolata, apice acute obtuseve 
acuminata, rarissime rotundatn, basi cuneata vel late cuneata? 
6-5^15 €m. longa, 2-5-7 cm. lata, chartaceo-coriacea, glabra, 
subtus saepe albicantia, e basi trinervia, nervis basalibus later- 
alibus fere ad folii medium currentibus, nervis secondariis (e 
costa ortis) 3-5 supra conspicuis subtus prominentibus intra mar- 
ginem anastomosantibus nervulis rete pagina utraque prom^inens 
sed inferiore laxius efficientibiis, margine integra, incrassata, 
petiolo 2— 5-5 cm. longo glabro apice paulo incrassato supra prae- 
sertim superne eanaliculato suffulta. Racemi (f ex alabastris 
axillaribus apicem versus ramulorum orti, petiolis subaequilongi, 
praesertim superne pilosuli, pedunculo communi vix 1 cm. longo 
squamarum cicatricibus basi notato suffulti, pedicellis circa 5 mm. 
longis basi bractea parva decidua instructis. Perianthii segmenta 
8, inter se subaequalia, lineari-lanceolata, circa 2-5 mm, longa, 
ciliata. Stamina 8, filamentis ad 4 mm. longis glabris. Ovarii 
rudimentum breve, dense sericeum. 



302 



Doi Intanon, Pali Ngeain, Nortli Peak, 2070 m. Tree 61 cm. 
girtK at 1-3 m. from ground, Garrett 77 (Fi. 21st Oct. 1910).' 

• Leea pallida, Craih [Ampelidaceae] ; species nova ramulis, 
petiolis, inflorescentiaeq_ue ramulis pallida eorticatis, foliis simpli- 
citer pinnatis distincta. 



Frutex circa 1-5 m. altus (ex Kerr), ramulis griseo-cinereo- 



corticatis glabris loiigitudinaliter striatis. Folia simpliciter 
pinnata, 38 cm. longa, petiole communi 6 cm. longo longitudi- 
naliter striate iuferue late canaliculate suffulta, rhachi in sulco 
praesertim superne breviter pauci-pilosa et ad foliolorum inser- 
tionem inter petiolulos pilosa aliter glabra; foliola 7, eblonga, 
lanceolato-oblonga vel terminali oblongo-oblanceolato, apice 
acuminata, basi rotundata vel cuneato-rotundata, interdum parum 
inaequilateralia, terminali cuneato, ad 25 cm. longa et 7 cm- 
lata, cbartacea, supra glabra, subtus pallidiora, ad costam nervos 
nervulosque setulosa, nervis lateralibus utrinque ad 15 supra con- 
spicuis subtus prominentibus, nervulis transversis inter se 
parallelis supra subconspicuis subtus prominulis, reticulatione vix 
conspicua, margine distanter crassius serrata, praesertim inferne 
pauci-ciliata, petiolulo •3~2 cm. longo vel {erminali 25 mm. longo 
suffulta. Inflorescentia corymbosa. Calyx breviter lobatus. 
Corolla generis. Discus 1-75 mm. altus, in segmenta 5 apice 
breviter apiculata fere ad basem partitus. Filamenta Vb mm. 
longa, antberis oblongis subaequilonga. 

Doi Sut'Cp, mixed iungle, 450 m. ; flowers g^roenisli-white, 

Kerr 3390. 

Viburnum Garrettii, Craih [Caprifoliaceae-Sambuceae] ; ab 
affini V . Colehroohiano, Wall, indumento ramulorum et folio'rum 
distinguendum. 

Frutex grandis vel arbuscula (ex Garrett), ramulis iuventute 

dense fulTO-stellato-tomentosis demum glabrescentibus cinereo- 

brunneo-corticatis. Folia elliptica vel oblongo-elliptica, apice 

obtuse acuminata vel caudato-acuminata, basi late cuneata vel 

rotundato-cuneata, 7-21 cm. longa, 5-13 cm. lata, rigide cbar- 

tacea, supra ad costam densius fulvo-subliirsuta, aliter pilis fasci- 

culatiB hie illic instructa, subtus pallidiora, ad costam nervos 

nervnlosqne stellato-furfuracea, nervis latent lil)us utrinc^ue ad 

10-11 antra marginem ramosis supra conspicuis vel baud rarius 

parum impressis subtus prominentibus, margine crassius crenata 

vel serrato-crenata, petiolo ad 2 cm. longo prime dense fulvo-stel- 

lato-tomentoso supra conspicue canaliculato sufEulta. Infruc- 

tescentia et axillaris et terminalis, umbellifomiis, ad 12 cm. 

diametro pedunculo (primario) communi 4-7 cm. longo sufPulta, 

pedunculis secondariis 3-5 ad 4 cm. longig, pedunciilis tertiariis 

ad . cm. longis, pedunculis ultimis paucifloris vix 1 cm. longis, 

pedunculis omnibus furfuraceo-tomentellis, pedunculo communi 

apice bracteis duabus circa 5 mm. longis deciduis instructo. 

cZtl%r \^^^ ^'''''^'" pedicellatus, 5-5 mm. longus, calyce 
en ca 75 mm . longo et stylo 1 -75 mm. longo coronatul ^ 

Mt JNja, ALe Xarng, 840 m., banging over streams, Garrett 102. 

a^oad?J-^'- •f-''"'f ' f"^^"^ [Ebenaceae]; D. Toposiae, Ham. 
qiioad foha similis sed calyce floris masculi valde diversa. 



303 



Arbor parva (ex Collins)^ ramuiis glaLris sicco iuveutute f uscis 
mox cinereo-brunneis vel iere cinereis interduin subnitidis. Folia 
■obiongo-lanceolata, oblonga vel obiongo-oblanceolata, apice saepe 
subacuiiiiuata, sumino apice rotundala, truncata vei intordum 
retusiuseula, basi cuneata vel fere rotimdata, usque ad 20 cm. 
longa et 6*8 cm. lata, coriacea, pagina utraque glabra, costa :iubtus 
prominente supra inferne canaliculata, nervis lateralibus utrinque 
circa 12 intra marginem auastomosantibus pagiua utraque promi- 
nulis, nervuiis rete utriuque prominulum elticientibus, margine 
Integra, petiolo circa 1 cm. longo supra late haud alte canalicuiato 
suii:ulta. InfLorescentia mascula axillaris, e parte inf^riore ramuli 
hornotini orta, e cymulis trifloris tribus constituta, peduneulo 
communi ad 1 cm. longo suft'ulta, pedunculis partialibus ad 5 mm. 
longis, flore terminal! sub^essili, iioribus lateralibus breviter pedi- 
cellatis, bracteis cite deciduis. Calyx 4-merus, utrinque pilosulus, 
vix 1 cm. longuSj lob'is tubo plus minusve dimidio brevioribus 

Lcatis late deltoideis vel ovato-deltoideis apice obtusiusculis 
ciliolatis. Corolla alba (e:s: C oil in s) , imo. basi excepta extra adpresse 
pubescens, tubo e calyce paulo exserto, lobis 4 supra pilosulis 
7 mm. longis 5 mm. latis, Antherae 16, per paria connatae, ad 
5 mm. longae, apice longius attenuatae, filamentis vix 2 mm. 
longis glabris. Ovarii rudimentum conspicuum, pilosum. 



imbi 



Siiraeha (S. Siam), 4-5-6 m., Mrs. D. J. Collins 90, 423. 

Diospyros similis, Craib [Ebenaceae]; ab afiini D. strigosa^ 

Eemsl.;, corolla longiore cognoscenda. 

Arbor parva (ex Kerr) ; ramuli graciles, iuventute sat copiose 
brunneo-hirsuti, denium glabri^ cinereo-corticati et fusco-lehticel- 
lati. Folia oblongo-lanceolata vel oblonga, apice longius attenuata 
vel acuminato-attenuata, summo apice acuta, basi rotundata vel 
fiubcordatula, rarius cuneata, usque ad 13*5 cm. longa et 4 cm. 
lata, rigide cliartacea, supra prime parce pubescentia, mox glabra, 
subtus pallidiora, ad costam nervosque laterales hirsuta, aliter 
pubescentia, nervis lateralibus utrinque 7-8 intra marginem 
anastomosantibus supra conspicuis subtus prominentibus, margine 
integra, leviter recurva, iuventute longius ciliata, petiolo vix 
5 mm. longo terete primo blrsuto demum glabro suffulta. Flores 
masculi albi (ex Kerr) gemini, axillares, ramuiis hornotinis 
saepissime gesti, sessiles, basi perulis imbricatis apice rotundatis 
dorso medio adpresse ferrugineo-pubescentibus interioribus circa 
2*5 mm. longis exterioribus conspicue maioribus instruct!. Calyx 
dorso adpresse strigosus, intra glaber, 6 mm. longus, lobis 4 
lanceolatis acutis4 mm. longis. Corolla extra praesertim superne 
adpresse strigosa; tubus vix 9 mm. longus; lobi 4, oblongo- 
lanceolati, acuti, 5"5 mm. long!, circa 3 mm. lati. Sta7ni7}a in 
fascicula trimera disposita, glabra, antberis angustis longe 
acuminatis. 



Sriracha, circa 30 m., evergreen jungle, Kerr 2112. 



[Ebenaceae] 



minusve 



essili 



bus, calyce minute denticulato, staminibus 20 per paria connati 



^'3 



cognoscenda. 



304 



Arbor circa 15 m. alta (ex Kerr), ramulis gracilibus glabris. 
Folia oblonga vel obiougo-lanceolata, apice acuminata, obtusa, 
basi cuueata, 10-17 cm. longa, 2"5-5-3 cm. lata, chartacea, glabra, 
subtus pallidiora, nervis lateralibus utrinque ad 14 intra mar- 
g-inem anastomosantibus supra subconspicuis subtus prominulis^ 
nervulis reticulationem laxam subtus prominulam formantibus, 
maTi;-ine integra saepius leviter recurva sed basi semper conspicue 
recurva, petiolo ad 1 cm. longo supra canaiicuiato suttulta. 
Flores masculi albi (ex Kerr), in axillo quoque circa 5-fasciculati, 
sessiles, rbacbi abbreviata breviter brunneo-pubescente- Calyx 
coriaceus, sicco ater, elongato-cupularis, dentibus brevibus in- 
clusis 5 mm. longus, setulis paucis adpressis hie illic dorsa 
instructus, dentibus densius breviter brunneo-pubescentibus. 
Corollae glabrae sicco fuscae tubus 7 mm. longus, lobis 5 lanceo- 
latis obtusis circa 6"5 mm. longis. Stamina 20, per paria connata, 
antberis linearibus 3-5-4'5 mm. longis glabris breviter acuminatis- 
filamentis brevibus glabris suffultis. 

Cbiengmai, Doi Sutep, evergreen jungle, 1670 m., Kerr 3198. 

Symplocos Kerrii, Craih [Symplocaceae] ; species nova foliis 
lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis summo apice acutis, 
racemis simplicibus foliis circa duplo longioribus distinguenda. 

Arbor parva vel mediocris (ex Kerr) ; ramuli subgraciles, iuven- 
tute brunneo-pilosuli, mox glabri vel fere glabri, brunneo-corti- 
cati. Folia lanceolata vel oblongo-lanceolata, acuminata, acuta, 
basi cuneata, ad 13 cm. longa et S'd cm. lata, rigide chartacea, 
supra viridia, glabra, subtus pallidiora, ad costam nervosque 
laterales sparse pilosa, aliter pilis sat longis distanter instructa, 
costa supra impressa subtus prominente, nervis lateralibus 
utrmque circa 9 intra marginem anastomosantibus supra con- 

spicuis interdum leviter impressis subtus prominulis, ^ 

revoluta, hydatbodis conspicuis instructa ; petioli circa 7 mm. 
loiigi, supra latius baud alte canaliculati, pilosi, sicco fusces- 
centes. liacemi axillares, simplices, petiolis circa duplo longiores, 
rhacbi pedicelhsque densius pallida brunneo-pilosulis, nedunculo 
communi abbreviate; bracteae deciduae, pedicellis fructus 
luvenilis circa 1 mm. longis. Receptaculum circa 1 mm. altum, 
sericeum. Calyx 1-5 mm. longus, extra sericeus, intra glaber, 
tubo brevi segmentis oblongis vel ovato-oblongis apice rotundatis 
pennicellatis circa 075 mm. latis. Corolla alba (ex Kerr), 5- 
partita, segmentis oblongis apice rotundatis 2-5 mm. longis 
1 75 mm. latis, tubo 0-5-0-75 mm. longo. Stamina baud in 
phalanges aggregata, ad 4 mm. longa, glabra, antberis Parvis. 
Visciu conspicuus, pilosus. Stylus d mm. longus, glaber. 
Fructrrs immaturus ambitu oblongus, viridis, subsericeus, calyce 
persistente coronatus. ' -^ 

Doi Sutep, 900-1020 m., in evergreen jungle, Kerr 890, 2295. 
^I^l^.l'^''^''^.'*^'^:^'^^^ [Styracaceael ; species foliis oblonirls 



ma 



subliirsutis cog^noscenda. 



g-ins pallide 



brevits fmiur.c J r^^' (e^^ ^-r ; ramuli primo sat dense 

iuvin ute ^ll^r ' ^T"""^ P^^^ ^^^^^^^ glabrescentes, cortice 
luventute palhdo mox brunneo vel rubro-brulneo longitudinaliter 



305 



fisso obtecti; alabastra axillaria duo, dense ferrugiiieu-fur- 

furacea, snperiore distiiicte stipitato. Folia oLlonga vel ovato- 

oblonga, apice plus minusve distincte acuminata, summo apice 

costa excurrente apiculata, basi parum inaequilateralia, late 

cuneata vel interdum rotundata, usque ad 12 cm. longa et 5 cm. 

lata, rigide cbartacea, supra viridia vel plus minusve brunnes- 

centia, pilis paucis brevibus stellatis instructa, subtus pallide 

viridia, pilis iisdem sed paulo densius instructa praetereaque in 

nervorum axillis pubescentia, nervis lateralibus utrinque 5-6 sat 

obliquis supra conspicuis vel prominulis subtus prominentibus, 

nervis transversis subtus prominulis, margine anguste serrulata; 

petioli circa 5 mm. longi, supra late cnnaliculati, sicco brun- 

nescentes. Infiorescentia e racemis brevibus in ramulis axillari- 

bus inferne foliiferis racemosim dispositis constituta; bracteae 

angustae, circa 5 mm. longae; alabastra densius subbirsuta, pedi- 

cellis ad 4 mm. longis sufPulta. Corollae lobi valvati. Fructus 

griseus, ellipsoideus, circa 1*2 cm. longus, pericarpio Irregulariter 
fisso. 

Doi AYao, 900 m., edge of clearino- in everg'ieen iunele, Kerr 
2432. J fe > 

Stemona Collinsae, Craih [Eoxburghiaceae] ; a 5. Kerrii, 

■Craib, babitu, nervis transversis baud tarn approximatis subtus 
baud pilosis differt. 

Caulis simplex, erectus (an semper?), sicco iuventute griseo-' 
viridis, mox stramineus, striatulus, longitudinaliter denticulatus, 
40 cm. altus. Folia inferiora ad squamas deltoideas stramineas 
redacta, normalia ovata, apice caudato-acuminata, summo apice 
nervo excurrente mucronata, basi cordata, ad 10 cm. longa et 
7 cm. lata, membranaceo-cbartacea, supra viridia, glabra, subtus 
pallidiora, ad nervos minute scaberula, e basi 13-nervia, nervis 
supra impressis subtus prominentibus, nervis transversis graci- 
libus numerosis pagina utraque conspicuis, petiolo apice basique 
incrassaio 5-7 cm. longo suffulta. Flores viridi-lactei (ex Collins), 
in axillis foliorum et squami"iormium et normalium solitarii, vel 
interdum in axillis superioribus racemosim dispositi, pedicellis 
2'5--4-5 cm. longis 6-7 mm. infra ajncem articulatis apice incras- 
satis suffulti. Perianthii segmenta ad 1-7 cm. longa et 7-5 mm. 
lata. Antherae elongatae, perianthii segmentis subaequialtae, 
filamentis brevibus inferne complanatis suffultae. Ovarium 
generis, ovulis paucis. 

Sriracba, on bank above beach, Mrs. T). J. Collins 399, 131: 
in mixed jungle close to sea-shore, Kerr 4241. 



B 



306 



XLIX.— DISEASES OF THE OIL PALM IN 



WEST AFRICA. 

I 

■ 

E. M. "Wakefield. 

.{With naie.) 

While there is a considerable amonnt of literature dealing with 
diseases of tlie coconut palm, some of which, as bud-rot, are veiy 
destructive, very little is known of diseases and pests of tlie oil- 
palm. Hitherto, in fact, tJiis palm does not appear to have suf- 
fered greatly from the attacks of insect or fungoid enemies, no 
doubt largely because in West Africa, even if not indigenous, it 
appears to enjoy optimum conditions of soil and climate. During 
the past few years, however, various records of diseases of the oil- 
palm in West Africa have accumulated. It may be that with the 
increasing economic importance of the plant more attention is 
being paid to injurious parasites. On the other hand it is quite 
possible that the parasites which attack the coconut and certain 
other palms are at length adapting themselves to the oil-palm, 
and if so it is important for the oil-palm industry that attention 
should be called to this source of danger. 

Information is as yet very incomplete, but it is hoped that a 
summary of such facts as have come to the knowledge of Kew may 
serve to draw attention to the matter, and lead to an extension of 
our knowledare. 

Good specimens of fungi suspected of attacking the oil-palm 
and photographs of typical diseased palms, together with as many 
observations as possible as to method and conditions of attack, 
would be most welcome in this connection. 

I. Eot of trunk due to Ganoderina sp. 
. In 1915 a report was received from Messrs. Lever Bros, con- 
cerning a fungus attacking oil-palms on their estate at Leverville, 
Congo. Specimens of the fungus were sent, and although it was 
obviously a Ganoderma, near to G. lucidum, the material was 
unfortunately too old and decayed for certain specific identifica- 
tion. As far as could be judged it seemed to agree best with 
(r. tumidum, Bres. 

This fungus was stated to be very common in the district and 
widely distributed. It attacked the base of the trunk and was 
most irequently seen on mature trees, but was also observed to 
attack and kill young trees. After the death of the tree the 
fungus persisted for an indefinite period as a saprophyte, thus pro- 
viding a continual source of infection. Moreoverf when the roots 
of dead trees were " grubbed " out it was noticed that much myce- 
lium persisted m the soil. In the same report it w.^ mentioned 
that certain species of beetles bore holes into the base of the palms. 



and may provide access for the spores. 
tl.t l.flr "^ ;,nfo™ation was obtained as to this case, but in 1917 
nnrfp^VTV 1. ;," /^^^^^^arson, mvcolooist for S. Nioerla, re- 
dv .1 t .M ^v'^^i'^ ^^^ oil-palms at Awka and Agwoba 
fe/ T^ rt ^^ (^-noderm/ lucidum, Knrsi. (^ Fames 
ivuclus, hi.). They were old trees, and h^d probably been 



Kew Bulletin, 1920.] 




^i 



V* 




To face page 307 J 



3or^ 



weakened by tapping for wine; lie did not consider there was any 
likelihood of the fungus becoming epidemic- 

This fung-us, G. lucidum, also attacks the Coconut palm, the 



common 



over the world. J.t seems to be only an occasional wound-parasite, 
but even so it may possibly cause considerable loss in districts 
where^it is ^abundant. 

Eecently notes and photographs have been received from Mr. 
R. Swainson Hall, of Cabinda, Portuguese Congo, of a diseaise on 
oil-palms there caused by a species of Ganoderma which he also 
regards as G. lucidurn. This fungus causes a rot of the internal 
tissues near the base of the trunk, and is said by Mr. Swainson 
Hall to be very destructive. The photographs reproduced as 
plates show a healthy (left) and diseased (right) ])alm side by side, 
Plate II. fig. 1 and sporophores of the fuuerus at base of trunk, 
Platell. fi|. 2. -^ ^ ^■ 

In L' Agronomic Coloniale, VoLJV. No. 30, 1920, pp. 187-191, 
Maublanc and Navel have described a similar disease of the oil- 
palm in the islands of San Thome and Principe off the West Coast 
of Africa. The fungus causes a rot, and eventually produces a 
large cavity at the base of the trunk. In this case the causative 
agent was identified by Patouillard as Ganoderma applanatiim. 

From these various records it is obvious that there is widely 
spread in West Africa a trunk-rot of Elaeis guineensis due to a 
species of Ganoderma, There is some doubt as to whether one or 
more species of Ganoderma is concerned. The names G. tnmi' 
dnm (?)j^ G> lucidiim, and G. applanatum have been applied, but 
a priori it would seem more probable that only one species is really 
parasitic, _ It is very desirable therefore that the fruit-bodies of 
any fungi suspected of causing disease, when in good condition, 
should be collected and sent to some recognised systematist for 
identification. 

Whatever may be the species of Ganoderma, however, the 
remedial measures to be taken would be similar, namely, the 
grubbing out and burning of attacked trees, and the isolation of 
diseased areas by deep trenches. As far as is practicable the pro- 
duction of wounds in the process of ''-cleaning'' should be 
reduced to a minimum. Although it is unlikely that infection 
by these trunk-rotting fungi ever takes place through the crown, 
such wounds may offer entrance to other organisms. Obviously, 
^also, felled trunks should not be left lying for any length of time, 
or a crop of sporophores would be produced from which new 
spore-infections might take place. 

II. Bud'Rot? 

Hitherto the disease known as ''Bud-Eof has only been known 
to attack the Coconut Palm. In a report dated Nov, 22, 1917, on 
the occurrence of disease in Coconut and Oil Palms In the 
Southern Provinces of Nigeria, Mr. C. Q. Eajquharson pointed 
out that should a specially virulenL strain of the organism of bud- 
rot ever become evolved, capable of attacking the Oil-palm, the 
practice of cabbage-tapping provides an easy mode of entrance. 
Mr. Farquharson recommended that cabbage-tapping should be 

b2 



308 



rigorously suppressed, and tliat all tapping for wine should be 
prohibited in districts where coconut bud-rot exists* 

In view of this warning, it is disquieting to note that Mr. 
Swainson Hall has reported the existence of a disease of Oil-palms 
in the Portuguese Congo which suggests yery strongly '' bud- 
rot/' He states that the disease attacks the palms during the 
period of fruit-bearing. Young bunches of fruits ripen prema- 
turely, and eventually become dried up. The leaf-bases of the 
younger leaves are infected, and in the course of six to eight 
weeks the leaves wilt and fall over, finally breaking away. The 
disease eventually reaches the soft, succulent growing-point, 
which rots away, and emits an exceedingly foul odour. Attacked 
palms never recover. 

jS"o confirmatory evidence as to the nature of this disease has 
been obtained, but the symptoms, especially the evil-smelling rot 
of the growing-point, are certainly indicative of Bud-rot what- 
ever the cause of the disease may be. Xo such disease has as yet 
been reported from any other districts. 

III. Boring beetles. 

In connection with the possible spread of fungus diseases, in 
particular Ganoderma lucidnm and other trunk-rotting species, 



Mr 



be 



Marshall 



owariensis, P. de B. Mr. Hall states that si .,,^ ^ 

the year he has cut down and destroyed 40 trees attacked by this 
beetle, which attacks not only the trunks but also the top of the 
palm. It is probable that the adoption of measures to decrease 
the numbers of these beetles would also be of use in checking the 
spread of certain fungus diseases. 



L.— STELLARIA OR ALSINE. 

w 

T, A. Sfrague. 

The name Alsine has been applied to three distinct genera, 
namely, Mmuartia, Stellaria and Spergnlaria. Thus Alsine of 



rnian 



na 



the great majority of authors is Minuartia, Linn.; Alsine of 
Britton Small and other American botanists is Stellaria, Linn. ; 
&nd Alsine of Eeichenbach, Iliern and Groves is Sperguli 
J. & 0. Presl. 

• ^!' K^^^j^^ generally admitted that such divergence of usage 
IS to 5e deplored, and the following account of the history of 
/i/sme has been drawn up in the hope that some agreement may 
be arriTed at as to the incidence of the name or its relegation 



sjTionyniy 



igyni 



The genus Ahine, Lmn. (Pentandria Txxgyu.u;, upneaieu m 
the Species Plantarum, ed. 1, p. 2T2 (1753), and Genera 

follows''''^' ' ^- ^'^^ ^^'^^^- ^*^^ S^^^^i^ description is as 



309 



CaK Perianthium pentapliyllum : Foliolis concavis, oblongis, 
acuminatis. 

Cor, Petala quinque, aequalia, caljce longiora, 

Stam. Filamenta quinque, capillaria. Antherae subrotuiidae. 

Pist. Germen subovatum. Styli tres^ filiformes. Stigviata 
obtusa. 

Per. Capsula ovata, unilocularis, tecta. 
Sem. plurima, subrotunda. 

As first constituted, Alsine included two species: 1, A. viediuj 
Linn, [Stellaria media. VilL); 2, A. segetalis^ Linn. {Spergularia 
segetalis^ G. Don.). Linnaeus subsequently added a tliird species, 
A. mucronata, in Species Plantarum, ed. 2, p. 389 (1762). This 
has been identified by different authors with Alsine fasciculata, 
A, rostrata, A. tenuifolia and A. arvaticay all of them species 
of Minuartia, Linn. 

Thus Alsine Linn, (1753) = Stellaria + Spergularia {Delia); 
and Alsine^ Linn. (1762) = Stellaria + Spergularia + Minuartia. 
It included all Alsineae known to Linnaeus which had 5 stamens 
and 3 styles, and was a thoroughly artificial genus, as was pointed 
out by Stokes in 1787.* It differed from Arenaria, Linn., in 
having five instead of ten "stamens. This is illustrated by the 
history of A . mucronata : Linnaeus originally included this 
species in Sp. PL ed. 1, p. 424, as Arenaria vxitcronata (Decandria' 
Trigynia), because Haller had plnced it in Diplosteniones;t he 
transferred it to Alsine (Pentundria Trigynia), in Sp. PL ed. 2, 
p. 389, on the strength of Seguier's statement that the species 
had only five stamens. t 

A Isine^ Linn . , was disintegrated in 1 789 by Yillars, who 
transferred A, media^ Linn., to Stellaria; A. segetalis, Linn., 
to Spergula; and A. mucroiiatay Linn., to Arenariuy as a synonym 
of Arenaria tenuifolia. The ' Linnean genus thus disappeared 

completely. 

In 1791, however, Gaertner recognised that Alsine miicron-ata 
differed generically from Arenaria in its three-valved capsule, 
and revived the genus Alsine ^ with A, mucronata as its type 
species.lt Wahlenberg in 1812 accepted Gaertner's definition 
of Alsine,% and in 1831 included Lepigonum (Spergularia) in 
the genus.** Finally, Fenzl in 1840 reduced Minuartia, Linn. 
(1753) and Cherleria, Linn. (1753) to' Alsine, Wahlenh.^ (1812), 
and excluded Spergularia and HonJcenya. ff The generic name 
Alsine has been used in the same sense by Asa Gray, Boissier 
and Nyman, and in most of the standard European flora-s of the 
nineteenth century. 



* Withering, Arr. Brit. PI. ed. 2. i. p. 323 (1787). . 

t Enum. Stirp. Helvet. p. 389, n. 13 (1742). 

t Se^ui'er, PI. Veron. iii. p. 176 (1754). 

§ Hist. PI. Dauph. iv. pp. 615, 628, 634, 636, 657 (178.9). 

il De Fructibus, ii. p. 223 (1791). 

fFl. Lapp. p. 127(1812). 

•* FI. Suec. i. p. 290 (1831). 
ft Endl. Gen. PL p. 964 (1840), 



310 



As the Linnean genus Alsine originally included only a species 
of Stellaria and one of Spergularia [Delia), it is clearly contrary 
to the recognised rules of nomenclature to use the Linnean name 
for a third genus [Minuartla). This was realised by Reichenbach, 
who in 1832 restricted the Linnean genus Alsine to Spergulariay 
Pers., and proposed a new genus, Sabulina, to receive AUine 
Tnucronata and its congeners.* After Fenzl had reduced Sabulina 
and Mimiartia to sections of Alsine, Wahlenb.,t Reichenbach 
divided Sahulina into two genera, Sahulinu (= Alsine, series 
Sahulineae, Fenzl) and Mimtartiii (= Alsine, series Minuartieae, 
Fenzl)4 

The e^eiieric name Alsine. Wahlenb.. remained in peneral use. 



however, until 1899, when Hiern pointed out that it should be 
replaced by Minuartia, Linn.§ Minu 
H. and J. Groves, 

Hayek, tt Briquet,ti ( 
sede Alsine^ Wahlenb. 



n 



and others, and should super- 



Moss, however, has retained Alsine, Wahlenb., and claims that 
his position is in accordance with the general aims and spirit 
of the International Rules, || || As A. mucronata was not included 
in Alsine until the second edition of the Species Plantarura, the 
acceptance of Alsine, Wahlenb., is contingent on the adoption 
of 1TG2 as the starting point of botanical nomenclature, which 
is contrary to the International Eules and the American Code. 
It further implies the acceptance of what may be termed the 
principle of *' generic residues'' in lieu of that of ''generic 
types/' Instead of attempting to determine the type of the 
Linnean genus Alsine,V[ Moss starts with the Species Plantarum, 
ed. 2, excludes A. media "from consideration because it has been 
transferred to Stellaria, and A. segetalis because it is now 
generally placed in Spergularia (a nomen conservandum), and 

treats the residue, namely, A, mucronata, as the type of the 
genus. ^ 

The principle of '' generic types," on the other hand, is adiuir- 
ably presented in the regulations for fixing generic types proposed 
by a committee of the Botanical Society of America : *** 

Article L The application of generic names shall be deter- 
mined by type species. 

Article 2. The type species shall be the species or one of the 



♦Fl 



t Endl. Gen. PI. p. 964 (1840). 

I Nomencl. pp. 204, 205, nn. 7767, 7768; Ic. FL Germ. V. pp. 27, 28 (1841) 



gton, Man. Brit. Bot. 
Mus., List Brit. Seed 



** I5ull. hierb. Boiss. Sen 2. vii. p. 402 (1 
ft Fl. Steiermark, i. p. 270 (1908). 
It Prodr. FL Corse, i, p. 529 (1910). 
§§ iSyn. itittelenr. FL v. p. 698 (1918). 
III! Joum.Bot.19U, p. 196. 
%% It is shown below that A. media was 
bcience, n.a. xlix, pp. 833-336 (1919). 



311 



species included in the genus wken originallj published (publica- 
tion of the genera of seed j^^^^fs dating from the issue of 
Linnaeus's " Species Plantarum '^ in 1753). 

The remaining Articles are concerned with the principles which 
should be followed in determining the types of genera, and are 
framed in such a spirit as to warrant the hope expressed that an 
international agreement upon the types of all genera may be 
arrived at. 

Moss suggested that Alsine^ Wahlenb., should be treated a» 
a nomen conservandum under Article 20 of the International 
Rules. Had Alsine been a new generic name proposed by "Wahlen- 
berg, more might be said in favour of this course. What it 
would really amount to is the supersession of Minuarfia, Linn. 
(1753), a generic name about which there is no ambiguity, by 
Alsi7ie, Linn. (1762) pro parte, non Linn. (1753). 

A new generic name, Alsi/wpsiSy was propoised for AlsiJie^ 
Wahlenb., in 1903 by Small,* w^ho was perhaps ujiaware 
that the genus in question already possessed seventeen names, 
two of which date from 1753. Even if Fenzl's sections of Ahine 
are regarded as independent genera, the generic names Alsi- 
nanthe, Eeichb., and Mononeuria^ Reichb. {see below) are avail- 
able for the North American species. 

The synonymy of Alsine^ AVahlenb. was given in some detail 
in Dalle Torre et Harms, Gen. Siphonog. p. 157 (1900), but the 
genus was attributed erroneously to Scopoli (as in the Index 
Kewensis), three synonyms were omitted, and Gypsophytum, 
Adans. w~as quoted as a synonym. But Gypsophytum was 
described by Adanson as having a 6-valved capsule, t and was 
based on six species, J three of which are now included! 
genus Are7iaria, namely: Arenaria serpyllifolia, A. saa;atilis Bud 
A. aggregata. The remaining species are Moehringia trinervia, 
Mimiartia tenuifolia and Cerastium strictum, gypsophytum 
was thus a mixture of four genera, but was mainly Aren^riay 
Linn., and Adanson gives a cross reference from Arenana, Linn. 
to Gypsophytum. 



in the 



to 



Although for convenience' sake the writer has hitherto referred 
Alsine, Wahlenb. in accordance with the usual custom, the 
genus should really be ascribed to Gaertner, who was the fiist 
to distinguish it by the number of the capsule valve*, and gave 
A. mucronata as the type species. Wahlenberg himself quoted 
Gaertner's description and figure as defining the genus. If 

In view of the confusion of nomenclature it may not be super- 
fluous to give the principal synonymy of Minuariia, Linn, 

Minuarthi, Linn, Sp. PL ed. 1, p. 89 (IT53); Gen. PL ed. 5, 

p 39 (1754); Hiern in Journ. Bot. 1S99, p. 320 (sensu amphato); 
H et J Groves in Bab. Man. Brit. Bot. ed. 9, p. 60 (190^J; 



^ FL S. B. United States^ e 
tFam. PLii.p.266(ir^3). 

X I.e. 664. 
§ Lc. 520. 
' Fl. Lapp, p. 127 (1812). 



312 



Britten et Eendle, List Brit. Seed-plants, p. 6 (1907); ScMnz 
et Thellung in Bufl. Herb. Boiss. Ser. 2, vii. p. 402 (1907); 
Maire et Petitmengin, Mat. Fl. Geogr. Bot. Orient, iv. p. 48 
(1908); Hayek, El. Steiermark, i. p. 270 (1908); Hand.-Mazz. 
in Ann. JS^at. Hofiuus. Wien, xxiii. p. 150 (1909); Briquet, 



Prodr. Fl. Corse, i. p. 529 (1910); Bornm. in Beih. Bot. 
Centralbl. xxvii. Abt. 2, p. 318 (1910) ; Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. 
Fl. V. p. 698 (1918), escl. sect. Psammophilae [Rhodalsine) . 

Cherleria, Liun. Sp. PL ed. 1, p. 425 (1753); Gen. PL ed. 5, 
p. 194 (1754). ' 

Alsine, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2, p. 389 (1762), quoad A. mucrormta, 
non Linn. (1753), 

Alsme, Gaertn. De Fructibus, ii. p. 223, t. 129, f. 7 (1791); 
Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp. p. 127 (1812); Fl. Suec. i. p. 290 (1831), 

excl. species n. 504-6 {Spergularia et Eonckenya); Kocli, Syn. 
§d. 1, p. Ill (1837), excl. spp. 1-4 {Sperffularia et Honckenya); 
Meisn. Gen. p. 25 (1837) ; Comment, p. 21 ; Fenzl in Endl. Gen. 
p. 964 (1840), excl. sect. Psammophilae; et in Ledeb. Fl. Boss, 
i. p. 341 (1842); A. Gray, Gen. III. ii. p. 33, t. Ill (1849); 
Boiss. Fl. Or. i. p. 669 (1867), excl. series Rhodalsineae ; Nyman, 
Consp. p. 116 (1878), excl. lUwdahine ; Pax in Engl, et Prantl, 
^sat. Pflanzenfam. iii. 1 B, p. 82 (1889), excl. Honckenya et 
Rhodalsine; Moss in Journ. Bot. 1914, p. 200, excL Honckenya; 

et m Cambridge Brit. FL iii. p. 32 (1920). 

Arenaria, sect. Alsine, BentL. et Hook. f. Gen. PL i. p. 150 

(1862) . ■ ^ 

Lepiophyllum, Elirli. Beitr. iv. p. 147 (1789), sine deser. 
[based on Arenaria tenuifoUa, Linn.] 

Siehera [Scbrad. in Sieb. FL Austr. exs. n. 149 fl813)L Hoppe 
in Flora 1819, p. 24. ^ J^^ f^ 

Somerauera, Hoppe, I.e. 26. 

SahuUna, Reichb. FL Germ. p. 785 (1832), sensu lato; 
.io?.';''''l;.P- *^^'^ (^^'^^)' "^^^^ restricts; Ic. Fl. Germ. t. p. 27 

^^i^ iJ ; ^^^- P- ^^^ (l^^l); Hayek, Scbed. Fl. Stir. Exsicc. 
p. 7 (1904). 

Chetropis, Rafin. Fl. Tellur. iii. p. 80 (1836) 

Alsmanthus, Reiclib. Handb. p. 298 (1837) * 

Alsxnanthe,^ Reiclib. Nomencl. p. 205 (184i) ; Ic. FL Germ. 

V. p. ^9 lAlsine, sect, Alsinnnthe, Fenzl] 

Facchinia Reicbb. Nomencl. p. 204, Syn. Red. p. 63 (1841), 
sub voce Lanceolatae " ; Ic. Fl. Germ. t. p. 29 (1841), descr. 
\_Aisi7ie sect. Lanceolatae, Fenzl] 

1/ononeW, Reiclib. INWncl. p. 205, Syn. Red. p. 118 (1841), 
sub voce irnmerviae''[4Z.^V.e, sect. C/mWrme: Fenzl]. 
^eumayera, Reicbb. Nomencl. p. 205, Syn Red b 2 nS41^ 

Tl^r ''f-;ifi-f "; I^- FL^Germ: v?^; 30 (1^41), Yet '. 

yAlsine, sect. Acuti florae, Fenzl] 

|^;At F^nz?' ^''''^ -^"'/^^^ -Spergella" lAlsinl sect. 



* Not seen by the writer. 



313 



Saginella, Reichb. Koinencl. p. 205 (1841) \_Alsifiey sect. 
Saginella, Fenzl], 

Tryphaiiey EeicLb. Nomencl. p. 205 (1841); Ic. TL Germ. v. 
p. 28 [^Alsine, sect. 7'ryphanej Fenzl]. 

Wierzbickia, Eeiclib. NoniencL p. 205, Syn, Red, p. 106 



(1841), sub voce ^^ Spectabiles '' [Al 



sect. Spectabiles, 



' Grenieraj J", Gay in Ann. So. Kat. Ser. 3, iv. p. 27 (1845). 

Xeralsine^ Fourr. in Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s. xvi. p. 347 
(1868).* 

AlsinopsiSy Small, Fl, Soiitlieastern United States, ed. i. p. 

419 (1903). 

It sbonld be pointed out that tlxe synonymy of Miiiuartia as 
given above does not include RJiodalsine, J. Gay, Hymenella, 
Mogino et Sesse (Triplateia, Bartl), and Honkenya^ Ehrb., whieb 
are here regarded as independent genera. 

The genus Mononeurlay Reichb., seems to have been over- 
looked by all authors except Post and Kuntze, Lexic. Gen. Phan. 
p. 373 (1904), who refer it doubtfully to Arefuxria: it was not 
included in the Index Kewensis, nor in Dalle Torre et Harms, 
Genera Siphonogamarum. 

Phlehanthe (sphalm. Plilehanthia) , Reichb. and Psavimanthe, 
Eeichb., are included in Ind. Kew. and Gen. Siphonog.^^as 
doubtful genera of Caryophyllaceae. At first sight No. 7775, 
Fhlebanthia, 7776, Mononeuria and 7777, Psammanthe (Reichb. 
NomencL p. 205) appear to be nomina nuda; but they are defined 
in the Synonymorum reductio, pp. 106, 118, 94, as synonymous 
with Alsine, sections Spergella, Fenzl, I 
Psammophilae, Fenzl, respectively. At that time Endlichers 
Genera Plantarum had just been published, and the correspon- 
dence of Reichenbach's genera with Fen^Fs sections of Alsine 
was more obvious than it is at the present day. ^ A list of FenzPs 
sections and Reichenbach's equivalent genera is subjoined. 



mnervtae 



EndK Gen, pp. 964=5 



Reichb. Nomencl. pp. 204=5 



, r- 



1. Sahulhieae. 

2 . Minuartiede . 

3. Tryphane, 

4. Aretioideae, 

5. Lanceolatae, 

6. Acutiflorae. 

7. Spectabiles. 

8. Cherleriae, 

9. Saginella. 

10. Spergella. 

11. Alsinanthe, 

12. Uninerviae. 

13. Psammophilae 



7768 
67 



i i 



7709. 
7764. 
7765. 
7773. 

7772. 
7766. 
7770. 

f I * o . 



(184!). 

Sabulina, Reichb. 
Minuartin, Loefl. 
Tryphane, Reichb. 
SieberQj 'Schrad, 
Facckinia, Reichb. 
Neumayera, 
Wierzhickia 



Reichb. 



Hall 



iTie 



Phlehanthe, Eeichb. 
7771. Alsinanthe, Reichb. 

7776. Mononeuria, Reichb. 

7777. Psammanthe, Reichb 



* Xot seen by the writer. 



314 



It has been sliown tKat tlie naa-'e Alsine cannot legitimately 
be applied to Minuartia, Linn. The question now is : should it 
replace Stellaria, Linn., or Spergidaria, J. et C. Presl, or be 
relegated to sjnonymj. A satisfactory answer cannot be given 
without tracing the history of its application to Stellaria and 
Sperffularia respectively. 

In 1772 Ahine was restricted to A. media, Linn., by Scopoli;* 
the two other Linnean species not being represented in his flora. 
He accordingly included the characters " petala bifida" and 
" capsula quinquevalvis " in his generic diagnosisi Instead, 
however, of uniting Alsine with Stellaria, he retained Alsine 
in Pentandria_ Trigynia-, and placed Stellaria in Decandria 
Digynia. He included in Stellaria various species now referred 
io Stellaria, Moehriugia, Arenwia, Minuartia, Spergula, Sagina 
andCerastiumf Evidently no great importance is to be attached 
to Scopoh's conceptions of the genera of Caryophyllaceae. 

Savi, n. Pisana, i. p. 323 (1798), and Host, Fl. Austr. i. p. 
40o (1827) also restricted Alsine to A. media, Linn. 

The name Alsine was first usedf as equivalent to Stellaria 
28 years after the transference]: of A. media to the latter. Stokes 
employed it m this sense in 1812, but included Ilolosteum 
cordatum, Lmn. {Drymaria cordata) in the genus. § 
_ The substitution q| Alsine for Stellaria was so manifestly 
inconvenient that this application of the name fell into disuse. 

Ij93, however, a further attempt was made to replace the 
name^ Stellaria by Alsiwe, as a result of the adoption of the 
principle of priority of place " hj the Botanical Club of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science. The 
change was proposed by Britton, as follows : 

Alsme,!,. Sp. PI. 272 (1753). I note that this generic name 
must, on the recognition of priority of place, and the beginning 

42l''m53)""^ ^^ ^^^' ""^^^^^^ ^^^^'^''''^ Stenaria, L. Sp. PI 

As given in the Species Plantarum, the Linnean Alsine is 
composed of ^. media (Stellaria media. Smith), and A. segetalis. 
now referred to Tissa." \\ - i^ n 

r.l}\ ^'""j "^ argument might be summarised thus : Alsine media 
precedes^, segetalis on p. 272 of the Species Plantarum, and 

LtI"^ ^' regarded as the type of Alsine, which accord- 

inffiy becomes svunn^-TYinna ^\\^. c*^77„ •_ r^» U 



names, 



Bcomes synonymous with StelUria. Of the two generic 

±•H,.'?„"f^^^^'^?P'^^• ^V\r-:--f on an eariier paj^e. 



ana 



meit of A J°'u "^''^rf^ ^^'^^" ''^^^ *^« United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture; at the Gray Herbarium, however, StellaAa 

r After l.o3. LinnaeuB used AMm in the sense of SMlaria in 1735 arul 

Hil^^pPSauph^^H • p^TlJ'rfifiof ^fl^- T^ independently by Villar.. 
p. 418 (1796). ^ P' ^^ ^^^^^^' *"*i Witherincr. Arr. Brit. PI. ed. 3. ii. 

\ S°n ^^*- ^^^- "• ^- 536 (1812) 

II Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 1893, xx/p. 277. 



1 



315 



is retained in accordance witli tlie International Rules, and 
Jepson, Flora of "Western Middle California, adopts the same 
attitude. .Forty new combinations under Alsine have been pro- 
posed for North American species of SteUaria; and eight new 
species of SteUaria have been published under Alsine. Kobinson 
mentions an example of the haste in which the change of nomen- 
clature has proceeded: "the Alsine Jamesii of Holzinger, 
supposed to represent SteUaria Jamesii, Torr., in reality rests 



mixtur 



» 



>ned 



form of the cosmopolitan S. media." 

Some of the more important generic references of SteUaria are 

given below : — 

SteUaria, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1, p. 421 (1763); Gen. PI. ed. 
5, p. 193 (1754); Cp-ill. Char. Comm. p. 3G (1784); Till. Hist. 
PI. Dauph. iii. p. 615 (1789), emend.; Gaertn. De Fructibus, 
ii. p. 229, t. 130, f. 3 (1791); Endl. Gen. p. 909 (1840); A. Gray, 
Gen. 111. ii. p. 37, t. 113 (1849); Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. i. 
p. 149 (1862); Boiss. Fl. Or. i. p. 705 (1867)x»man Con=p. 
p. Ill (18T8); Pax in Engl, et Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. iii. 
1 B, p. 79 (1889); Eobinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. 
part 1, p. 232 (1897) ; Eobinson et Fernald, Gray's New Man. 

Bet. p. 381 (19U8). 

Alsine, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1, p. 27< ^ ^. ^ . 
Linn.); Linn. Gen. ed. 5, p. 132 (1754), pro parte; Scop. Fl. 
Carniol. ed. 2, i. p. 224 (1772); Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. u. p. 
536 (1812), excl. A. rotundifoUa; Britten in Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club, 1893, XX. p. 277; et in Mem. Torr. Bot. Club, v. p. 149 
(1894); Kuntze, Eev. Gen. iii. p. 12 (1898); Brittoil, Man. Fl. 
Northern States & Canada, p. 394 (1907) ; Britton et Brown, 111. 
Fl ed. 2, ii. p. 41 (1913); Small, Fl. South-eastern United 

States, ed. 2, p. 421 (1913). . w • 

Eeichenbach appears tb have been the first to restrict Alsme 
to Spergidaria, in his Flora Germanica Excursoria, p. 566 (1832). 
He included the following species: A: segetalis, L., A. rubra, 
Wahlenb., A. marina, Mert. et Koch, and A. mdrginata (DC.). 
All four species are now refeiTed by most authors to Spergularia, 
but .4. segetalis is sometimes regarded as the type of an indepen- 
dent genus, Delia, Dum. 

Eeichenbach's action was not followed by his contemporaries : 
the generic name Spergularia was adopted in Endlicher's Genera 
Plantarum (1840), and in most standard floras published since 



that date. 

ftfr Snera, 



Hiem 



laria t and the name was accepted m the same sense 
by H. and J. Groves in 1904,:!: and Britten and Eendle in 1907.§ 
In 1906, however, Spergularia was placed on the list of Nomina 
Conservanda provided for in Article 20 of the International 

Eules. II 



♦ Bot. Gaz. 1898, xxt. p. 166. 

t Journ. Bot. 1899, p. 317. 

t Babington, Man. Brit. Bot ed. 9, p. 6' ( f^4). 

§ Brit. Mus., List. Bnt. Seed-plants p. ^ aW7) 

\\ Act. Congr. Bot. Yienna. 1905, p. '1^1 (190b). 



316 



A selection of the principal generic references of Spergularia 
under that name and Alsine is given below. The remaining 
generic synonyms may be found in Harms et Dalla Torre, Gen. 
[Siphonog. p. 158, and Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. v. p. 825 
[Spergularia) and p. 852 {Delia). After Alsine, the oldest name 
for the genus is Tissa, Adans. (1TG3). Schinz and Keller, Fl. 
Schweiz, ed. 3, p. 204 (1909), restrict Alsine to Delia, Dum., 
which they treat as an independent genus. 

^ Sperguiaria, /. et C. Presl, Fl. Ceoh. p. 94 (1819) ; Fenzl, 
in Endl. Gen. p. 962 (1840); et in Ledeb. Fl. Eoss. ii. p. 165 
(1844); A. Gray, Gen. 111. ii. p. 27, t. 108 (1849); Benth. et 
Hook. f. Gen. PI. i. p. 152 (1862); Rouy. et Fouc. Fl. France, 
111. p. 299 (1896); Act. Congr. Bot. Vienna, 1905, p. 241 (1906); 
Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. v. p. 825 (1919). 

Arenaria, sect. Sper,gularia, Pers. Syn. i. p. 504 (1805). 

■ Alsine, Linn. ,Sp. PI. ed. 1, p. 272 (1753), pro parte (A. 
segetahs, Lmn.); Reichb. Fl. Germ. Excurs. p. 566 (1832), 

?fi'.°>f 't?*'"'^'''^^- P- ^^2' ^- ^306 (1841); Fl. Sax. pp. 311, 433 

(1842); Hiern m Joum. Bot. 1899, p. 317; H. et J. Groves in 
Babmgton, Man. Brit. Bot. ed. 9, p. 67 (1904); Britten et 
Kendle, List Brit. Seed-plants, p. 6 (1907) 



w^the tjTpe of Alsine, Linn. (1753-4). Alsine was a Tourne- 
tortian genus adopted by Linnaeus in 1735.* His description 
m Gen PI ed 1, p. 133 (1737) included the characters " petala 
bipartita, '' filamenta decern," " styli tres - and '' capsula 
sexYalvis, and he added the following note : " Quaedam species 
luxuriatstylis qumque, alia filamenta facillime deiicit, ut vix 
numerari queant." In the Hortus Cliffortianus, p. 172 (1737), 



Holostea 



^. media, S. nemorum and S. aquatica. Alsine, Linn. (1737) 
was therefore equivalent to Stellaria, Linn. a8 circumscribed at 
he present dajr (mrlnding MalacMum). When Linnaeus pub- 
lished his Species Plantarum, ed. 1, however, he broke up this 
natural genus m strict accordance with his sexual system : he 
tS. *'•' ^""^''Y ?^i^^^ ^-l^ich was pentandrous, to Pentandria 
\tlTr ' ^l\^^^^^ f.e generic name Alsine for it ; and placed 



Pentagyn 



aqnatica, which was pentagynous, in ' Decandria 



1753 w^r •'''''' ^'^^'t^^^- His caryophyllaceous genera of 
Jhan those "f J?^^'^^^^ ^' ^^^ ^^^-.-^ -ueh ll natural 

^^'l^''^^ "'""^'"t^ ^ ''?°^^ 'P^"^^ ^^"-^^^^ ^^•^'■'^^ in Sp. PL 
previ(;u Iv .-r' '^i'!^^'^^ a species which had not appeared 
t\a ?his wn, ;r f l^^s^^I^s. It can hardly be maintained 
leir^rb I ^^ f^Ahrne^ Linn. (1753) rather than A. 
meda, which was included m Ahine, Linn. (1737) t 

appHLbi:7o" i'TT'^n ?'/¥- '^ Gen. PL ed 5 is equally 
to cover bo h ^,^,^PP^^^^,^^^) \^ ^^^ two species. It was designed 
xo cover both, as is evident from the omission n^ +T,. ...^"kL ^t 



e omission of the number of 



* Syst. Kat. ed. 1, Decandria Tripynia (1735) " ' ^ ^ 

auinen.in in Diet. ^iZ'Sll K^^xY p.^o?a8S).^^" ' ^- ''' (''''' ^"'^ 



317 



capsule-valves; and tlie description of the petals as longer than 
the sepals fits neither. 

On historical grounds, then, the application of the name Ahine 
to Sfergularia (or Delia) is inadmissible; and AlsinCy Linn, may 
be regarded as synonymous with Stellaria, Linn. If 1737 were 
taken as the starting point of botanical nomenclature, Ahine 
would supersede SteUaria, but imder the International Ilules and 
the American Code the nomenclature of vascular plants begins 
in 1753. 

The arguments for the retention of Stellai-m may be stated as 
follows : 

r 

1. The description of Stellaria in Gen. PL ed. 5, (1754), is 
more accurate and complete than that of Alsine : it includes 
the important characters '^ petala bipartita " and ^' capsula 
sexvalvis.*' The description of Alsine^ on the other hand, is 
vague, covering the common characters of two discordant 
elements, and it is inaccurate as regards the relative length of 
sepals and petals; the number of capsule valves is not mentioned. 

2. Eight species were comprised in Stellaria in Sp. PL ed. 1, 
pp* 421, 1196, five of which are still recognised as belonging to 
the genus, namely, S, nemorum^ dichotoma^ radians ^ Holostea 
and graminea, S. cerastoides (Cerastium trigynum) was included 
because it had only 3 styles; and S. hiflora [Minuartia hiflora) 
and S. Arenaria [Arenaria spathulata) because their petals were 
emarginate, Alsine comprised two species, o)ie of which was a 

Stellaria. 

3. The five species under Stellaria are typical, whereas the 
single species under Alsine [S. media) is aberrant, the androecium 
having become reduced in correlation with the more frequent 
occurrence of autogamy. 

4. There is no ambiguity about the name Stellaria,^ whereas 
Alsine has been used for three different genera. 

5. The first author who united Alsine with Stellaria chose the 

latter generic name.t 

6. The name Stellaria has been in general use for the genus 
from 1753 down to the present day. Alsine has been used since 
1893 in place of Stellaria, by the adherents of the American Code 
of K'omenclature, and by Otto Kuntze. 

The fact that the name Alsine is more ancient than Stellaria 
cannot be adduced in favour of retaining the former by those 
who recognise 1753 as the starting point of botanical nomen- 
clature. Linnaeus replaced Alsine^ Tourn. by Stellaria, Linn., 
and quoted the former as a synonym. J He made a new genus 
Alsine, Linn, for the reception of two pentandrous Alsineae. 
The fact that one of these {A, media) is now recognised as 
belonging to Stellaria does not justify the revival of a Tourne- 
fortian name which Linnaeus deliberately rejected in favour of 
one of his own invention. 



* Stellaria, Kuntze, is CalUtriche, Linn., but the name has not been taken 

up bj other botanists. 

t Cyrill. Char. Coram, p. 36 (1784). 
+ Gen. PL ed. 5, p. 193(1754). 



318 



Under Article 46 of the International Eules,* Stellaria, Linn, 
has precedence over Alsine, Linn,, because the name Stellarm 
was chosen by Cirillo who was the first to unite the two genera. 

Under Canon 13 of the American Code,t Alsine has ^n'ecedence 
over Stellaria because it appeared on an earlier page of the same 
work. . 

The International Rules leave the choice of two generic names 
of the same date to the judgment of the first botanist who united 
the genera. The American Code makes it dependent on ^^ priority 
of place," a principle which is not recognised as valid bj a 
majority of botanists. 

As regards species which are united there is some small logical 
basis for ''priority of place": as a rule a species adequately 
known to the author will precede one which is imperfectly 
known. But as regards genera the case is different : they are 
commonly arranged according to some system of classification : 
and " priority of place '' applied to the Species Plantarum simply 
means that a generic name in Pentandria, for example, has prece- 
dence over one in Decandria, whatever tHe arguments in favour 
of the latter. 

In view of these considerations it is to be hoped that the 
question of ''priority of place'' may be reconsidered by the 
American Permanent Committee on Nomenclature. 

On the other hand, Article 36 of the International Rules 
prescribing a Latin diagnosis for new groups might be re-con- 
sidered at the next International Congress. The way would then 
be prepared for a world-wide agreement on nomenclature. 

SrilMARY. 

1. The liistory of tlie name Alsine and its application to 
Stellaria, Spergvlaria and Minuartia has been traced. 

2. The type of Alsine, Linn. (1753) is A. media, Linn. 

3. Alsine, Linn., thus becomes synonymous with Stellaria, 
Linn. The latter name should be adopted under the International 
Rules. Under the American Code, ho^vever, the former name is 
adopted m accordance with the principle of " priority of place," 
m spite of six strong argximents in favour of Stellaria. This 
suggests that " priority of place " as regards genera should be 
abandoned, as leading to undesirable results. 

4. Alsme,Unn. emend. Gaertn. (1791) should be replaced by 
Minuartia, Lmn. (1753). . 

5. Alsine, Linn, emend. Eeichb. (1832) should be replaced by 
S'pergidana, J. et C. Presl (a noraen cor ^ ^ . ,.•'- 
International Rules). 

6 The name Alsine thus disappears altogether. This is u 
distinct advantage, as it has been applied to three different 
genera and is no w quite ambiguous. 

^ 

hS choke rannof "Jrn I-r^r ^"l^^ ^'^^ «™^ ^*t« "^'^ a«t^o^ ^^^ooses. and 
f Of l.r^r n-u^"^-'^^? ^^ subsequent authors. 

preceden'rof ^wtn ^^ l^V"™^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^' t^« same time, those having 
Sp PI 42r ■ -'"* '" *•" ^^ regarded as having priority over Stellaria, L. 



servan 



319 



LI.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTE. 

John Gilbert Baker. — By the death of Dr. J. G. Baker, 
jbMt.iS., on August lUtli, l\)'^y)j Kew mounis the loss of one who 
for nearly 66 years ^ave of his best to the promotion and 
encouragement of the botanical work of the itoyal Botanic 
Gardens. 

Born on January 13th, 1834, at Guisboro', Yorkshire, he early 
devoted himself to botanical studies, and on April 1st, 1866, was 
appointed Assistant to the Librarian at Kew. In 1SS4 he was 
promoted to the position of Principal Assistant in the Herbarium 
and Library, and in 1890 succeeded to the office of Keeper of the 
Herbarium and Library on the retirement of the late Prof. L). 
Oliver. He retired from this office on January 12th, 1899, after 
having completed 32 years and 10 months of devoted and ^elf- 
sacrificing public service. 

His contributions to botanical science were numerous and 
valuable, but it is rather as the kindly, helpful and appreciatiA^e 
•friend that his memoiy lives with us a treasured possession. 
Combined \\^ith the charm of his character, his keen sense of 
.honour and love of beauty in poetry, art and nature will long be 

remembered. 

He was an able teacher, and his lectures to the young gardeners 
at Xew were a source of delight to himself and a keen stimulus 

to his classes of students. 

Sir William Thiselton-Dyer, in a letter to a friend after his 
death, writes: — ''I always felt for him an affectionate regard. 
He was helpful to me in my early years, and a faithful support 
to me at Kew. He was one of the best of men. In his serene 
disposition he was at peace with God and man. His life was one 
of cheerful devotion to useful and conscientious work, and in it 
he leaves behind him a worthy monument. To those who knew 
him his memory will always be fragrant.' ' 

Dr. Baker's contributions to botanical literature were very 
numerous. About 400 papers appear under his name in the Poyal 
Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers. This catalogue and the 
lists of publications by the members of the Kew staff, printed 
in the Kew Bulletin, 1897, pp. 1-81, 238-240, and 190T, Appendix 
v., form an almost complete bibliography of his botanical work. 
He assisted Miss Willmott in her monograph of Rosa (1910-14), 

• - - - yj 



being ^^ of especial service in drawing up the specific characters 
The following are additions to the lists mentioned above: — 

Description of the new species and principal varieties of 
Lily discovered since the publication of the monograph of 
Elwes (1880). (Journ. E. Hort. Soc. xxvi. pp. 335-345, 
with figs. 175-179; 1901.) 

Biographical notes on the early botanists of Xorthumher- 
land and Durham. (Nat. Hist. Trans. XorthumberL, Durh., 
etc., xiv. pp. 69-86; 1902.) 

[Biographical memoir of A. W. 'Bennett.] (Journ. E. 
Microsc. Soc. 1902, pp. 155-157, with portrait.) 

Fritillaria askhabadensis. (Gard. Chron. 1902, xxxi. 

TDD. 237-238. with fi?.) 



320 



^ 



Lycoris Sprengeri, Comes. (Gard, Cliron, 1902, xxxii 



p. 469, with plate.) 



pp. 28-30; 1903.) 



[obituary notice], (Proc. Linn. See. cxv. 



Beitrage zxir Kenntnis der afrikanisolien Flora, herausg. 
von Hans Schinz; Liliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Velloziaceae. 
(Bnll. Herb. Boiss. 2e ser. iii. pp. 663-668; 1903.) 

The genus Albuca in the Herbarium of . the Albany 
Museum, G 
1904.) 



Mus 



vised classification of Eoses, 1905. (Journ. Linn. Soc. 
xxxvii. pp. 70-79; 1905.) 

North Yorkshire: studies of its botany, geology, climate 
and physical geography. Ed. 2, pp. xviii. + 671 and 3 maps. 
London, 1906. (Trans. Yorks. Bot. Union; Bot. Ser., vol. 

... V 
111.) 

Kaspberrles and brambles. (Gard. Cbron. 1907, xli. 
pp. 33-34.) 

Botany [of Yorkshire] (Victoria History of tlie County 

of York, pp. 111-172, with map. London, 1907.) 

Eupbrasias of I^ortb-East Yorkshire. (Naturalist, 1909, 
p. 79.) 

Thymus ovatus in North Yorkshire. (Naturalist, 1909, 
p. 371.) 

Thiselton-Dyer, Flora of Tropical Africa, vol. vi. Sect. 1. 

Nyctagineae, Illecebraceae, Phytolaccaceae, Polygonaceae, 
Podosteniaceae, Cytinaceae, Piperaceae and Monimiaceae, 
with additions by C. H. Wright (pp. 1-14, 94-134, 143-1556, 
167-171; 1909). e ui , 

Amarantaceae and Chenopodiaceae, with C. B. Clarke 
(pp. 14-94; 1909). 



H. W 



H. Wright (pp. 134-143; 1909). 



Santalaceae, with A. W. Hill (pp: 411-434; 1011). 
Freesia Armstrongii.(Gard. Chron. 1910, xlvii. p. 169.) 

New plant localities in North-East Yorkshire. (Naturalist, 
1911, p. 309.) ^ 

n-Po®-.o*^^^^^ *^^ Burnham Beeches. (Journ. Bot. 1917, pp. 
-ct o— 278.) 

William Foggitt. [Obituary notice.] (Joum. Bot. 1917, 

/r.^^^^^^^ ^^'^ physical geography of the Holy Land. 
(Gard Chron. 1917, Ixii. jyjy. 245-247', 2G0, with figs. 93-96.) 

iQ?a "^1^,^- ^^^*'''- [Otituary notice.] (Journ. Bot. 

iyio, p. 191.) 

c+?1 "^'^l,^^^^^^, 0^ ^^^^^^t 19th in the Friends' Burial Ground 
at Islewor^h and the staff at Kew-mnny of whom were present- 

Zl ^' ^ 1 1 ""^^ ""i ^^'''" ^^"'^^^"^ ^ ^^^^*1^ composed entirely of 
S^^ ^:^?t"TiirH.-^-\^-^ ^---^ ---of the principal 



botanical research 



Printed 



BfTas Tr.t^.?'''^ c ^'^ MAJESTY'S STATTOKSKT 

i5y Jas. Trusoott and Son, Ltd., Suffolk Lane. E.G. 4. 



> 



[Oroivn Copyright Reserved. 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 



No. 10] 



[1920 



LII.-A WILT OF CARNATIONS, NIGELLA, 
DELPHINIUM AND COSMOS, WITH A NOTE ON 

SCLEROTIUM ROLFSIL 



iW, Small. 



May 



a garden near Kampala, 



Uganda, were observed to be dying by stages. The plants wilted 
gradually, paling of tlie lower leaves being succeeded by the col- 
lapse of the whole plant. The outer tissues of the underground 
parts of the stems of affected plants separated readily from the 
wood, and an easy pull from the ground broke off the plants. This 
disintegration of the tissues just under the soil surface was marked 
by a blackened sunken soft area, longitudinally arranged, and 
evidently a characteristic symptom of the disease. It was found 
to be of regular occurrence. 

Histological examination of the wood immediately under the 
discoloured area, which was invariably stained a dark colour, 
showed it to be permeated with mycelium. This internal 
mycelium varied in thickness, was much branched, and was 
seen to pass freely from tracheids to parenchyma without con- 
strictions. The main hyphae in a tracheid would give off 
numerous slender branches which could be followed as they 
penetrated the pits. In only one dead plant a second mycelium 
which will be referred to later, was found between wood and 
bast It WSLS remarkable for the numbers of crystals occurring 
aloncr its course. This second mycelium was found also externally 
on the diseased cro^-n of the plant, and, in this position, it was 
accompanied by sclerotia as well as by crystals, and determined 

as Sclerotium Rolfsii, Sacc. . a • * 

On the dead leaves of wilted plants were found a species of 
Periconia and a Macrosporium ^^^i^h resembled 3/ nobi^eVj^e 
figured by Massee on p. 504 of his "Diseases of Cultivated Plants 

(1222.1 Wt.135-P.47. 1.000. 12/20. J.T. &S.,Ltd. G- 11. Scb, 12. 



322 



and Trees'' (1910). It may be significant, in view of what 



Macro 



Ma 



spoTiwn 



J 9 



As far as can "be judged 



om 



the figure, these 



Frisariiivi spores resemble those snbseqnently referred to in this 
paper, and also those figured by Dr. Van der Bijl in his account of 
a South African wilt of carnations.* The Uganda wilt under dis- 
cussion is undoubtedly similar in all respects to that described by 
Van der Bijl, and it is unnecessary, in view of the previous publi- 
cation of his paper, to go into full details. 



ISOLATION or THE FUNGUS. 



In attempts to show whether the Uganda wilt was the same as 
that of South Africa or to discover another cause for it, if such 
existed, small pieces of tissue were cut with sterile instruments 
from the underground diseased areas of wilted carnations, already 
described, and, after sterilisation in mercuric chloride (1 : 1000) 
or flaming in alcohol, were shaken up in tubes of solid media and 

consisted of 2| per 



me 



poured into petri-dishes. The 

cent, carnation-, prune-, ox sugar-cane-agar. 

Mycelial growth took place at laboratory temperature after the 
lapse of twelve hours, and microconidial formation was very 
vigorous after three days. After fourteen days the conidia were 
three-, and, later, multi-septate and of a Fusarium type. 
Chlamydospores were produced in abundance both terminally and 
intercalarly. The aerial mycelium, at first faintly pink in the 
mass, became after twelve days of a deep pink colour. 






V 





I 



Fig. 1.— Mycelium, conidia and conidiopkorea of Fusarium 
sp. from Carnation, in pure culture, 36 hours, X 500- 

H 

, Subcultures were subsequently made on banana plugs and 
prune-agar slants, and the latter were used in inoculation experi- 
ments. The colour of the banana-plug mycelium was at first 



- • Yan der Bijlt "Wilt >r "Crown Rot" Disease of Carnat 
Fv.tarxi>.m ep.— Aunala Appd. Biology, II., 267, 1915-16 



323 

■m 

iaintlj grey, and afterwards pink, while that of the prune-agar 
mycelium was a very faint yellow succeeded by a pink. Chlamy- 
dospores appeared in these culture's in six days. The fungus was 
also grown from microconidia placed in sterile distilled water. In 
this case the mycelium assumed a rosy -pink colour which became 
almost dark-red. It was many-septate, globulcd and apparently 
brittle, and numerous conidia and chlamydospores were 
developed. 

At the same time whole diseased carnation plants were care- 
fully sterilised and afterwards placed in damp chambers; these 
were found to develop upon and in the neighbourhood of the 
sunken area of the crown aerial mycelium of a white-pink colour 
accompanied by conidia after the lapse, of twelve days. This 
mycelium and the conidia were indistinguishable from those 
obtained from the cultures mentioned above, and from those found 
in further cultures derived from them by transferring mycelium 
-and conidia directly into tubes and plates. 

^ 



^ISOLATIOISr OF THE FUNGUS FROM WILTED IVIGELLA A^V DELrillNIUM. 

,";. A few days after the receipt of the wilted carnation material, 
3ying plants of love-in-a-mist (iVt^^Z/a) and larksiMiv (Delphiniurn) 
, were found in the same bed of the same garden which afiorded the 
"examples of carnation wilt, and, after a further few days, a dying 
plant of Cosmos (hipinnatus?) was similarly collected. 

All these were found to show the same macro-symptoms as the 
wilted carnations, and, histologically, to be attacked and per- 
jmeated in the same parts by mycelium similar to that found in 
the carnation material; On the exterior of two of the Delphinium 
tap-roots were found mycelium, conidia, and chlamydospores 
which were shown to be identical with material of cultures 
derived from the Delphinium plants! No mycelium or sclerotia 
of Sclerotiuin Rolfsii were found on either the Nigella, Delphi- 
nium or Cosmos material. 

Whole plants of Nigella and Delphiniuin were sterilised by 
immersion for ten minutes in mercuric chloride solution (1 : 1000), 
and small pieces of tissue from the blackened areas near the crowns 
were cut out under sterile conditions and placed in prune-agar 

Tlift Tpmnins of the iilants were nut into damn-chambers. 



plates. 



Nigella 



mycelial growth occurred on collars and tap-roots after the lapse 
of thirty-six hours, and after a further twelve hours Fusarium 
microconidia were in abundance. The conidia were one- or three- 
septate and varied in length fontn 10 to 20 /a, the more elongated 
being comparatively narrower than the shorter forms. . The 
mycelium was white and flocculent. Sets of banana-plugs were 

■subsequently inoculated, with microconidia from both host plants. 
Growth was comparatively slow, for no aerial mycelium was 

■visible until three days had elapsed and no conidia were found 

"until twelve days later. These . conidia were smpll, and suc- 
cessive crops of them did not attain the size of those used io 

.inoculate tlie banana plugs until after twenty-jfour days. The 

a2 



324 



mycelium in both sets of cultures was latterly of a dark-grej 
colour with, a faint pink tinge in parts. 





3 











Fig. 2. — Conidia from pure culture o£ Fusarium sp. from Nigella, X 500. 
Fig. 3. — ilicroconidia and a chlamydospore from same culture as 2, X 500^ 

The tissue fragments of both Nigella and D elpJiinium in prune* 
agar giwe rise overnight to aerial mycelium which was wliite, 
flocculent, septate, branched, finely-granular, and of an average 
thickness of 5 /x. Growth, continued vigorously, and after four 
days microconidia were very numerous. These were succeeded 
by macroconidia and chlamydospores after a further twenty-four 
hours. 







Fig. Jr. — Forniatiou of terminal conidia in same culture as 2 and 3, X 500- 

Fig. 5. — Conidia of Fusarium sp. from Delphinium, X 500. 

The Cosmos^ material was rather scanty, and it was unfortu- 
nately impossible to isolate from it pure strains of the fungus at 
work. But it sliould be noted that a Fusarium was found exter- 
nally upon it, and tliat tlie conidia and chlamydospores of tliis 
Fusarium. were identical witli those found on the Nigella and 
Delphiniii^ material. It coiild not but be observed that tbero 
was a striking resemblance between the species of Fusarium 
isolated from the carnation, Nigella and Delphinium plants, and 
tbere seemed to be good ground for the conclusion that the fungu3 
at work was tbe same in all three cases. As it was desirable 
to study more closely tban had been done tbe differences between 



•■JrC'J 



the strains from the different liosts, further cultures were made 
hj inoculating sugar-caue-agar slants with conidia derived in 
each case from the original tissue fragments in petri-dishes. 
These cultures were tept under exactly similar conditions. 

Mycelial growth was visible in all m forty-eight hours, and 
after seventy-two hours the surfaces of all the slants were covered 
with flocculent mycelium bearing numerous microconidia. The 
ihen prevailing colour of the carnation culture mycelium was 
white to pale-yellow- of the Nigella, honey-yellow, and of the 
D €12)11171111711 , faint pink. After six days the Nigella and 
Delphinium cultures showed numerous couidia measuring up to 
40 by 7 /i and becoming three- to five- and multi-septate. 
Chlamydospore-formation took place in all three strains on the 



seventh day. 



Nig 



strains of the Fusarium were alike in respect of the time-develop- 
ment of conidia though not in respect of the numbers of conidia. 
The carnation strain, again, lagged behind in the production of 



macroconi 



than those of the other strains. After sixteen days the carnation 
slants were producing very numerous microconidia and only a few 
macroconidia. The latter measured up to 30 by 3 /z, and were 
commonly only three-septate. They were thus smaller than the 
same conidia of the other strains. The many-septate condition 
was fairly scarce, and the chlamydospores measured up to 8 /x in 
diameter. 

^ Of the three strains when judged from the standpoint of the 
rigour of conidial production and the sizes of the mature conidia 
at equal ages, that derived from the Nigella material was the 

^. that from the carnation material the least so. 
Judged by the same standards, the fungus from the Delphinium 
material tended towards an intermediate position between the 
Nigella and carnation strains. In other words, the physiological 
expressions of the three strains varied silightly, and this variation 
was accompanied by slight morphological differences. As a 
consequence, the results of the cross-inoculation experiments 
which were instituted were anticipated with interest. 

INFECTIOIS^ EXrEHIMEXTS, 

Series of plants were grown in large tins in soil which had been 
treated in the autoclave at 115^ C. for an hour. Imported seeds 

wilt-free plants were used, and control pots 
were kept in each case. The inoculum employed consisted of small 
pieces of agar with conidia and mycelium of the fungus^ and the 
viability of the mycelium and spores was tested in hanging-drops 

-of sterile distilled water. 

The first series of experiments consisted of the direct inoculation 
of the Fnsarium from carnation, Nigella and Delphinium 
•cultures into the soil of tins containing respectively 
Nigella and Delphinium plants. The inoculum was treated 
in two ways (1) by being placed from | in, to 1 in. 



o;s trom 



carnation 



growing 



plants, and (2) by being placed against wounds made in the plants 
by cutting or scratching with a sterile scalpel from f m. 



326 



to 1 in. below tlie soil surface. After the inoculations and 
wounding of tlie control plants when necessary, all the tins were 
kept in one place out of doors. During the ensuing period when 
the plants 'were under ohseiTation, tlie rainfall amounted to 
6" 79 in. distributed very evenly over forty days. 

The Nigella plants, both wounded and unwounded, were the 
first to show signs of disease; the typical sickly appearance was 
noticed after six days. Complete collapse of the first diseased 
plants took place after twenty days. Meanwhile, the carnations 
and Delphmiums began to wilt, tJie periods between first signs o£ 
disease and death ranging from fifteen to eighteen days. All the 
inoculated plants of all tliree species were dead in thirty days. 
No difference could be detected between the behaviour of wounded 
and that of unwounded plants. Removal of dead plants from tho 
soil disclosed the usual softened area, and the Fusarium sp. waa 
isolated (by the tissue-fragment method) from all except one car- 
nation plant. All the controls remained healthy. 

"While these experiments were in progress a series of cross- 
inoculations was undertaken. Sets of six tins each of plants of 
carnations, Nigella and Delphinium, were inoculated in the two 
ways already mentioned, each set of three with material from 
cultures from all three host-plants. In "this way carnations were 
inoculated with the fungus from carnation, Nigella and DeJphi- 
7uum; Nigella lAaiits were inoculated with the fungus from 
Nigella, Delphinium and carnation; and Delphinium with, the 
fuDgus from Delphinium, carnation and Nigella. The plants in 
all the tins were slightly thinned out, a clear line was made across 
the middle of each tin, and the plants of one-half were set aside as 
controls. At the same time, six lots of Cosmos plants were treated 
si^^il^i'ly and inoculated with the Fusarium from carnation, 
Nigella and Delphinium. ' 

The results of these cross-inoculation experiments were remark- 
ably consistent. All the sets of inoculated plants, including 
those of Cosmos, contracted the wilt disease and succumbed to it; 
the time elapsing between the observation of first signs of sickness 
and death varied from nineteen to thirty-one days. Again, no 
ditterence was noted between wounded and unwounded plants, and 
ngam tJie Z' usarium sp. was recovered from wilted plants by the 
tissue-fragment_ method. It could not be said that there were any 
really distinct signs of greater pathogenicity in one strain than in 
the others, though such signs were looked for, but on the other 
hand it seemed clear m a few cases that the recovered Fusarium 
was of the Nigella or Delphinium type rather than the carnation 
type, or vice-yersa. For example, certain plants of Niqclla 
wl ""i ^}\-^^f carnation strain gave, on recovery of the 
n3rn, • '""'-S •"^^'^'''^ *>'P^ °^ ^u.ar.-um with the very 
an^ slv^^.r'7°'r't % "^^ *^." slowly-developing macroconidia, 
^wTn ft^ ' '^ C'ofno. inoculated with the iV.-^eZZa strain 
W .Lf V. ' ^^^v^^^ ^'^'^^'^ ^y^' ^"it^ it^ early-m^tturing 
aTo'ther wnr?- "'°'"?''V , .^^f o^tunately, pressure of routing 

also prevented the question of combating the Fusarium with soil 



3-^ 



^k 



fungicides from being undertaken. It seems clear, liowever, tliut, 
whatever morpli'ological and physiological difierences may exist 
between the diSerent strains, the results of the cross-inoculation 
experiments lend themselves to the one interpretation, viz., that 
the species of Fiisariiim under investigation is the cause of a wilt 
of carnations, Nigella, Delphinium and Cosmos. 

The control plants of the cross-inoculation experiments were 
kept under observation for some time, and it was noted that the 



ma 



Several of the carnation plants adopted a rosette-like habit of 



grovi 



Control m£.s.suees- 



Neither quicklime nor formalin was available and could not be 
tried. The bed which originally yielded the examples of wilted 
carnations, Uelphinium, iMgella and Cosmos was treated with a 
solution of carbolic acid (1 oz, to 1 gallon of water), at the rate oi 
1 gallon of solution to every four or five square feet. The Ireat- 
me'nt was not successful, for replanted carnations, etc., were 
attacked and killed by the Fusarium. Subsequently, a proprietary 
soil-fungicide (Fungal) was dug into the diseased soil in small 
quantities, roughly at the rate of two or three ounces to a cubic 
foot of soil. Kesults are not available, but it is felt that an 
extended use of Fungal might prove successful. Again, the addi- 
tion of a drop of 10 per cent. Izal to 25 c.c. of solid medium pre- 
vented growth of the Fusarium in culture. This disinfectant, 
therefore, might be usefully employed, but, as has been indicated, 
it was not possible at the time to experiment fully. A satisfac- 
tory method of freeing soil from parasitic fungi with a material at 
once cheap and easily handled has yet to be discovered, and it is 
now generally recognised that help may be profitably sought 
oftener along the lines of selection and lu'eeding of resistant or 
immune varieties than along those which lead to the uae of 
chemical fungicides. 



o 



I^olf. 



The occurrence of mycelium and sclerotia of Sclerotium 



If 



lystal 



ciated witli it were found to dissolve in strong hydrochloric acid. 
Further investigation showed it to have penetrated the wcody 
tissues of its host along with Fusarium mycelium, but it was 
always distinguishable from the latter bythe presence of the 
crystals which are presumably characteristic of Sclerotium 

Pure' cultures of this fungus were easily prepared by transfer- 
ring sclerotia to decoctions of sugar-cane m petri-dishes. 
Mycelial growth and the formation of sclerotia were jerj rapid, 
thfwhole^dish becoming within a few days a ^t-g fel^ed^m^- 
of hvphae dotted with sclerotia m various stages of development. 
^yySZZ ,-. P.lture and in nature are more or less spherical. 



be 



dark-brown, and they resemble mustard seed m 



Size 



328 



.mycelium of the cultures was aerial, white, flocculeiit, septate, 
with, numerous crystals, and, in arising from a sclerotium, it 



m 



''flowed,^' as it were, in aggregated and twisted strings which 
originated at definite points. 

In sclerotial-formation, masses of hyphae stand erect from the 
substratum of mycelium. They are duinb-bell-shaped in the 
earliest stages. Gradually, the free end of the mass rounds itself 
off, becomes more compact, and changes colour from an intense 
white to a pale brown. When it is fully mature, the sclerotium 
is easily detached. The point of attachment is often 
a dimple, and it may be darker in colour than the body of the 
sclerotium. During growth the sclerotia are covered with 
droplets of moisture. Occasionally the hyphal mass will form a 
twin sclerotium which is then dumb-bell-shaped. The core of a 
sclerotium consists of a densely-woven mass of hyphae, while the 
covering strands forming the exterior are arranj^ed in one direc- 
tion. The latter may be slightly ragged, but the sclerotium is, as 
a rule, perfectly smooth. In one culture which was contaminated 
with a green mould, the growth of mycelium was sufficiently pro- 
fuse and rapid to smother and eventually to overwhelm the 
mould. 

In sterile distilled water the growth of mycelium from a sclero- 
tium was very sparse, and no new sclerotia were formed in the 
space of three months. Similarly, sclerotia placed in sterilised 
soil moistened with sterile distilled water gave rise to mycelia 
which were comparatively weak in amount, but strong enough in 
growth to attach themselves to small stones. Growth, however, 
ceased altogether in twenty days. Young pale-brown sclerotia 
could not be induced to push out mycelial strands. No conidial 
stage was found in any of the cultures. 

A few infection experiments were conducted with Sclerotium 
Rolfsii by placing sclerotia and mycelia from a culture amongst 
soil in which were growing carnations, Nigella^ Delphinium and 
Cosmos, No results were apparent, although the plants were kept 
for several months. Subsequent exhumation of the sclerotia 
proved that no mycelial growths had taken place. The fundus 
may have occurred as a saprophyte only, and its scarcity may have 
been accounted for by its lack of means of dissemination ; but, 
again, a soil-moisture stimulus was evidently not sufficient to pro- 
voke development, and the infection sclerotia were not placed in 
contact with the plants. Mature sclerotia placed in smnll quanti- 
ties of prune decoction in watch-glasses, usually filled the watch- 
gla5;ses with a growth of mycelium in twen'tv-four hours, but 
similar sclerotia when treated first by Immersion in a solution of 
Izal(l: 100) or carbolic acid (1 oz. to 1 gall, water), for five 
minutes, and afterwards placed in prune decoction, showed no 
growth at all. The effect of Fungal, tested by immersing sclerotia 
for twelve hours m open jars of soibcontaining the fungicide, was 
similar, viz., total inhibition of growth. 

This reco^a of Sclerotium Rolfsii is the only one for Uganda, 

and no allied form has vpf hpAn ^r^i^-nA ^^ ^^^ '^t, i««j. ^ 



329 



LIIL— DIAGNOSES AFRICANAE : LXXIV. 

m 

1661. Bolusla rhodesiana, Coj^hishley [Papilionaceae- 

<jralegeaej ; affinis B. amhoe?isi, Harms (Phaseolo amhoeiisij 
vScMnz), sed innovationibns leviter pubesceiitibus, foliolis 
plerumque angustioribus longioribusque, petiolulis basi conspicue 
pubescentibus, caljcis lobis (praesertim fructiferis) inulto 
longioribus differt. 

Herba perenuis, e basi ramosa, 0'3-0'75 ni, louga, leviter 
pubescens, lignosa. Folia digitatim 3-foliolata, linearia, glan- 
duloso-punctata, foliolis basi cuneatis sessilibus apice minute 
mucronulatis ad 2"5 cm. longis, 05-1 cm. latis, lateralibus multo 
breyioribus, costa infra pubescente; petioli usque ad 1 cm. longi^ 
adpresse pilosi; stipulae foliaceae, oblique cordatae, erectae^ 
glanduloso-punctatae, 7 mm. longae, 5 mm, latae. Flores 
pauci ; rachis terniinalis vel folio opposita ; pedicelli leviter 



I 



ilosi, 5 mm. longi; bracteae circiter 4 mm. longae, ciliatae, 
racteolis brevioribus linearibus. Calyx O'8-l cm. longus, lobis 
patentibus circiter 06 cm. longis. Vexillum glabrum, striatum; 
alae circiter 8 mm. loiigae; carina spiraliter eontorta, resohita 
usque ad 5 cm. longa, nitido-aurea. Genitalia inclusa, eontorta. 
Leguvien tnrgidum, 3 cm. longum, rostrattim, glabrum. Semina 
multa, immatura reniformia, compressa, 3 mm. lata^ fxmiculo 

1*5 mm. longo. 

Tropical Africa. Southern Rbodesia, without definite 

locality (probably Eusape), Hislop 26. 

1652. Mairea feliciodes, Hutchinson et Corhishley^ [Com- 

positae-Asteroideae] ; affinis M. lasiocarpae, DC, sed f oliis oppo- 
sitis multo latioribus (nee subteretibus), capitulis majoribus, 
achaeniis breviter pubescentibus diSert. 

Suffrutex ramosus; rami vetustiores teretes, cinerascentes, cir- 
citer 3 mm', diametro; ramuli hornotini laxe folia ti, adpresse 
strigoso-pilosi. Folia opposita, sessilia, oblongo-lanceolata, basf 
attenuata, apice subobtusa et recurvata, usque ad 2 em. longa, 
3-5 mm. lata, coriacea, setoso-pilosa. Capitula terminalia, longe 
pedunculata, usque ad 5 cm. expansa; pedunculus nudus, breviter 
pubescens, circiter 7 cm. longus. Involucri bracteae sub- 
Tiniseriatae, oblongo-lanceolatae, acutae, 8-9 mm. longae, extra 
strigosae, intra nitidae, marginibus membranaceis. Flores radn 
numerosi; coroUae tubus angustus, 3 mm. longus, minute 
puberulus; lamina circiter 2 cm. longa, apice minute trifida; 
styli rami filiformes, 3 mm. longi. Flores disci: corollae tubus 
basi constrictus, 7 mm. longus, basin versus leviter puberulus ; 
lobi anguste triangulares, acuti. Achaenia compressa, elhptica, 
2-5 mm. longa, breviter pubescentia. Pappi setae corollae tubo 
longiores, plumosae, pallida stramineae. 

South Africa. Griqualand West: Asbestos Mts., 1200 m., 
July 1894, R. Marloth 2018 (type) ; Colesberg, near the Orange 
Eiver, W'. Knohel (without number). 

A verj' distinct species on account of the opposite leaves, wliicH 

■are exceptional in the genus. 

1653 Mimusops Macaulavae, Hutchinson et Corhishley 
[Sapotaceae-Mimusopeae] ; affinis J/, umhracuhgerae, nobis, 



330 





A 




6 





j!:h. 

selm^J^'^^il^T^i f^'-'\^^^'^y^'^; nobis :-!, flowerinc. branch; 2, corolla 
frJm n?l^a? 1 7"" ^^T^ appendages and stamen frorn within ; 3, the same 
»pt-^zj;rinLit' r^^'^r^'^^"^'^^' 5,staminode; 6, pistil. B.~Mtmusops 
Sen f'ro^ it7 ' ""T^!^ ^^""^'^^ ^'"^ ^'« '^^ lateral appendages and 
4 SnminoX^ ^ .''•V-i' *n^ '^T *^^™ ^''^^^^^' 3. -stamen from Suts.de; 
se^ent and N Av^l i • ,^'~^^'^^^ops umbracuUgera, nobis :-l, corolla 

Sff 3 stamen Wn^T^^PPr^'^"^'' ^^^"^ ^^^hin; 2. the same f^m out- 
SSaiJder enlarged ^"'''^' ' ^' ^^''^-"^od^ ^ ^^ I-ti] :--Al slightly reduced , 



331. 



sed foliis^ infra lanato-pubescentibus, pedicellis longioribiis^ 
petalis apice iutegris, stamiuodiis prof untie bilobis diftert. 

Ea7nulihif01m.es, elongati, efoliati, abbreviati brevissimi, apice 
dense foliati et floriferi. Folia oblongo-elliptica, apice emar- 
ginata, basi obtusa, 2*5-4 cm. longa, 1-3-2 cm. lata, coriacea, 
supra laxe pubescentia, infra lanato-tonientosa, neryis lateralibu^ 
inconspicuis ; petioli 5-6 mm. longi, tomentosi. Flares infra folia 
dense aggregati, pedicellis ex axillis foliorum delapsorum oriis 
recurvatis circiter 8 mm. lougis tomentosis. Sepala videntur 
3 + 3, ovato-eliiptica, circiter 4 mm. longa et 2 mm. lata^ 
exteriora pubescentia. Corollae segmenta sepalis isomera^ 
oblongo-lanceolata, apice obtusa, marginibus undulatis, 3 niiih 
longa, 1 mm, lata, a2:)pcndicibus lateralibus oblongis fere aequi- 
longis. Stamina petalis isomera et opposita; iilamenta filiformia, 
circiter 2 mm. longa; antherae 2'5 mm. longae; staminodia plana, 

oblonga, apice j)rofunde biloba, lobis triangularibus vel lineari- 
bus. Pistillum 4 mm. longum,,ovario ovoideo-globoso breviter 
pubescente in stylum glabrum lineare abrupte contracto. 

Tropical Africa. K'ortliern Rhodesia, ilumbwa, Mrs. Maccnt- 
lay 1002. 

1654. Mimusops spiculosa, Hutchinson et Corhishley [Sapo- 
taceae-Mimusopeae] ; affinis J/. Mochisia, Baker, sed foliis 
pubescentibus minoribus, pedicellis et antberis brevioribus, 
staminodiis filamenta similibus differt. 



I 

rute^ 



g'osis glabris. Folia, 



ad apices ramulorum brevissimorum dense aggregata, oblanceo- 
lata, apice emarginata, basi breviter angustata, immatura 2-3 
cm. longa, 0'8-l'2 cm. lata, tenuiter cbartacea, discoloria, 
utrinque lanato-pilosa, nervis lateralibus inconspicuis; petioli cir- 
citer 4 mm. longi, tomentosi. Flares infra folia dense aggregati, 
pedicellis ex axillis foliorum delapsonmi ortis recurvatis circiter 
6 mm. longis adpresse pubescentibus. Sepala 3 + 3 vel 4 + 4, 
ovato-elliptica, circiter 4 mm. longa et 2 mm. lata, extr^ 
pubescentia. Corollae segmenta sepalis isomera, oblongo-elliptica, 
integra, apice rotundata, 3 mm. longa, 1 mm. lata, appendicibus 
lateralibus 2 paullo minoribus. Stamina petalis isomera et 
opposita; fllamenta spiculiformia, 1"5 mm, longa; antKerae 
crassae, 2 mm. longae; staminodia filamentis similia sed paullo 
breviora. Pistillum 3 mm. longum, ovario pubescente in stylum 
glabrum sensim attenuato. 

Tropical Africa. Rliodesia: Tictoria Falls; spreading shrub 
on cliffs round Gorge, November 1905, C. E, F. Allen 185. 

1655. Mimusops umbraculigera, Hutchinson et Corhishleg 

[Sapotaceae-AIimusopeae] ; affinis J/, densiflorae, Engl., sed 
foliis utrinque pubescentibus, staminodiis irregulariter dentatis 

differt. . i. i- 

Hamuli subverticillati, cortice verruculoso cmereo obtecti, 

infra apicem circiter 7 mm. diametio. Folia ad apices ramu- 
iorum dense aggregata, oblanceolata, apice rotundata et emar- 
ginata, basi attenuata, 3-5 cm. longa, l-l'T cm.^Iata, jumora 
tenuiter cbartacea, discoloria, supra fere glabra, mfra molliter 



332 




pubescentia, nervis lateralibiis utrinsecus circiter 12, a costa sub 
engulo recto abeuntes; petioli 4-5 mm. longi, pubescentes. 
Flores infra folia dense aggreg^ati, pedicellis ex axillis foliorum 
delapsorum ortis recnrvatis circiter 5 mm. longis pubescentibns. 
Sepala 3 + 3 vel 4+4 rare 5, ovata, 3"5 mm. longa, 1'5 mm. lata, 
praecipue exteriora extra pubescentia. Corollae segmenta sepalis 
isomera, oblongo-lanceolata, apice leviter denticulata, circiter 3' 5 
mm. longa, appendicibus lateralibus 2 paullo brevioribus. 
Staviiiia petalis isomera^ opposita; filamenta ultra 2 mm. longa, 
a basi latiore linearia; antlierae 1*5 mm. longae; staminodia 
oblonga, apice irregulariter dentata, vix 1 mm. longa. Pistillwm 
3'25 mm. longum, ovario breviter pubescente, stylo longiore 
glabro. 

Tropical ArMCA. Southern Rhodesia : without definite 
locality or collector, Herh. Dept. of Agric. S. Rhodesia 

r 

1656. Holmskioldia speciosa, Hutchinson et Corbishley 
£Yerbenaceae-Yiticeae] ; affinis H. tettensij Vatke, sed foliis late 
ovatis crasse crenatis infra eonspicue glandulosis calyce fructifero 
distincte lobato difiert. 

Ramuli lignosi, teretes, breviter et molliter pubescentes, 
lenticollis paliidis notati, internodiis circiter 2 cm. longis. Folia 
late ovata, apice triangularia, basi late cuneata, 2"5-4 cm. longa, 
2-3 cm. lata, crasse crenata, crenis paucis (circiter 3) rotundatis, 
supra brevissime setuloaa, infra pallidiora, eonspicue glandulosa 
et breviter pubescentia, nervis lateralibus utrinsecus circiter 3 
utrinque prominulis pubescentibus, venis laxis infra distinctis; 
petioli 7 mm. longi, dense pubescentes. Flores in cymas axillares 
paucifloras usque ad 4 cm. longas dispositi; peduiiculi graciles, 
molliter pubescentes ; bracteae inferiores plus minusve f oliaceae, 
spatulato-obovatae, usque ad 7 mm. longae; pedicelli ad 1'2 cm. 
longi, supra medium bracteolis oppositis linearibus pubescentibus 
minime 2 mm. longia. Calyx coloratus, accrescens, late turbina- 
tus, extra glauduloso-pubescens, tubo 1 cm. longo, lobis late 
rotundatis apice mucronulatis nervosis rigide membranaceis fructi- 
feris patulis usque ad 2-5 cm. expansis. Corolla 2-2-5 cm. longa, 
extra glandulosa et molliter pubescens; tubus ad 1'5 cm. longus, 
lobis circiter O'G-l cm. longis laxe pubescentibus. Stamina 
longe exserta,^ circiter 2*5 cm. longa, filamentis glabris, ftntberis 
2 mm. longis. Ovarium superne pallide tomentosxim; stylus 
stamina paullo excedens, gracilis, glaber. Fructus truncatus, 



4-coruiculatus, calyce accrescente inclusus. 

South Afeica. Transvaal : Komati Poort, 29 Nov. 1917, I. B. 
Pole-Evans 16879. 

Holmskioldia is a small genus of Verhenaceae witb a very 
Son 1^ distribution. In tbe foothills of tbe Himalaya (3000- 
&UUU tt.) and m the Kbasia Hills of India it is represented by one 
sjyecies H. sangutnea, Eetz; in the basin of tbe lower Zambesi 
and bbire Eivers of East Africa, H, tettensis, Vatke, //. spines- 
cem \^ike H. mucroTmfa, Vatke, occur; an unnamed species 
(Ambongo, PerviU eG72) has been found in Madagascar, while the 
new species described above, comes from the North-Eastem 
xransvaal. Ihe genus is separated from Clerondendron and Vitex 



333 



hy the rather fiiail characters of the simple leaAes associated with 
the coloured accresceiit oaljx, Avhidh characters individually 
occur in both these genera. The distribution, however, might 
probably be explained by separate evolution from either of these 
genera in the respective areas. 




1. 



Holniskioldia speciosa, slightly reduced ; 2. — opened calyx sliowuig 

fruit X 2; 3. — corolla X 2, 



' 1657, Vitex Pooara, Corhisldey [Verbenaceae-TitxeeaeJ j 
affinis F. isotjemi, L. S. Gihbs, sed minus hirsuta, foliolis 
angustioribus, cymis laxioribus, bracteis minoribus differt. 

" Arhor, ramis junioribus primum lanato-tomentosis demum 

Folia 



ferrur^iiieo-pubescentibus, vetustioribus glabrescentibus, 
3-5-foliolata; foliola sessilia, obovata, basi cuneata, apice rotun- 
data et breviter cuspidata, 4^75 cm. longa, l'7-3 cm. lata, supra 
breviter puberula, subtus pubescentissima et minute glandulosa, 

secundariis utrinsecus 9-14 infra prominentibus; petioli 
usque ad 8*5 cm. longi, breviter tomentosi. Inflorescentia 
axillaris, foliis brevier; pedunculi usque ad 4 cm. longi, cymarum 
ramuli circiter 1 cm. longi, tomentosi: pedicelli circiter 1'5 mm. 
4ono-i; bracteae lineares, 2-3 mm: longae, tomentosae. Calys 



nervis 



334 



mm 



dentatus, _ intra glaber, extra hirsutus. Corolla (imperfecta 
tantum visa) bilabiata, calyce parum longior, extra breviter 
tomeiitosa, 3-6 mm. longa, lobis circiter 1 mm. longis, alabastro 
incurvis. Stamina inclusa. Stylus circiter 5 mm. longus, 
fihformis, breviter puberulus. Fructus drupaceus, ellipsoideo- 
globosiis, usque ad I'S cm. diametro, I'T cm. longus, leviter 

■y.-lobatus, basi calyce accrescente cupulari circiter 8 mm. longo 
cinctus. 

South Afeica. Transvaal : Modder Xek ; Nijlstroom, Jan. 10, 
1920, /. B. Pole-Evans 19671 (type); Nijlstroom to Springbok 
Hats, Marcli 6, 1904, /. Burtt-Davy 1722; near Warm Bath, 
VVaterberg, Jan. 1906, H. Bolus 12233. 

Vernacular name " Pooar " (Burtt-Davy). 

1658. Hymenocardia capensis, Hutchinson [Euphorbiaceae- 
Pkyllantheae] ; affinis //. ulmoidi, Oliv., sed foliis plantae 
foemmeae minoribus apiee rotundatis (baud breviter acuminatis), 
fructus lobis apice imbricatis differt; syn. //. ulmoides, var. 
capensis, Pax in Eng-1. Bot. Jahrb. xxviii. 22; //. ulmoides, 
Hutcbmson in Dyer, Fl. Cap. v. 410, partim, non Oliv. 
^ Frutea circiter 1-25 m. altus et 1-75 m. diametro; ramuli 
]uniores brevissimi, puberuli, annotiui cinerei, glabri. Folia 
oblanceolata vel obovato-elliptica, basi breviter cuneata, apice 
rotundata, 1-2 cm. longa, 07-1 cm. lata, firrae cliartacca, glabra, 
mlra pallida ;_ nervi laterales utrinsecus 3-4, prominuli ; petioll 
2-3 mm. longi, puberuli; stipulae mox deciduae. Inflorescentiae 
Cf m ramuhs lateralibus brevibus confertae, circiter 1-3 cm. 
longae; axis gracillimus, puberulus; bracteae late spatliulatae, 
cihatae. Calyx profunde 5-lobus, lobis rotundatis dense ciliatis. 
liacemi $ ramulos laterales breves terminantes, usque ad 4-flori ; 
edicelli fructiferi graciles, 4-8 mm. longi, glabri. Fructus 
reviter stipitati, late orbiculares, late alati, circiter 1-5 cm. 
diametro, glabri, alis basi connatis apice imbricatis. 

South Africa. Delagoa Bay; Ma tola, Schlechter 11725 cf- 
rolana near Lorenzo Marques, sandy soil, fr. 11 Jan. 1920, 
/. M. Borle 301 (Herb. Pretoria). 

In dealing witb tbis genus for tbe Flora Capensis I bad only 
fechlechter s male specimen before me, and it was considered to be 
a torm ot H. ulm-otdes, Oliv., from Tropical Africa. The arrival 
Pt a good fruiting specimen collected near Lorenzo Marques, and 
communicated by the Chief of the Division of Botany, Pretoria, 

Shows thia N^^lnnrnn "RriT- T^ra»^+ +« V^ „_ .__ i mi ^ ' t «• „ 




species 



*"?5 --^"^ ^x, u^Liiujitms lu IIS smaiie 
the overlapping wings of the fruit. 



tippod 



P]?"^if\i^''^"'''-^^''' inflatus, IlutcJdnson [Euphorbiaceae. 
i-liyllantheae] ; inter species afiicanas ramulis wiii.tioribns 



?rl7-^ "^ ""■• ^^'^I^^^^ia solitariis vel geminatis elongatis, 
fructibus magnis mflatis valde distincta. 

J'^itex 5-6 m altus; ramuli vetustiores breves, pulviniformes, 

lo cm W- '^ M °^^VV ^^^^^^ hornotini elonguti, usque ad 
•^0 cm. longi, graciles, glabri. FoUa ovata. hrevite^ subacute 



335 



Ml 

acuminata, basi rotundata, 4r-4:'d cm. longa, circiter 2 cm. lata, 
tenuiter chartacea vel submembranaeea, glabra, utrinque laxe 
reticulata ; nervi^ laterales utrinsecus circiter 7, a costa feub angulo 



fere 90^ abeuntes, infra prominentes ; petioli 2'5 mm. longi, 
teretes, glabri; stipulae subulatae, acutae, 3 mm, longae. Flores 
non visi. Fructus vesiculosi, magni, circiter 3 cm^. diametro, 
siccitate pallide virides yel straminei, glabri, Semiiia oblique 
reniformia, circiter 6 mm. lata, striata. 

Tropical Africa. Eastern Sudan: Lado; Yei river, shrub 
15-20 ft., F, SiUitoe 321. 

This is a very remarkable species of Phyllanthus, and easily 
distinguished amongst the African species by its pulviniform older 
branches and large bladder-like capsules. 4 

1660. Bobartia Keetii, Phillips [Iridaceae - Aristeae] ; 
affinis B. gracili, N.E. Br., et B. robustae, Baker, sed ab ilia 
capsulae valvis rugosis, ab bac babitu graciliori pedicello 
pubescente, bracteis paucioiibus differt. 

Planta 30-60 cm. alta. , Rami paullo compressi, glabri. 
Inflorescentia 2-4-florifera. Spatha 3-6-5 cm. longa, acuminata, 
glabra. Bracteae 5, 1-5-2-5 cm. longae, lanceolatae, acutae yel 
aristatae, glabrae. Pedicellus 5 mm. longus, pubescens. Tubus 
4 mm. longus, 3 mm. latus, glaber; lobi I'T cm. longi, 0-6-1 cm. 
iati, ovato-oblongi, apice emarginati callosique. Filarnenta 2 mm. 
longa, linearia; antberae 9 mm. longae, lineares. Ovarium 7 mm. 
longum, 2-5 mm. latum, glabrum, paullo rugosum ; stylus 6-5 mm. 
longus, linearis ; lobi truncati, apice papillosi. Fructus 06-1 cm. 
lonn-us, 5-9 mm. latus, tuberculatus. Semina 3 mm. longa, 

curvata. 

South Africa. Knysna Division, Keet 2G and in National 

Herbarium 799. 

Approacbes B. gracilis, N.E. Br., in babit but differs m having 
rugose valves in tbe capsule. In tbis respect it is allied to B. 
rohusta, Baker, but bas a more slender babit. 

Named in compliment to Mr. J. D. Keet. Forest Officer at 
Enysna, who bas been making a careful study of tbe local flora. 



LIV.-DECADES KEWENSES 

J" 

Plantakum Novarum IX Heeeario Horti Eegii 

CONSERVATARUM. 

DECADES C.-CI. 

991 Eerberis Osmastonii, Dunn [Berberidaceae - Ber- 

reael- B. pruinosae, Francb., affinis, sed floribus solitariis 



b 
brevipedunculat 



linearibus distincta. 



xal s torLtinis 'angulatis luoidis flavis, vetust.or^us gr.se.s^ 

Kninae trifldae gracies, 1-1-5 cm. longae. Folta 5-i-n;m 
L^scrula'ttliniari, integerrima, apice pung»hab.. cunea^a 



suLtus eLum 



336 



margiue paullo involuta, l'5-2 cm. longa, 3 muf. lata, Flores- 
axillares, solitarii, erecti^^ flavi, O'7-l cin. diametro; pedicelli 
5 mm. Ion;?!, basi bracteis minutis linearibus suffulti. Sepala- 



^c.. ^ ^^c.cc^t>-"d^^^^ 



majora, ad 6 mm. louga, obovata, basi attenuata, duobus nec- 
tariis instructa. Stamina ovarium aequantia. Ovarium breviter 
stylosum. Fructus ovoideus, atro-coerjxleus, glaucus, 1 cm. 



longus. 



Ceis'TRal Himalaya: Garliawl 2TOO-3000 m., Osmaston 225 
(fruit) 18-5-15; Kbeta Nawali Reserve at 2900 m., Osmasfon 
894, 919 (flowers) 15-5-18. 

Osmaston^s Barbery sbould be placed in Scbneider's enumera- 
tion as Ifo- 35a, nest to B. pruinosay Francli. (see C K. 



He 



992. 



Erysimum Melicentae, Dunn [Cruciferae-Sisymbrieae] ;: 

ab E, odorata, Ebrb., floribus majoribus, petalis aurantiacis, 
siliquisque erectis distinctum. 

Herha biennis, 30-70 cm. alta. Caulis saepe simplex. Folia 
radicalia et caulina lineari-lanceolata, apice acuta, basi attenuata, 
sessilia, 6-8 cm. longa, distanter et obscure dentata, pilis 
bipartitis et tripartitis appressis mi^tis obsita. Racemi prime 
densiflori, demum longe extensi; Flores magni, 1'5 cm. longi et 
lati, aurantiaci; pedicelli 5 mm. longi. Sepala erecta, linearis 
oblonmi, obtusa, appresse puberula, membranacea, venosa, 8-9 
mm.^longa; lateralia basi saccata, Petala ampla, sepalis duplo 
longiora; unguis gracilis, laminae obovatae aequalis. Stamina 
sepalis aequilonga vel sublongiora, longioribus superne dilatatis 
dorso subalatis. Antherae lineares, profunde bilobae. Ovarium 
4-gonum ; stylus elongatus ; stigma discoideum, dilatatum. 
Sitiquae striatae, erectae, pedicellatae, canae, tetragonae,4-6 cm. 
longae, stylo subgracili terminatae; valvae carinatae, nervo medio 
valido percursae; replum tenue; septum completum, enerve. 
Semina plurima, conferta, 1-seriata ; testa punctulata. 

I?^mA. Kashmir; 2300-2T00 m., T. Thomson; pass of Dara- 
wai, 3000 m., Winterhottom; on the South side of Fezipore 
Kullah close to Gulmarg, Melicent Wathen. 

In the Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 154, Hooker doubtfully refers certam 

Kashmir specimens to the European E, odoratum, Ehrh. (Beitr. 

vii. 157). Further knowledge of that plant justifies Hooker^s 

caution and shows it to be necessary to find a new name for the 

Kashmir plant. The above diagnosis is drawn from flowering 

specimens m the Kew herbarium together with Thomson's notes 

on the fruit. Among the other material at Kew is a small 

specimen presented along with her other dried plants by Mrs. 

Wathen and the opportunity is taken of dedicating it to her 

and at the sanie time of placing on record the numerous additions 

to the Indian flora which have been recognised from her beautiful 

coloxired sketches of Kashmir plants supported by correspondingly 

numbered dried specimens. Such are Moneies nniflora, GraV 

(preinously known no nearer than Turkestan), and Tulipa prae- 

cox, Ten., from Persia. " }y t t 



337 

993. Dioticarpus, Dnnn, gen. nov. [Dipterocarpaceae] ; a 
Balanocarpo, Bedd., sepalis 2 in alas breves aurifonnes auctis 
differt. 

CaJycis tubus subnullus, toro adnatus; lobi sub antbesi breves, 
obtusi, ita imbricati, ut bases interiorum ab exterioribus fere 
occlusae; lobi maturi 2, caeteris bis longiores, patentes, recurvi. 
Stamina 15; filamenta basi expansa; antherae ovatae, coixuectivo 
in capillum producto. Ovarium 3-loculare, loculis 2-ovulatis. 
Stylus breviter subulatus. Fructus indehiscens, 1-spernius, intra 
bases caljcis loborum inclusus. Sevien globosum; cotyledones 



crassi, inaequales, 2-3-lobi, radicula in fossa externa proniinente. 
— Arbores resinosae, inflorescentia cano-tomentosa. Stipulae 
cadueae. Folia integerrima, coriacea, penninervia, reticulato- 
venulosa. Flores parvi, secus ramos paniculae l-seriatlni 
subsessiles, 

D. Barryi, Dunn, sp. unica. 

Arhor magna, praeter inflorescentiam glabra. Folia longe 
petiolata, oblongo-lanceolata, ad apiceni rotundatum angustata, 
basi obtusa, 9-11 cm. longa, papyracea, ^ nervis lateralibus 
10-11-paribus cum tertiis prominulis; petioli 2 cm. longi. 
Paniculae axillares, foliis breviores, ut calyces et petala extus 
omnino breviter albo-tomentosae. Flores secundum ramos m 
uno latere subsessiles, 6 mm. longi. Caly^ 5-lobus, 2 mm. longus; 
lobi ovati imbricati, 3 exteriores bases interiorum occludentes. 
PetaJn b, oblonga, unguiculata, torta, apice breviter lacera. 
Stamina 15, 1-1-5 mm. longa; fikmenta basi dilatata; con- 
nectivum in appendicem capillarem productum. Ovarium 3- 
loculare, 1*5 mm, longum, conicum; ovula 5-6; stylus subulans. 
Fructus indebiscens, globosus, apiculatus, 2 cm. diametro 1- 
spermus in calycis loborum basibus induratis laxe mclusus, lobis 
2 exterioribus in alas patulas paullo decurvas 2-2-5 cm. longas 

South India. Madras Presidency : in evergreen forest near 
tlie Kudnvarai river, 300 m., a solitary tree, Z?arr?/; abundant on 
the Tinnevelly Hills, Beddome 2T ; Kannikatti to Karyar, im- 
nevellv, 2?ar?jer 3163; Tinnevelly, //^T/"^ 21-^B. _ 

Tie' tree is known to yield a very valuable timber, and was 
considered at the District Forest Office at Tinnevellv to be quite 
distinct from other allied species. Specimens were therefore sent 
to Kew by Mr. W. C. Hart, Deputy Forest Officer They proved 
to represent a new genus near Balanocarpus, Bedd. It can be 
certainly distinguished from that genus bv the two elongated 
fruitin /sepals and bv the fact that ell the enlarjred sepals are 
div ded necirly down to the fruit-stallc and spread loosely round 
thr ripe nut instead of forming a closely investing gamosepalous 
cup as in Beddome's genus. 

994 Indi^ofera cedrorum, Dunn [L 

Indig^fereae] ; T. fuchellae, Eoxb., racemis pedunculatis . 

minoribus coeruleo-purpureis difEert 

Frutex 1 m. alius, ramis gracilibus pallidis. t oUa impar 

pinnata, 5-10 cm. longa; fdiola (2-) ^-^l, P-^^^X^'^apr e" 
nulata, 1-2 cm. longa, supra subglabra, subtus tenuiter adpres 



B 



338 



rf f i 



piibescentia; primo stipellata. Racemi foliis paullo breviores, 
podunculis tandem duj^io iongiores. Ftores subsessiies, U't^l cm. 
long-i, coeruleo-ijurjjurei, biucteis "cymbiformibus caudatis piimu 
tecti. Calyx fere explanatus^ 2 mm. longus, ut vexillum moiliter 
sericeus; denies breves, triangulares. Vexillum obovatum, 8 mm, 
longum, ungue subnullo. Legiimen cylindricum, in acumen 
conicum breve subito acuminatum. Semina 6-10. 

India, Cbamba State: the commonest shrub in the under- 
growth of the Deodar Forest in Chitrari Reserve, flowering in 
May and June, fruiting in August, 1300-2000 m., Parker 2, 3, 
4, 41, 42, 43; Kashmir, 1T00-2U00 m., Thomson. 

Mr. Parker first drew my attention last year to the probable 
existence of this. new species in Chamba, and has since sent 
abundant and excellent material to substantiate his opinion. He 
notes, incidentally, that the first leaves produced have fewer 
leaflets than those appearing later in the growing season. Leaflets 
on the stool-shoots attain as much as 2'5 cm. in leiiirth. 

995. Caragana Hoplites, Dunn [Leguu 



t> 



be 



villosis) prominenter veneris (nee eveniis) dift'ert. 

Frutex erectus, ad 2 m. altus, ramosus, cortice rubescente 
tandem griseo rugoso; rami dense foliati, undique petiolis por- 
sistentibus spinosis glabris 2*5-3"5 cm. longis horridi. Folia 
solitaria vel 2-3-na, cum bracteis 4-6 scariosis ovatis 4-5 mm. 
longis fasciculata, 4-5-juga, petiolata, 2-3 cm. longa ; foliola 
oblanceolato-linearia, apiculata, 7-9 mm. longo, ut calyces laxe 
pubescentia pilis sericeis, nervis secondariis infra prominentibus 
4-6-paribus. Pcdunculi solitarii, e foliorura fasciculis orti, 
uniflori, breves, sub flore bibracteolati. Flores^ 2'5-3 cm. longi. 
Calyx tubulosus, 1-5 cm. longus; dentes lanceolati, acuminati, 
tubum aequantes. Petala alba vel pallide rosea, calyce duplo 
longiora; vexillum late obovatum, longe unguiculatum, lateribus 
reflexis; alarum auriculae lineares, unguem fere aequantes; carina 
cum alis vexillo brevior, busi auricula brevi instructa. Ovarium 
dense pubescens. Legumeii non visum. 

^ IxmA. IS. Garhwal: Nandagiri Valley, 3000-3200 m., flower- 
mg'in June, Osmaston 1088. 

996. Centratherum Rangacharii, GawhJe [Compositae-Yer- 

nonieae]; C. molU, Benth., et C. courtallensi, Benth., affinis; ab 
Titroque caiJitulis minoribus et foliis fere semper sessilibus differt, 
ab hoc etiam pliyllariis scabridis, ab illo phyllariis non lanatis 
distingue ud urn. 

■ Herha eieeta, annua (?), ranmlis elongatis striates fnrfnrareo- 
I 1-f^- f . l^^ceolata, apice acuta, mucronnta, in ranniHs 
toluleris _ basi fere amplexieaulia, in floriferis attenuata, 
supra stngoRo-Lirsuta, subtus nervis exceptis olbo-tomentosn, 
margme paullo crenulata, 2-7 cm. longa, 1-2 cm. lata ; nervi 
pimarn titrinque 8-12, subtus con.picui et nervulis conspicuis 

nncti; petiolus m foliis ultimis nullua, in inferioribus praecipuc 

n.cl.yZ'f ,' t"'^r-' \^^".^^^\™- CaMtula solJtaria, longe- 

Bb^^lT. ■ V^'""'^^'^ ^■*'""'^^^^ 1-2 folia simulantibus munlta ; 
ph} liana mferiora basi scanosa, glabra, supra ovata, foliacea, 



339 



* 



strig'oso-liirsuta, conspiciie nervosa, superiora gradatim longiora, 
ultima omnino scariosa ; receptaculum areolatum. Corolla 
tubularis, elougata, purpurea, lobis b brevibus angustis. 
Acliaenia glabra, obtusa, lO-costata; pappus e setis 1^ brevibus 
scabris perdeciduis sistens. 

South India. Tinnevelly District : Mahendragiri anc 
Naterikal; 1914 and 1916, K, Rangachari Herb. Madras. 10910, 
13195, 13356; Kalivayalpil to Travaneore boundary, alt. 
(probably) from 1000 to 2000 m., May, 1901, C, A. Barber 3030. 

997. Vernonia anamallica, B.eddome MS. (Herb, iladr.) ex 



Ganihle 
foliis su 



"Compositae-Vernonieae] ; species distincta ramulis et 
3tus appresse aureo-tomentosis, acbaeniis pentagonis 



glabris sed glandulosis et coroUis brevibus insignis. 

Frutex erectus, ramulis crassis striatis aureo-fulvis. Folia 
elliptico-lanceolata, apiee acuta, margine brevissime crenato- 
serrata, supra nervis puberulis exceptis glabra, subtus appresse 
aureo-tonientosa, 6-9 cm, longa,; 2-3 cm. lata; nervi primarii 
utrinque 8-10, graciles, curvati, reticulatione ob lanuginem 
obseura; petiolus 5-8 mm. longus. Capitula 1 cm. lata, in 
corymbis subterminalibus breviter peduneulatis 5 cm. latis, 
pedicellata ; phyllaria brevia, ovata, mucronata, pubescentia. 
Corolla brevis, 2-3 mm. longa, lobis brevibus tubum aequantibus; 
Acliaenia pentagona, glabra, glanduloso-punctata ; pappus 
exterior setaceus, brevissimus, interior ad 5 mm. longus, 
deciduus. 

South India. Anamalai bills; in the higher ranges, 1873, 
R. IL Beddome (Herb. Madr.). 

998. Vernonia BourdiHonii, Gamble [Coinpositae - Yer- 

nonieae] ; V. Wightianae, Arn., affinis, foliis minoribus ad apiees 
rairmlorum congestis, corymbis paucifloris, pliyllariis majoribus 
acuminatis differt; V. Ramaswamii, Hutch., etiam similis, 
quoad corymbos paucifloroe, sed foliis brevioribus subtus fulvo- 

tomentosis differt. ^ _ , 

Frutex erectus, plus quam 1 m. altus, ramulis crassis nodosia 
fulvo-pubescentibus foliis apices versus eongestis. Folia 
oblaneeolata, apice obtusa, basi attenuata, margine obscure 
crenata supra ad nervos et subtus dense crispato-fulvo-tomentosa, 
od 5 CBi. longa, circiter 1 cm. lata; nervi primarii obscuri, 
utrinque 6-7, curvati ; petiolus vix ad 5 mm. longus, basi 
subamplexicaulis. Capitula in corymbis 1-3-natis termmahbus 
et axillaribus, l-l'S cm. lata, pedunculis ad 12 cm. longis supra 
bracteatis, pedunculis ultimis 1-2 cm. longis ; pbyllaria lanceolata, 
acitoiinata, subaequilonga (circiter 5 mm.), extus crispato- 
pubescentia. Corolla infundibularis, extus puberula, lobis 
brevibus. Achaenia 4^5-gona, plerumque 4-gona,_ fere glabra 
sed glandulosa, 2 mm. longa; pappus exterior brevis, paleaceus, 
fimbriatus, interior lutescens, cito deciduus. 

South I^dii. Hills of Travaneore at Chimunji and other 
locolities in grassland at elevations of 1300 m and higher, April, 
1898 and 1903, T. F. Bourdillon 972 and 13T9; Ponmudi, Feb., 
1914, M. Eama Rae 2363. 

b2 



340 



999. Vernonia gossypina, Gamble [Compositae-Vernonieae] ; 

y. salvifoliae, Wight, atiiiiis, capitulis ininoribus, foliis latioribus 
eximie lanatis, achaeniis trigonis glandulosis differt. 

Frutex erectus, ramulis crassis albo-lanatis, ultimis lanugine 
longissima inter folia congesta tectis. Folia sessilia, lanceolata, 
apice acuminata, basi subamplexicanlia, margine minute serrata, 
supra juventute albo-sericea, demum nervis exceptis subglabra, 
rugosa, subtus semper lanugine alba ad costam longa tecta, ad 
15 cm, longa, 5 cm. lata; nervi primarii cireiter 15-16 reticular 
tione areolata et lanata juncti. Capitula in corymbis longe 
pedunoulatis terminalibus et axillaribus 7 cm. latis, brevissime 



pedicellata, vix 5 mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, 5-flora ; flores purpurei ; 
phyllaria ovata, pars^a, marginibus araneoso-knata, apice acufci, 
rufescentia. Corolla infundibularis, 3 mm. longa, glabra et 
glandulosa, lobis brevibus recurA'is. Achaenia trigona, annulo 
crasso coronata, intor costas multiglandulosa, 1 mm. longa; 
pappus exterior paleaceus, fimbriatus, interior 3 mm. longus, 
paueisetosus, cito deciduus. 

South India. Tinnevelly District: between Naterikal and 
Sengelteri; probably about 1000-2000 m., 1916-17, K. Ranga- 
chari 13624, 14536 (Herb, Madras). 

1000. Vernonia Heynei, Bedd. MS. (in Herb. Madr.) f'u? 

Gamble [Compositae-VerTionieae] ; F. indicae, C. B. Clarke, et 
V. Fysoni, Calder, similis, praecipue quoad capitula parva, sed 
phjllariis obtusis latis diiiert. 

Frutex erectus, ramulis crassis sulcatis griseo-puberulis. Folia 
sessilia, elliptico-lanceolata, apice acuminata, basi attenuata et 
in petiolum decurrentia, margine serrata, mucronata, dentibus 
recurvis, supra nervis exceptis glabra, subtus dense et appresse 
albo-tomeiitosa, 10-12 cm. longa, 4r-5 cm. lata; nervi primarii 
utrmque cireiter 10, paralleli, nervulis transversis obscuris juncti. 
Capitula in corjonbis pedunculatis terminalibus 10 cm. latis, 
pedicellata, cireiter 1 cm. longa et lata et 12-flora; flores 
purpurei (?) ; pbvllaria inferiora ovata, acuminata, ciliata, 
pubescentia, superiora obtusa et fere glabra, mucronata. Corolla 
gracilis, ad 7 mm. longa, lobis brevibus. AcJuienia eximie 10- 
costata, glabra ; pappus rufescens, 7 mm. longus, seriei exteiioris 



ssimus. 



l^ildvS ^^^^-^- Travancore Hills, R. H. Beddome 1873 (Herb. 

1001. Vernonia multibracteata, Gamble [Compositae-Ver- 
^ouieas- V salvifoliae, Wight, similis, quoad lanuginem ramu- 
lorum et foliorum pagmarum inferiorum, sed phyllaiiis et 
achaenus omnmo discrepans. 

Frutex erectus, ramulis crassis albo-la-natis. Folia lanceolata, 
ll'iJ^rf ' attenuata et in petiolum decurrentia, margine 

Z^^l ' ''"^'''' "]TT "* ^'^'' moniliformibus tecta, subtus 
moiiiter appresse albo-lanata, ad 20 cm. longa, 6 cm lata- nervi 

Sus' I'r^"' '?-''' '''''''''' '' reticula^ione oLura juncti; 

cor^bi I'^L'-'^r^^^^ ?."^"^^^^^' albo-lanatus. Capitula in 
corirmbii. terminalibua T^afulic inio ^^. t.^.- i - ^ -., i 



341 




auUa fulvida tecta, pedicellata, oblonga, 1"5 cm. longa, 1 cm. 

ata; phyllaria permulta, lanceolata, circiter 1 cm, longa, 
exteriora longe acuminata, albo-araneosa, intermedia fere glabra, 
scariosa, superiora paullo breviora, mucronata . Corolla 
cylindrica, glabra, 4 mm. longa^ lobis brevibus. Acliaenia tetra- 
gona, angulis alatis, glabra, brevia; pappus exterior paleacens, 
limbriatus, interior e setia circiter 5 deciduis sistens. 

South India. Travancore : Peermerd; 1000 m., Dec, 1880, 
R. H. Beddome. 

1002, Vernonia pulneyensis, Gamble [Compositae-Yer- 

nonieae] ; V , pectiniformiy DC, affinis, corymbis paucifloris 
breviter pedunculatis, phyllariis albidis apice solum coloratis et 
foliis ovatis paucinerviis maro^ine distanter serratis ditiert. 



Suff 



striatia pilis moniliformibud 



us 



longis tectis. Folia ovata, membranacea, apice acuta, mucronata, 
basi in petiolum attenuata, margine distanter serrata, supra 
praecipue ad nervos pilis moniliformibua sparsim ornota, subtus 
villosa, 5-10 cm. longa, 2-4 cm. lata; nervi primarii utrinque 
6-7, curvati et reticulatione juncti; petiolus gracilis, circiter 
5 mm. longus. Capitula in corymbis terminalibus vel aliquando 
axillaribus subsessilia, 1 cm. longa et lata, 12-15-flora; floras 
purpurei; pbyllaria inferiora ovata, longe mucronata, superiora 
gradatim longiora, ultima scariosa, straminea, ob.tusa, 5 mm. 
longa, omnia rufescentia apice excepto albido, ciliata et parce 
araneosa. Corolla gracilis, 5 mm. longa, in lobis 5 brevibus 
divisa. Achaenia exiniie 10-costata, glabra; pappu 
5 mm. longus, cito deciduus. 

South In-dia. Pulnej Hills : Banks of tbe Pambar river at 
Kodaikanal; 2300 m., in tbin forest, April, 1916, P. F. Fyson 

4057, 4130. 

1003, Vernonia skevareyensis, Gamble [Compositae-Ver- 
nonieae]; V. volkameriaefoliae, DC, affinis, capitulis unifloris et 
foliis subtus scabride pubescentibus dilfert. 

Arbor parva (?) ramulis crussis ultimis nigns pubescentibus. 
Folia oblanceolata, apice acuta, basi in petiolum brevem crassum 
attenuata, margine integra vel repando-crenata supra nervis 
exceptis glabra, subtus scabride pubescentia, 16-24 cm. longa, 
5-8 cm. itta ; nervi primarii utrinque 10-12, distantes, prominuli, 
marginem versus curvati et ner^'ulis irregulanbus prommentibus 
iuncti; petiolus vix 1 cm. longus. Ca^tula in pamculis ter- 
minalibus numerosa, parva, uniflora ; flores purpurei (?) ;pbyllana 
oblonga, dorso sericeo-villosa, inferiora parva, obtusa superiora 
lonc^iora, acuta. Corolla elongata, circiter 1 cm. lon^, ad 
medium in lobos 5 lineares divisa, extus puberula. Achaema 



obscure 10-costata, costis vix prominentibus, basm versus 
attenuata. inter costas glandulosa ; pappus stramxneus, 1 cm. 
longus, setis exterioribus et mtenoribus aequalibus 

Soura I^-DIA. Sbevaroy Kills; Perrottet collection, no. 3.5 
(Herb. Calcutta). 



Gamble [Compo 



1004 Helicbrvsum perlanigerua. Gamble Lt^omposirae- 
TlL.f{-f Wightii, C. B. Clarke, affinis. lanugme molh 



342 



t 

floccosa cinnamomea conspicua, foliis latioribus tenuioribus costis 
non appressis et bracteis involucri interioribus acutis differt. 

Suffrutex perlaniger, scaposus. i^oZia basalia stellatiin pateutia, 
e basi lata lanceolata, acuta, submembranacea, 5-costata, utrinqne 
lanugine molli cinnamomea praedita, 6-7 cm. longa, 2-2*5 cm. 
lata, caulina lanceolata, acuta scapo-appressa, 2-3 cm. longa., 
1 cm., lata; Flores capitulorum exteriores 9 ? ^^ "^^^ ^^^^ 
aliquando duobus seriebus^ interiores permnlti,*^, omnes fertiles; 

capitula sessilia ad ramos corymbi terminalis congesta, inflores- 
centiam ad 10 cm. latam formantia; rami et ramnli et capitula ad 
basin lanugine molli cinnamomea dense tecti. Bracteae 
involucrantes albidae vel flavo-albidae/ovatae, exferiores obtnsae, 
interiores acutae. Corollas florum 9 graciles, 2-3-dentatae, 

florum ^ tubulares, lobis 5 patentibus glandulosis. Acluienia 

minuta, obovoidea, minute squamosa; pappus uniserialis, parce 
plumosus. 

South Ixdia. Anamalai Hills of Coimbatore; about 2000 m., 
li, H, Bedome (Herb. Madras). 

[Compositae-Senecionideae] 



1005. 



S. lavanchilifoUoj DC, affinis, foliis minoribus per toiuni 
caulem regulariter dispositis, corymbis paucifloris et ligulis 

plurinerviis ^difi'ert. 

Herha perennis erecta, ramulis e basi gracililus ad 35 cm. 
longis villosis. Folia linearia, sessilia, apice mucronata, margini- 
bus ad costam reflexis, 10-17 mm. longa, costa villosa excepta 
glabra. Capitula in corymbo terminali 1-6-cepbalo, circiter 10-15 

mm. lata; floribus exterioribus 9 15-20 ligulatis, interioribus f 
tubulosis, omnibus . flavis fertilibus, PhyUaria ^ circiter 20, 
lineari-lanceolata, apice acuta ciliata, margine scariosa, dorso 



albo-villosa, infra 
longa. CoToUae florum 



5-7- 



nerves floiiim tubulosorum graciles, 4 mm." longae, lobis 5-parvis. 
Antherae basi ecaudatae. Achaenia anguste oblonga, glabra, 
pauci-costata. Pappus alhns, disci floribus aequalis. 

South India. Nilgiri Hills: on grassy do-nrns between 
Avalancbe and Sispara;. about 3000 m., Nov. 1883, J. S. Gamble 
1342T;Nov. 1887, M. A. Zaw5o/i44. ' 

[Ebenaceae] ; 



1006. 



ndisiana, Kurz, cui quoad inflorescentiam floresq 



simillima, foliis adultis subtus moUiter pubescentibus et nervis 



ob 



scuris 



pra 



Arbor dioica, cortice griseo-brunneo. Folia cbartacea, 
elhptico-oblonga vel oblongo-lanceolata, apice acuminata, 
basi acuta, adulta supra glabra, subtus ferrugineo-pubes- 
centia,^ ^l-27_ cm. longa, 5-9 cm. lata, nervis 16-paribus 
supra impressis subtUs prominentibus, venis transver.is plane 
obscuns. Cyjnae densiusculae, ramosissimae, in lio-ni vetusti 
nodis congestae, ut bracteae et calyces atro-f usco-tomentx)sae ; 
bracteae mmutae, oblongo-Ianceolatae. FJores Q tantum visi. 



343 



Calyx 2 mm. longiis, 5-partitus, lobis acutis. Corolla adpresse 
f ulvo-pubescens ; tubus versus basin subampliatus, 5-angul:iris, 
6 mm. lon^us; lobi 5, oblonm. obtusi, 6 mm. lono-i, J^tanizna 

reducta; nkimenta ad 3 mm* longa, pubescentia. Ovan'u in dense 

fulvo-pubescens, 10-loculare; stylus 4 mm. longus, 5-fidus, Oxula 
solitaria, suspensa. 

India. Burma : Papuu (about 150 miles N.E, of Rangoon), 

Meehold 17253. 
^^^ 1007- Trachelospermum anceps, Dunn et R. Wdliams 

[Apocynaceae-Ecliitideae] ; T. launfolio, llidlej, similis sed 
foliis magnis basi obtusis differt. 

Arhor parva. Folia opposita, obovato-lanceolata vel oblongo- 
lanceolata, apice abrupte acuminata, basi obtusa vel rotundata, 
24-38 cm. longa, 9-11 cm. lata, supra cbartacea, glabra, subtus 
piiis brevibus sptirsis mollia; nervi 16-pares, bubtus prominentes, 
intra marginem anastomosantes, costa fortissima ; petioli 1-1*5 
cm. longi. Flares in cymis puberulis brevibus umbelli- 
formibus circiter 10-floris; pedunculi 1-2 cm. longi; pedicelli 
graciles, 2-3 cm. longi, basi fracteis brevibus ovatis instructi. 
Calyx 5-partitus; lobi 5, late ovati, 4-5 mm, longi. CoroUae 
tubus supm contractus, intus pilis in fauce dense instructus; 
lobi 5, lati, contorti, dextrorsum obtegentes, 10 mm. longi. 
Stamina in summo tubo affixa, filamentis brevissimis; antberae 



exsertae, acutae, basi sagittatae, circa stigma m conum con- 
niventes et ei medio adhaerentes ; connectivum dorso basi tuberculo 
carnoso conspicuo instructum. Discus annularis, 5-lobus- 
Ovarii carpella 2, primum connata; stylus filiformis, 5-7 mm. 
longus; stigma breve, ovatum, apiculo instructum. Fructus non 
visus. Vallaris f anceps, AVall. Cat. 1622. 

LowEK Burma. Tenasserim: Tavoy; flowers, April 1911, 
Meehold 14966; Kyautalan, flowers, Mar. 1911, Meehold 15408: 
Mergui; Letpantliaung, flowers, Mar. 1911, 3/ee6o7^ 14654. 

1008. Hoya burmanica, Rolje [Asclepiadeae-Marsdenieae] ; 

affinis //. lanceolaUe, Wall., sed lioribus multo minoribus et 
coronae lobis latioribus differt. 

Fruticxdvs ramosus, 25-40 cm. altus., Uavii teretes, pallidi, 
20-25 cm. longi, subpenduli. Folia subpendula, breviter petio- 
late, ano-uste ovato-lanceolata, acuminata, snbconcava, crassius- 
cula, glabra, glauco-riridia, 5-8 cm", longa, l'3-2cm. lata; petioli 
5 mm. longi. Umhelli terminals et axiHares, breviter peduii- 
ciilati, pauciflori; pedunculi parce pubescentes 5 mm longi._ 
Bracteae squamulosae, pubescentes, 0-5 mm. longae. FedtceUi 
graciles glabri, 1-1-2 cm. longi. Flores circiter 1 cm. diametro, 
lutei coronae basi purpureo-suffusi. Sepala ovato-lanceolata, sub- 
acuta, glabra, 25 mm. longa. Corolla rotata, circiter 1 cm. 
diametro, vclutina ; lobi ovati, apice recurvi, acuti Coronae lobi 
8telIato-patent.es, elliptico-ovati, obtusi, subeoncavi 2o mm. longi, 

basi purpurei. 

India. Burma ; CL in Hills. , ^ • . r- i c- 1+1.,,^. 

Flowered in the Orchid House of Lieut.-General Sir Arthur 



344 

G. F. Browne, K.C.B., Lower Bourne, Farnliam, Surrey, in 
August, 1920, tlie j^lant having been received with a number of 
Orchids from a friend in the Chin Hills, Burma. 

The flowers are deep yellow, with a red-purple stain at the base 
of the corona-lobes. 



1009. iMpistra veratrifolia, Kurz MS. ex' Dunn [Liliaceae- 

Aspidistreae] ; ft T. Stoliczkana, Kurz, perianthii tubo 1-2 mm. 

(non 3 mm.) longo, pedunculo spicam aequante (non bis longiore) 
differt, 

Herha robusta, rhizomate repente crasso. Folia basi cataphyllis 
oblongis obtusis membra naceis tandem fibrosis cincta, 1-3, 
oblanceolata, acuminata, 1 m. alta, 10-15 cm. lata, in petiolum 
15-20 cm. longum attenuata, integerrima, glabra, nitentia. 
Spicae erectae, densiflorae, sub anthesi ad 7 em. longae, fructu 
25 cm. longae, pedunculo aequilongo suffultae; bracteae floribus 
breviores. Flores 7*5 mm. diametro, glabri. Perianthii tubus - 
brevissime cami>anulatus, 1-2 mm. longus; lobi 6, patentes, 
oblongi, obtusi, 3 mm. longi. Stamina 6; filamenta brevissima, 
tubo inserta, perianthii lobis opposita. Ovarium parvum, sessile, 
3-locuIare ; stigma peltatum, trilobum, ovario latins. Bacca 
immatura globosa. 

India. Khasia Hills and Brahmaputra plains, Kurz. Easteen 
Himalaya. Outer Abor Hills, Janakmukh, BurUll 37281. 
December 19th, 1911. 

The two sheets from which the flowering plant is described were 
found under a cover in the Calcutta Herbarium inscribed with 
the above name in Kurz's handwriting. They represent the type 
of the species. Both were lent to Kew to compare with BurkiU's 
fruiting specimen with which they agree. The opportunity is 
taken of publishing Kurz's MS. name. One of the sheets is 
returned to Calcutta, the other by Lt.-CoL A. T. Gage's courtesv 
is retained in the Kew Herbarium. 

-lOlO. Arundinaria Murielae, Gavihle [Gramlneae-Bam- 
buseae] ; species formosa, A. nitidae, Mitford, affinis, foliis petlo- 
latis luajoribus longissime setaceo-acuniinatis differt. 

Frutex caespitosus, _ ramosissimus, culmis gracilibus aureis 



2-4 m. altis. intemod 



Iba 



Vaginae culmorum stramlneae, striatae, glabrae sed margine 
ciliatae apice rotuiidatae, vix aurlculatae, 10-12 cm. longae; pseu- 
dophyila reflexa 4-6 cm. longa, angustiss^raa, ligula perbreTi. 
tolta obiongo-lanceolata, submembranacea, apice longissime 
setaceo-acummata, basi plus mimisve rotundata, 7-12 cm. longa, 
l-io cm. lata,_margmibus byalinis praeclpue superne scabris, 
nepis secundarus utnnque ^5, venulis transversis permultis con- 
Xf.T' ^VW^^^nmii^; petiolTis gracilis, 3-4 mm. longus; vaginae 
r^^^T' ^?^^^^',°^« P=^^ll° productae et ciliis 1-3 cite dpciduis 

^rnTZ\\ ^^?^^."!^ ^^l°^o^^«i aggre^ati, unus vel duo satis longe 
produeti, reliqui breves, omnes basi bracteis stramineis culmorum 



345 



\ 



vaginis similibus muniti. Flores et raryopsis adhuc ignoti. 



rta 



-^China. Western Hupeli : Fang Hsien, uplands at 2000-3000 
m. olt., E. H. Wilson 1462. 

Description from specimens taken from clumps cultivated in 
tlie Bamboo Garden, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in August 
1920 (by W. J. Bean and J. S. Gamble). By Mr. Wilson's 
special wish the species is dedicated to bis daughter, Muriel 
Wilson. 

This Bamboo was presented to Kew from the Arnold Arboretum 
in the autumn of 1913, A single plant came in a pot, and this 
was divided up into about half a dozen pieces, which were re- 
potted and grown for a few months in a greenhouse. They were 
then planted out in the collection of Bamboos near the Rhodo- 
dendron Dell where they have grown luxuriantly and promise to 
be as ornamental as any hardy species. They are at present 
(October 1920) about 8 ft. high forming dense masses of culms, 
the outer ones of which arch outwards towards the top and give 
the plants a verj^ graceful appearance. In growth A, Murielae 
resembles A. nitida, Mitford^ more closely than any other hardy 
species in cultivation, but the culms are stouter and the leaves 
larger. Moreover, Mr. E, H. Wilson, who collected and first 
introduced it to cultivation, informs me that the old culms are 
rich yellow; in A. nitida they are purple-black. On the whole 
A[ Murielae is a distinct and most attractive addition, to hardy 
bamboos, W. J. Beax. 



LV.— NOTES ON THE BALSAMS OF CHITRAL 

AND THE KACHIN HILLS. 

By the late Major S. M. Toppin, E.A., M.C. 

In a previous number (Kew Bull., 1918, 156), the bequest to 
Kew was announced of a larg-e collection of Indian plants in 
accordance with the will of Major Toppin. The excellent set of 



type 



spec 



These proved to be of great value and as they were almost ready 
for publication the following* paper has been arranged with such 
few additions as were necessary by Mr. S. T. Dunn, B.A., 
Assistant for India in the Herbarium. The paper is followed 
by some extracts from Sir Joseph Hooker's letters to Major 
Toppin on the subject of his Impatiens collections. 

Fertilizatiox of Burmese Impatiexs. 

For the purpose of discussing the fertilization of the Balsams 
found in Burma, I have divided the species up into three main 
groups according to the relative positions of the different portions 

of the flower 

(1) The vexillum and alae patent and in such position to eech 

other as to close the lip. 



346 



(2) Moutli of the lip fully open owing to the divergent posi- 
tions of the lobes (distal) of the alae which are contorted over 
each other. 

Group (1). The two species of this_ group have very elongated 
spurs and I have never seen any insect enter a flower. In 
neither is there an auricular lobe. I think that most probably 



/era, H 



this group is fertilized by inotlis at night. 

Group (2). ^ 

all the species of this group have extremely developed auricular 

lobes. All noticed are visited by butterflies and bees during day- 
time. The action is as follows: — The butterfly alights directly 
upon the auricular lobes thus getting a purchase, and at the same 
time has its body forced up against the pollen owing to the 
height of the lobes. If the lobes did not exist, the insect in 
many species could crawl directly into the mouth and rob the 
honey without coming into touch with the anthers. Further, it 
•may be noticed that in all species the lobes are bright orange, a 
very distinctive colour as compared with the remainder of the 
flower, so as to attract the butterfly. 

ft - " ^ 

Group (3). Here the mouth is closed by the contorted wmgs 
and all species are devoid of auricular lobes. These species also 
are visited at day by butterflies and bees. Auricular lobes, if 
present, would be hidden by the contorted wings. The flowers 
are however smaller as in 7. graciliflora^ Hook, f, and I. 
drepanophora^ Hook. f. and many more, and the insect^ m 
actually forcing its way into the mouth, is driven against the 
anthers. 



D£iiisce:s"ce of the Capsules of Burmese Impatiexs. 

In dividing the Impatiens of, Burma into the main sections: 

(a) species with a short turgid capsule and ' ' 

(h) species with a linear or clavate capsule, 

the writer has found that in the species collected by him in 
Burma (some 25) there is also k most profound difference both in 
the character of the tissue of the capsule itself and also in the 
method by which the ripe seeds are ejected, and these two differ- 
ences gi'oup themselves without a single exception in exact 
accordance with the above sections. 

Section (a). The entire capsule is composed of thick glistening 
elastic tissue, and the seeds are distributed throughout the entire 
length of the pod. 

The method of dehiscing consists of two quite distinct motions, 
and is as follows: — (1) The capsule opens only along one suture 
commencing at the centre, and the dehiscence spreading at an 
equal rate towards both the apex and the base till it is entirely 
opened, (2) The seeds axe now rapidly ejected by the upner half 
of the capsule folding down over the lower half. 



ection 



portio 



of thick glistening elastic tissue, and this is devoid of seeds; the 
upper portion is merely a thin membranous bag with no elastic 
property, and its only use is as a receptacle for the seeds. The 



347 



method of deliiscence is as follows : 



The capsule splits at the 



base along all its five sutures at once and the geyer^al elastic 
portions roll up towards the apex, the motion being so rapid that 
when the limit of the elastic half of the capsule has been reached 
the membranous portion is torn to pieces and the seeds are thrown 
out. It will be noticed that here there is onlv one motion. 

It would appear probable that in those species in which the bag 
is at the base and the elastic portion is at the apex it would be 
found that the action would be similar except for the fact that 
the sutures would all split first at the apex and the several por- 
tions would coil inwards and dowriwards instead of outwards and 
upwards, 'but no actualspecies of this kind have been collected in 
Burma by the writer although, no doubt, they are common. To 
such* an extent is the distribution of the seeds dependent on the 
tearing to pieces of the membranous bag by the force of the elastic 
half, that if the capsule is held at the juncture of these two tissues 
till the force of the elastic portion is expended and then released, 
it will be found that the bag containing the seeds has lost all 
power of splitting up and ejecting them. 

List arranged as in Sir J. D. Hooker's Epitome (Eec. Bot. 

Surv. Ind. iv. 1). ' 

1. — Species of the Western Himalaya. 

1. 

1. L Balsamina, L.; Almora. Toppin 3444. 

2. 

2. I. Roylei, Vrqlp,; Gilgit, 1909, Toppin 1035 (in part). 




3 



JVKie)^ 




I. Roylei, Walp. 



Fig. 1, lateral sepal; 9, sepal with spur; 
3, standard; 4, Tving.* 



* In making the dfawins 



for this paper Miss Smith wishes it to be noted 
how p:reatly she has been helped by Major Toppin'a beautifully selected and 
dried dissections. It would have been impossible in some cases to understand 
the flowers without thera. Sir J. D. Hooker was much haiidicapped in his 
work on Impatiens by want of dissections properly prepared in the field._ 

The help of various artists is acknowledged at the foot of the drawings 
when their work has been used. 



348 



8. I. Lemanni, Hooh. f. ^ Thorns.; abundant in Chitral from 



1220-2740 m. 






JD.H.c(<3*. 



I. Lemanni, Hook. f. & Thoma.— Fig, 1, lateral sepal; 2, spurred sepal; 
3, standard; 4, wing; 5, stamens; 6, ovary; 7, capsule; 8, seed. 



13. I. Edgworthii, EooJc. /. yar. Toppinii, Hook. f. MS. var 
foliia verticillatis. 

CWtral: Ziarat; 2300-2700 m., Aug. 1908, Tcpinn 605. 







L Edgworthii, Hook. f. var, Toppinii, Hook, f .— Fig. 1, bract ; % lateral sepal ; 
3, spurred sepal; 4. standard; 5, wing; 6, stamen; 7, capsule; 8, seed. 



349 



3. 

17. I. brachycentra, Kar. ^ Ker.; Chitral, Lowari Pass at 
2700 m., June and July, flowers white, Tojfpin 405. 




2 





aD.>ijf.i* 






J. Irachyctnira, Kar. & Ker. — Fig. 1, lateral sepal; 2, spurred sepal ; 

3, standard; 4, wing ; 5, stamens; 6, capsule. 

5. 

20. I. cristata, Wall.; Wig-ht Ic. t. 323. Western Himalaya, 
Almora at 1220 m., Top-pin 3446. 

III. — Species of the Burmese Region. 

2. 

2. I. pulchra, Hoolt. f. ^- Thorns.; Kacliin Hills, Warao Hka, 
growing in sunny positions at 470 m., tlie roots clinging to tlie 
face of the damp rocks. Dec. 1911. Toppin 4242 ; also at Sinlum 
at 1300 m. Toppin 2747. 




S.iYI.T.ci*^ 



jmlchra. Hook. f. & Thorns.— Fig. 1, Suffer; 2, lateral sepal ; 

3, spurred sepal ; 4 and 6, petals. 



"Win 



spur lineA with a deeper shade but with no blotch. Sepals usually 
4 the lower lif'ht green in colour as the flower. Capsule turgid, 
entirely composed of thick contractile tissue. Seeds, average 
number in 3 capsules examined 18-3 (11-19). 

I. erulniscens, Dunn; species I. delicatae, Toppin, affinis, 
sed'^caulium foliorumque colore distincta. m 9n .tn 

Herha erecta, grandiflora, caule rubro tomentello 10-20 cm. 



^ti • 



350 



alto simplice superne folioso. Folia Qlteriia, lanceolata, apice 
basique acuta, 4-7 cm. loiiga/1-5-2-5 cm. lata, dentibUs apiculatis 
concinne crenata, apiculis in grandulas longe stipitatas basi 
gradientibus, subglabra, supra atro-viridia, subtus pallide rubra, 

lonOT, Pedunculi ex 



cm 



axillis superioribus 1-3-flori, 2-6 cm. longij bracteae lineares, 
3 mm. longae. Flares, 



calca 



pedicelli 1-1'6 cm. longi. 



ad 4 cm. longi rosei; 
Sepala 2 lateralia ovato-lanceolata, 
acuminata, 8 mm. longa, 5-6-nervia, tenuissima ;' posticum ex 
ore cymbiformi 2'5 cm, lato 8 mm. alto in calcar tenue semi- 
circulare 3 cm. longum abiens. Ve.nllum orbiculare, ad 1 cm, 
diametro; costa dorso medio breviter carinata. Alae 2'5-3 cm. 
longae, basi cuneatae; lobus basalislateoblongus; distalis longior, 



mm 



obtusus; auricula dorsalis conspicua, flava. 

longa; antherae connatae. Capsula glabra, turgida, 1'5 cm. 

longa. Semina circiter 45. 

Kacbin Hills. Kao Hka gorge : in crevices on tlie face of clifis ; 
550 m., January 1912, Toppin 4362. 




"M.T.d.T? 





• 



X erube$cens, Dunn— Fig. 1, part of inflorescence ; 2, lateral sepal ; 



2b. 



3, spurred sepal ; 4, standard ; 6, wing; 6, pistil. 

I. delicata, Toppin; species I 

4-5 



H 



f. & 



i^erZ>^ ascendens, glaberrima, gracilis, 8-12 cm. alta, caule 



brevi. 



p 



5 cm. 

4-5 



glanduiae stipulares nullae. Feduncxdi 2 cm. loiiffi, uniflori vel 



ba 



superiores altjus bracteati ; bracteae parvae. Flores ad 35 cm. 



expansi, rosei. 
lanceolata 



Sepala 2 lateralia 



rosea, ovato-lanceolata vel 
_ , acuminata, ad 1 cm. longa; labelli limbus cymbi- 
tormis, roseus, m calcar 3 cm. lonfrum fere rectum attenuatus, 
ore ad ^ cm. longo borizontali. Vexillum roseum, orbiculare, 
ad 16 mm diametro; costa dorso medio breviter carinata. Alae 
art d cm. longae, roseae ; lobus basalis rotundatus; lobus distalis 
oblongus; auricula dorsalia conspicua, roseo-flara. Capsulae 



Kacbin Hills. Sumprang; 420 



m 



Toppin 4287. 



351 




S.lvirr.anai. 



/. dehcata, Toppin— Fisr 

sepal; 4 



) 



1, whole flower; 2, lateral sepal; 3, spurred 
standard; 6, wing; 6, pistil. 



352 



9. I. violaeflora, Eoo'k. f.; Kacllin Hills, Sinlum, 1370-1520 
m., Toppin 2679. 




r 






J. violaeflora. Hook, f, — Fig. 1, flower; 2, lateral sepal; 3, spurred sepal; 

4, standard; 5, Tving; 6, capsule. 



M 

An erect branclied and hairy plant 15-45 cm- in height. Stem 
glabrous or slightly hairy on the upper portion, not swollen at 
the nodes. Stipular glands and stipnles nil. Leaves* alternate, 
crov,ded at the top of the stem, OYate-lanceolate, covered with 
white scattered hairs and with distinctive red hairs on the margins 
of the lower half up to 5 mm. in length. Inflorescence axillary, 
crowded and pedicelled from the upj)er leaf axils. Bracts minute, 
lanceolate, at base of pedicels. Fruiting pedicels decnrved. 
Flowers rotate, deep rose in colour, reverse side of the petals being 
of much lighter tinge, 2 cm. in diameter. Sepals 2, minute. Lnp 
glabrous or with a few soft hairs. The spur \exj slender up to 

in length, nearly straight. WingSy the two lobes sub- 



cm 



mar 



tion. Standard notched, with a slender keel, broadly cordate. 
Pollen light pink. Pod turgid in the centre, covered with white 
hairs. When ripe the line of cleavage is longitudinal, commenc- 
ing from the centre of the pod which is entirely composed of thick 
glistening contractile tissue ; when the pod has split in length it 
contracts on itself transversely thus ejecting the seeds. Seeds 
dark brown, rough, with no hairs when ripe, but covered with 
white tomentum when green. The number depends largely on 
the nature of the ground. Collected on the hard roadside, the 
average number in 10 capsules was G'S (6-8). Collected in boggy 
ground the average number in 5 examined was 126 (10-17). This 
plant is extremely variable in size and appearance but the dis- 
tinctive length of the spur and the usually long red hairs on the 
margins of the leaves seem to be constant features. 



13. I. porrecta, Wall.; N.E. Burma: ISgau Hka at 500 m. ; 



Kao 
Jan. 191 



Ilka gorge at 550 m, ; in wet jungle but in full sunshine 
2, Toppin 4359. 



353 



A delicate plant .up to 45 cm. liigh. Stipules and stipular 
glands nil. Flower orange yellow. Sepals 2, tinged vriih yellow 

The lip and standard slightly spotted with crimson. 



and green. 







Z 

l.porrecla, Wall. — Ti^, 1, flower; 2, lateral sepal ; 3, spurred sepal; 

4, standard; 5, wiug; 6, pistil. 



Auricnlar lobes nil, 
contorted 



dosed 



wings 



spur siig 



sli^-htly curved. Standard with blunt 



keel. Capsule glabrous and turgid. Seeds globose, glabrous ; 
average number in 2 capsules examined was 2'5. This plant is 
completely glabrous and thus is in accordance with the descrip- 



j affinis, sed 
cvmbifonni 



1 

m 

1.3a. I. Toppinii, Dunn; species I. porrecfae, Wall 
floribus intense rubro-putpureis sepali postdci ore ^ 

distincta. 

Herba procuinbeus, radicum fasciculos, pedunculos et folia ex 
nodis caulis et raTuorum repentium teretium tomentosoruni emit- 
tens. Folia alterna, ovata, apice basique acuta vel breriter 



acuminata, 4—6 
crebris apiculatis, 



nervis 7—8 



1-2 cm. longi. Pedunculi 1-2-flori, 1-5-4 cm. longi;_ped 
1-3 cm. longi, medio bractea lanceolato 5 mm. loi _ 
Flores calcare cuivato incluso 3 cm. longi, intense rubro-pur- 
p'urei. Sepala puberula ; 2 lateralia oblongo-lanceolata, acumin- 
ata 1-1-5 cm. longa, rubro-bruimea , 3-5 nervia; posticum ex ore 
C3'mbiformi lo-2 cm. lato superne apiculato in calcar tenue semi- 
circulaie 2-5 cm. longum abiens. Ve.tillum orbiculare ad 1 cm. 
dianietro, dorso pubesceus, breviter gibbum. AJae glabrae basi 
cuneatae 2-5-3-5 cm. longae; lobus basalis superne rotundatus; 
distalis longior, oblongus, obtusus; auricula dorsalis eonspicua, 
flava. Capsula turgida, glabra. Semina 8, glanduloso-rugosa, 

fusco-brunnea. ^ ^ i i i ion 

Kachin Hills. Sinlum; at 1600-1800 m., June and July, 1911, 

The dedication of this balsam to the memory of Major loppm, 
who worked with such perseverance and success at the elucidation 
of the genus on the N.W. and X.E. frontiers of India, and who 
soon afterwards gave his life in the Great War in defence of he 
Empire, will be "approved by all. It fulfils, moreover, one of the 

c - 



354 




I. Toppinii, Dunn-Fig. 1, lateral .epal ; 2, spurred sepal ; '4, standard ; 

4, wmg; 5, capsule. 



365 




I. Jcamtilongenih, Toppin-Fig. 1, lateral sepal; 2, spurred sepal; 

3, standard; 4, wing ; 5, caps ule. 



c2 



356 



last wishes of tke greatest authority on Impatiens, for Sir J. D. 
Hooker had selected a species anioug the Chitral Balsams to be 
called after Major Toppin, but on Aug. 2, 1911. wrote to him 



after all it was not new, bein^ /. Lemanni. Hook 



lo^s 



Burma 



This plant is one of the commonest as well as one of the most 



The Latin diagnosis has 



beautiful balsams in the Kachin Hills. 

been drawn up from the discoverer's own English description. 



14a. 



g 



f,, affinis, sed floris colore distat. 

Ilerba erecta, pilis fuscis hirsuta, ad 30 cm, alta^ caule succu- 
lento. Folia ovata vel ovato-lanceolata, crenata, acuminata, 
subtus pallida, petiolata, nervis utrinque T-8; glandulae stipu- 



la 



nulla e. 



cm 



Fedicelli 1-1-5 cm. longi. basi bracteati ; bracteae lineares. Flores 
pallide sufHavi vel fere albi. Sepala lateralia 2, ovato-lanceolata, 
acuminata, ad 10 cm. longa, hirsuta; labelli limbus Kirsutus, 
eymbiformis, in calcar incurvum ad 1'25 cm. longum attenuatus. 



ore 1 cm. longo horizontali. 



costa 



nuta. Alae 2 cm, longae; lobus basalis rotundatus, lobus dis- 
talis oblongus; auricula dorsalis conspicua. Capsulae turgidae, 
liirsutae. Semina orbicularia, atrofusca, circa 22. 

Kamti Long Hills. Kumta" 
Sinar at 650 m., Dec, 191L 



Toppin 4275. 



found, minimum IT, average 22' 3. 



was 



(See page STiS.) 



17. f. annulifer, Hook, /.; Toppin 3442. Brought by Mr. Grant 
and not collected by myself. Differs from 2747 (/. pulclira^ Hook, 
f. & Thorns,), in the leaves and from 2746 (/. huTTnanica, Hook f.), 
in having a distinct maroon patch on the wings like 2747, and also 
in the fact that the spur is completely recurved on itself. Sepals 
light in colour. 





/. annulifer, Hook. f.-^Fi^r. 1, flower; 2, lateral sepal; 3, spurred 

sepal ; 4, standard ; 5, wmg. 



357 



Mr. E-ae lias seen tliis specimen, and also 2T4G (7. hurmaiiwa, 
Hook, f .), wlien growing, and states tliat they are very different in 
appearance, Mr. Grant^s description of colour is ** Flower yellow 
and claret, spur yellow with brown stripes, outer wings bnff, 
turning to yellow at base with stripes of claret and maroon, 
standard yellow and deep claret." 

18. I. burmanica, Hook. /.; Kacliin Hills, 500 m. (Kumtat), 
400 in. (Pungyi), 1300 m. (Sinlum), Toppin 2T4G. 







J.J.F.J?]! 



near to the water's edge. 
any stipular gland. 



I. burma7iica, Hook, f.— Fig. 1, flower; 2, lateral sepal; 3, spurred 

sepal; 4, standard; 5, wing. 

On 29-9-11 I spent a niglit at Palong Gatung, below Sinluni, 
to attempt to settle the question of the separate identity of this 
species and tlie previons one (3442). 1 took up Mr. I. I. Fag-an, 
who is an expert artist, and his painting- (now at Kew), may be 
taken as an exact reproduction of the flower. I examined with 
care 43 different specimens, picking in each case a plant with a 
fully developed flower and also a bud. It grows invariably m 
^..+„„ r.^A ^c ^^M o^roTi ^'mmd lu the very close jnngle and ground 

In no ease was there any stipule nor 
■any ..xwu.ux .x„^^. .^ every case the bract was found at the 
base of the pedicel. In no case was there any variation m the 
auricular lobes nor in their colour. In every case the spur was 
curled round, but in no case with a fully open flower was it 
recurved completely on itself. The sepals were extremely variable 
• _!._._ j?_5™ o-reenish to deep red, but in no case were they 
pure K-x-.x.. I^'only found one case in which there were four 
sepalsf although I found more than this the first time when 
examining fewer flowers. In no case had the wmgs the di<tinc 
five deep maroon markings that were invariably found m 344. 
at the base, and in only two cases tbey were not pure cream 
without, viz. : (1) The inner edge of the wings hod a bar of deep 
orange r^d runmng along it, and also a distinctive bar of the 
same^olour running from the base to the outer edge- (2 In this 
flower one wing had the above marking, but not the othw. J 



pure green. 



358 



oxamiued 7 pods only; seeds 33-GO; average in tlie pods were 
45'6. 

This plant is very local here, I only found it in one stream, and 

in this for only the distance of about a mile when it ceased, 

although if I had searched for it for a longer time I might have 

found it further afield. I searched other streams but did not 

find it,^ and the Kachin with me told me that it grew nowhere 
else. 



It only grew in deep shade. 



25. 



I. tripetala, Ro.xb.; Hills east of Bhamo at 1500-1700 m., 

June and July, in shady places by roadsides and banks of streams. 

Toppin 2680. 




G.B.Jel^ 



I. tripetala, Roxb.-Fi^.. 1, bud; 2, flower; 3, lateral sepal ; 4, spurred 

sepal; 5, standard; 6, Tving; 7, capsule. 

A stout erect glabrous herh or sligMlj pubescent and branclied, 
i-i-^ m. high. .Stem glabrous or covered with a few scattered 
hairs, swollen at the nodes, succulent. Leaves ovate or ovate- 



anceolate, acuminate at the end, slightly crenate, 10-13 



long 



cm. 



^ui, c TO 1 1 ^ ," '' "^ ^^ ^''^ ^^- 1^ length; petiole 

with 6-12 glands on each side of the base. Pedicels springing 
from the axils of the leaves. Flower 2-5 cm. in length,' reddish 
purple in colour. Sepals 2 lanceolate. . Lip with aS acuminate 
foL ^1 lower margin of the mouth, suddenlv constricted to 
with rnnfr I'V''''^'^''"- '^^'^'^^^^^ Orbicular, \eeled. Wings 
r'ir'l" ^'"'''"i }?^'' and .^ith a well marked yellow eal 



shaped lobule. Pollen white 



Cap sill 



turgid. 



Average 



^^I'^^'lf T'^\l''"'li ^^ ^^ ^'^P^^^^^ ^^^ 21-8 (16-33); unripe 
seeds covered with white tomentum 

The distinctive point.s of this flower are (1) the rapidly con- 
stricted spur and (2) large number of stipular glands ^ 



^^\. I- tnpetala, Ro.xh. var. microscypha, HooT^ / 

Xachm Hills, 700 m., Aug., Sepi ^ ' ^ 

An erect herb 30-45 cm. hio-h 

of *tt^;fdicef ^"r" ^1^\' ^ recl-piirple. Bracts at the base 

Sistenint subst.^^^' Q ^7^1*^ ^""^ '""^'"'^^ composed of thick 
glistening substance. Seeds brown in colour; avera^^e number 
found m 5 capsules 16 (9-24). aveiage numoer 



Sept. Toppin 2779. 

Stipular glands on each side 



359 



I examined 27 different plants and found no variation in (1) 
number of sepals (2) colour and size of the auricles, but I found 
great variation in tlie colour of the sepals, some being bright 
green and others of the same colour as the flower. 

I 

28. I. chinensis, L.; Eyson, Fl. Pulney Hills; ii, 49. Bot. 
Mag. t. 4631. N.E, Burma, Lweje at 1000 m., in tlie water- 
courses between tlie fields. Toppin 2780. 

Except at the extremity, the spur is distinctly broad in most 
specimens- This is sometimes found with pure white flowers 
instead of the usual bright pink. ' 

38a, I. Pritchardii, Toppin; species /. laevigatae^ Wall., 
affinis^ sed pubescentia coloreque florum distat. 

Herha erecta, pubescentia, robusta, 8-10 cm. alta, cauli suc- 
culento. Folia ovato-lanceolata, acuminata, serrata, 10-13 cm. 
longa, alterna, in petiolum 4-5 cm. longum angustata, nervis 
utrinque 8-10; glandulae stipulares - nullae. Inflorescentia 
pedunculata, pedunculis bifloris; pedicelli l'5-2 cm. longi, 
inferior€s basi, superiore altius bracteato; bracteae lanceolatae, 
5 mm. longae. /'Zor;^^ expansi, ad 3 cm. diiametiio. Sepala later'alia 
2, obliqua, ovato-acuminata^ 1'2 cm. longa, 3-yel 5-nervia, fere 
alba; labelli limbus rubro-flavus, cymbiformis, in calcar incurvum 
1-5 cm, longum attenuatus, ore 2 cm. longo horizontali. 
Vexilliim orbiculare vel ellipticum, ad 1'5 cm. diametro, 
pubescens, purpureum; costa dorso carinata. Alae ad 3 cm. 
longae, purpureae; lobus basalis rotundatus, lobus distalis 
oblongus; auricula dorsalis conspicua. Filamenta 5 mm. longa. 
Capsulae turgidae, 3 cm, longae. Semina circa 15, fusca. 

Kachin Hills, Wasi, at 170 m., in damp shady places, 

12.12.1911. Toppin ^{)m. 

{Seepage 360.) 

40. I. arguta, Hook. f. ^ Thorns.; Hook. Ic. PL t. 2875 (var.). 
N.E. Burma at 800-1700 m. Lateral sepals and standard red, 
wings lilac, laLellum mottled with the same colour and spur 
yellowish brown. 

43. I. Jurpia, Ham.; Kachin Hills, Sinlum, at 2170-2300 m. 
Only found in very wet and absolutely shady places. Aug. and 

Sept. Toppin 2745. - -, . a -, 

A very stout and erect herb 1-1'2 m. high. Stipular glands nil. 
Bracts green, half way up the pedicels. Floicer white, flushed 
with rose and spotted with a deeper shade. Sepals 2, pure white 
in colour. Wings divergent, forming a well-defined open mouth. 
This is the finest balsam seen up to date. 

43 I. rubrolineata, Hook. /.; N.E. Burma. Common in the 
Kachin country towards Kampti Long and further Eastin the 
Khunnon- area, Kntotat 500 m. Naogang 500 m., INja Hka 



430 m. January. Toppin 4300, 6034. 

(iS'ee page 361.) 



360 




I. Pritchardii, Toppin— Fig. 1, lateral sepal; 2, spurred sepal; 

3, standard ; 4, wing. 



361 




:^% 



I. riihrolineata , Hook. f.-Fig 1, lateral sepal; 2, spurred 

-3, standard ; 4 wing. (Interior sepals not sbown. j 



362 



A stout erect glabrous plant O'6-l m. kigh. Leaves alter- 
nate, ovate-lauceolatej glabrous and dark green. Stipules and 
stipular glands nil. Petioles 2-3 cm. in length witli 3 or 4 pairs 
of glands. Pedicels in whorls of 5 or 6, springing from a common 
peduncle which, arises from the upper leaf axils. Length, of the 
pedicels 1-2 cm. Length of peduncles 5 cm. Bracts ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate, at the base of the pedicels. Flower light lemon, 
striated with pink and sometimes with a few dark green blotches 
on the standard. Sepals 4, the exterior ovate, the interior very 
elongate, 2 cm. long and nearly colourless, with a peculiar hook- 
like process at the apex. Lip broadly open. Spur blunt, curved. 
Wings 4 cm, long; dorsal auricles well developed; lobes large. 
Standard with a characteristic large blunt keel. Pod glabrous, 
elongate and only containing seeds in the upper half, 4-5 cm. in 
length- Seeds glabrous; average number in 18 pods examined 

5-8 (3-7). 

This plant may later have to be separated from 7. ruhrolineata, 
Hook. f. There is no dried specimen of the plant at Xew, but 
only a drawing of an incomplete specimen collected at Manipur. 
This drawing does not show the most distinctive hook-like process 
on the interior sepal which is characteristic of the specimens 
described above, but the plant agrees roughly in other respects 
with the description in Kew Bull, 1910, 300. The plant, however, 
there described has exterior sepals 1-5 cm. in length instead of 
11-1"2 cm. and also oblique in form. Also ^^costa dorso 
breviter cristata '^ hardly describes the standard of the present 
plant which is perhaps ^^ costa dorso supra medium ample cris- 
tata/' The specimen quoted in the Keiv Bulletin consists of only 
one sheet in very poor condition, and the hook-like process may 
have been torn off or not have been evident in dissection. 

43b, I. cymbifera, Hook. /,; Kachin Hills, Sinlum. In damp 
shady places by the side of the streams at 1700-1800 m. in Aug. 
and Sept. Toppin 2777. 




5.^l.Xcler 

I. ct/mbi/era. Hook, f — Fig. 1, part of inflorescence ; 2, flower; 3, lateral 



Win 



363 



An erect glabrous, stout and branclied herb 1-2 m. high. 
Stem groved, nodes prominent and sometimes rufous in colour. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, crenate, 10-13 cm. exclusive of the 
petiole -R-hich is 1-25-2-5 cm. long. Two stipular glands at the 
base of the petiole. Racemes simple, springing from the axils of 
the leaves, 10-13 cm. long; the pedicels 1-2 cm. in length, alter- 
nate from the peduncle. Bracts caducous, large, white, com- 
pletely protecting the young flower. Sepals 2, ovate, cordate, 
acuminate, mauve in colour. Corolla 3-5 cm, in length, dirty 
mauve in colour, blotched with yellow and dark purple. Standard 
orbicular, without keel. Wings with lateral lobes rounded, the 
terminal narrow with no dilatation or depression on the margin. 
Li]) with a slightly curved slender spur. Pollen pinkish-mauve 
in colour. Capsule linear. Seeds ghibrous, average number 
found in 5 capsules 9-8. 

Fertilised by bees. This is most interesting to me for it is the 
first species collected in these parts that has large caducous bmcts 
that are of sufficient size to protect the flower while in bud, and 
it is a distinct link between the groups into which I have divided 
the majority of the genus in this range. It possesses the typical 
open mouth of the one group, while at the same time it has no 
auricular lobe and its capsule is clavate. 

47a. I. porphyrea, Toppin; species /. stenanthae, Hook. f.> 
affinis, sed bracteis persistentibus et floribus purpureis distincta. 

Herha erecta, ramosa, glabra, 1—2 m. alta. Caulis in nodis 
turgidulus, striatus. Folia ovata vel lanceolata, 7-10 cm. longa, 
arete crenata; petioli O'5-l cm, longi, basi duobus glandulis seti- 
formibus stipularibus ornati. Flores 2-5 cm. longi, porphyrei, in 
racemis terminalibus vel rarius axillaribus pedunculatis ad 8 cm. 
longis dispositi; pedicelli ad 2 cm. longi, bracteis persistentibus 
concavis coloratis suffulti. Sepala lateralia lanceolata, 8 mm. 
longa, viridia vel colorata; posticum infundibuliforme, superne 
cornutum; calcar pauUo curvatum, extremitata turgido. Yea:il- 
lum orbiculare, obtuse calcaratuni. Alae lobi laterales rotundati, 
terminales acutissime elongati margine integri. Capsnila linearis, 

Kachin Hills. Sinlum ; 2200-2300 m., in sunny situations 
near the top of one hill only, on which it grows in dense patches. 

Toppin 2744. 

The colour of all plants seen was of the same deep claret colour. 
The mouth of the flower is closed by the convergent terminal lobes 
of the wings. Bees usually settle on the lip and pierce the 
extremity, thus robbing the honey. 

48. I. bracteolata, Hook, /.; Hills East of Bham^o, 1500- 
2300 m. June to 



shady watercourses. This is the most widely spread species m 



these hills, Toppin 2678. 

A slender erect glabrous and branched herb 1 m. high, btem 
terete swollen at the nodes and often coloured brown. Leaves 
ovate-lanceolate, crenate, 10-15 cm, long, exclusive of petiole. 
Petiole 1 cm. in length with two small stipular glands at base. 
Racemes simple, springing from the axils of the leaves, 10-12 cm. 



364 



long. The pedicels 2 cm. in length. Bracts persistent, sinalL 
Flovjer 4 cm. in length, light yellow in colour throughout, with 






4 




X 






i^, 



S^M.TcW, 



L hracteolata, Hook- f. — Fig. 1, axil showing stipular gland; 2, part 
inflorescence; 3, outer sepal ; 4, inn^-r sepal; 5, spurred sepal ; 

6, standard; 7, wing. 



of 




ar very contorted appearance. Sepals 4, both pairs very small^ 
but one very minute indeed with a dark red spot at the 
tremity. Lip with a long slender straight spur. Standard erect 
or even bent backwards and contorted on itself, not spurred. 
Wings with two narrow lobes, contorted so that the two winga 
cross each other, the terminal lobe having a pit-like depression 
on its margin instead of the dilatation. Pollen light yellow. 
Capsule linear. Seeds only at the apex, dark brown; average 
number found in 28 capsules examined was 11*8 (9-16). 

The distinctive points of this plant are (1) the erect contorted 
standard, (2) the pit-like depression on the terminal lobes of the 



wmgs. 



49, I. drepanophora, Hook, j.; Hills east of Bhamo at 1700 



2300 



m 



Ailg. 
and roadsides. 



Sept. In shady places 

Toppin 2778. 



along 



the watercourses 





I. drepanoph&ra. Hook. f. 

4, lateral sepal ; 



Fig. 1, part of inflorescence ; 2, flower ; 3, bract ; 
5, spurred sepal ; 5, standard ; 7, wing. 



365 




I. TcacUnsU, Hook. f.-Fig. 1, lateral sepal ; 2, spurred sepal; 



3, standard; 4, win 



g- 



366 



A tall erect glabrous and branclied lierb 1-1"2 m. hig-b. Stem 
terete, only slightly swollen at the light green nodes. Leaves 
OA-ate-lanceolate, crenate, 10-13 cm. long exclusive of petiole- 
which is 5 cm. In length. Petiole with two small stipular glands 
at base. Racemes simple, springing from axils of the leaves^ 
10-15 cm. long, the pedicels 2 cm. in length. Bracts caducous^ 
small, ovate-lanceolate, with apiculate tip, green in colour. Bud,. 
excluding spur, ovoid in shape. Flower 3-5 cm. in length. 
Lateral sepals 2, uncinate, long awned, light green in colour. 
Lip with long spiral or corkscrew spur, spotted with crimson ; the 
upper margin of the mouth of the lip has a peculiar light green 
horn. Standard yellow-orange in colour, slightly spurred. 
Wings with two narrow lobes slightly spotted with crimson, the 
terminal lobe having no dilatation or depression on its margin. 

The distinctive points of this plant are : (1) the orange yellow 
colour with crimson sjDots, (2) the corkscrew shape of the spur, 
(3) the erect green horn on the upper margin of the mouth of 
the lip, (4) the uncinate awned sepals. 

The mouth of the flower is closed by the convergent wings. It 
is visited by the bees, which often settle, on the lip and prick the 
spur from the outside to rob the honey. 

49a. I. kachinensis, Hook. /. MS. ; Kachin Hills, Suraprang- 
at 420 m. ; Bum Kan at 470 ni. ; Kimitat at 480 m. in the shingle 
bed of streams which during the rains must be many feet under 
water. 



(See page 365.) 



A semi-erect plant. Stem red. Stipular glands red. Flower 
entirely light orange-yellow. Mouth closed by wings. Wings 
long, contorted, and with no auricular lobes. Capsules linear^ 
the seeds being in the upper portion only. Seeds gibbous, aver* 
age number in 16 capsules examined was 12'5 (7-17). 

This species is visited at day by butterflies and bees. Auricular 
lobes if present would be of no avail as they would be hidden by 

i1 J J 1 • mi ft n*^ * -■• •■! • j» 



tlie contorted wings. 



fl 



Hook, f., and/, drepanophora, Hook, f., and many more, and the 
insect in actually forcing its way into the mouth is driven 
against the anthers. 



Hooi 



SUBJECT 



The Camp, 



near Sunningdale, 



August 3, 1910. 



You are no doubt aware tliat Mrs. Toppin has submitted to 
my mspeetion the 5 species of Balsam collected by you in the 
N."\^ . Himalaya. To my great surprise I at once recognised 4 
of those collected in Chitral, to be totally different from any of 
the upwards of 100 Himalayan kinds known to me. When to 
this IS added the remarkable fact that these most distinct plants 
are confined to the extreme western limit of the genus in the 



367 



H 



point of vieWj one of great and singular interest. 

Angust 2, 1911. 
In your last letter, 15-1-11, you tell me that you are going to 
take 3 montlis' leave this summer and propose confining your 
attention to a few genera. This will give you time to make care- 
ful notes on tlie plants whick you will collect, and such notes will 



be invaluable. 



October 5, 1911. 



I have just received your long and A'ery interesting letter from 
Bhamo, of 2-9-11, for which I most cordially thank you. I do 
wish I could discuss with you several of the very curious points 
it indicates, but at my age it is impossible, for I am in my 95th 
year. 

I do fervently hope you will publish your Impatiens observa- 
tions and send them to the Kew Bulletin. Above all, do keep the 
Kew Herbarium supplied with specimens of your discoveries, 
accompanied with flowers for analysis and your excellent notes. 
Thank you most truly for the correspondence you have given me, 
and with every good wish for your professional advancement and 

career, 

Believe me, dear Mr. Toppin, 

^ Most sincerely yours, 

Jos. D. HOOKEE. 



LVL— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Dr. a. F, G. Kerr, Government Medical Officer,^ Chiengmai, 
Siam, has been appointed Government Botanist in Siam. 

Dr. Kerr has for some years devoted his leisure to a study of 
the flora of Siam and has sent to Kew extensive collections con- 
taining many new species which have been described in the Kew 
Bulletin in '' Contributions to the Flora of Siam,'' by Prof. W. 
G Craib. It is a matter for congratulation that Dr. Kerr has 
now been placed in a position to devote his whole time to the 
investigation of the comparatively little-known botanical resources 

of this region. 



Mr W. Sm-vll, M.B.E., appomted Botanist m tlie department 
of Agriculture, Uganda, in 1913 (7v.5., 1913, 90) has now been 
appofnted by the Secretary of State for the Colonies on the 
recommenJation of Kew, Mycologist in the same Department. 



Mr A. S. Clegg, a member of the gardening staff of the Eojal 
Botanic Gardens, has been appointed by ^^^ Secretary of S^^^^^^^^^ 
the Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew, Agricultural 
Superintendent in Mauritius, 



368 



Mn. E. DowNES, a member of the gardening staff of tlie Eoyal 
Botanic Gardens, lias been appointed by the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew, Assistant Snper- 
iutende^it of Public Gardens, Jamaica. 



Mn. E. A. EucK, a member of the gardening staff of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, has been appointed by the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, on the recommendation of Kew, an Assistant 
District Agricultural Officer in the Department of Agriculture, 



Uganda. 



Mr. E. a. Hughes, a member of the gardening staff of the 
Eoyal Botanic Gardens, has been appointed by the Secretary of 
State for India in Council, on the recommendation of Kew, a 
gardener in the service of the Goyernment of the Punjab. 

Me. G. H. Fothergill, a member of the gardening staff of the 
Eoyal Botanic Gardens, has been appointed by the Secretary of 
State for India m Council, on the recommendation of Kew, a 
gardener in the service of the Government of Bengal. 



Mr. E. a. McCallan, First Agricultural Assistant, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bermuda, has been appointed by the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, Director of Agriculture, 
Bermuda, in succession to Mr. E. J. Wortley {K.B., 1920, 285). 

^ 

Mr. W. H. JoiiNsoif, lately Director of Agriculture, Southern 

Provinces, Nigeria, who has recently retired on pension from the 

Colonial Service, has accepted a commission from the Empire 

Cotton Growing Association to proceed to Queensland and other 

parts of Australia with reference to cotton growino- in that 
country. '^ 



John Header Jackson. — W 



' r ^^*o/i J^^^^'3<^^ 0^ October 28th at Lvmpstone, S. Devon. 
m his 84th year. Since the year 1914'he had been in indifferent 



earned rest and 



/ . " "--..-. ^^x^ ^.Kf ciijuj' Ills weii-eamea resx aiiu 

devote some time to the subject of Economic Botany in which he 
had a lifelong interest. 

When Mr Jackson retired from the post of Keeper of the 
Museums m 1901 a note was published in the Kew Bulletin for 
that year, on p. 201, giving a brief account of his work at Kew. 
Since his retirement from his official duties, after 48 years' 
devoted _ sei-vice, Mr. Jackson contributed many articles on 
Economic BoUmy to the " Technologist," the ''Pharmaceutical 
Journal, Gardeners' Chronicle" and other periodicals. 

He was born at Knightsbridge in May, 1837, and then lived 
for several years at Canterbury, whete his family went to reside 
r.ntprLn^'' '°''' 'f vearsold. The architectural interests of 
sh^mul^ tla^\ ^^^'J° Y- ^^fl^^^^^d l^i^ ^-ery strongly and 

Wetio. d^'nJ^^ ' f • '''f.*° ^"^°^^ ^^^ ^^.,i, but L this 
profession did not offer him the prospect of a lucrative position at ■ 



369 



the moment lie was advised by his friend Prof. Bell to divert 
Lis attention to other studies. It was through this friend that 
he was introduced to Sir AVilliam Hooker, Robert Brown, John 
Lindley, and otlier eminent men, and in the year 1858 he waa 
put in charge of the Museums at Kew in succession to Alexander 
Smith, the first Curator, 

The Kew Museum collections at that date were only in their 
earliest stages, and for twenty years Mr, Jackson remained in 
sole charge. Owing to the growing importance of the collections 
an assistant, Mr. J. M. Hillier, was appointed in 1879, Mr. 
Jackson being made Keeper, and on his retirement in 1901 he 
was succeeded as Keeper by Mr. Ilillier. 

Among his works may be mentioned the new edition of Barton 
and Castle^s British Flora Medica which he edited in 1877, and 
the Commercial Botany of the XIX Century which was published 
in 1890. 

One of his official duties at Kew was to give lectures on 
Economic Botany to the young gardeners, and the value of his 
courses of instruction and his keen interest in this work are 
gratefully remembered by some hundreds of Kewites. 

During his long residence in Richmond Mr. Jack??on was 
actively engaged in charitable and educational works connected 
with St, John's Church, of which he was for many years one of 
the Wardens, In 18G8 Mr, Jackson was elected an Associate of 
the Linnean Society and at the time of his death was the oldest 

Associate. 

His former colleagues retain the memory of a gentle and un- 
selfish character and a valued friend. 



OnoARDO Beccaki. — It is with very much regret that we have 
received the announcement of the death at Florence, on October 
25th, of Dr* Odoardo Beccari, an old and highly esteemed corres- 
pondent of the establishment and a liberal contributor to the 
Herbarium. Since October, 1869, Kew has been in frequent 
communication with him, and up till February, 1918, he con- 
tinued to send dried specimens and drawings, chiefly of Palms, 
and copies of certain of his publications for the_ library. For 



manj 
M 



Mai 



duriii"- wliicli he made large collectioBs of botanical specimens, 
resulted in tlie publication, between tlie years 18TT and 1836, of 
tbree quarto volumes, under the title of "Malesia,'] each con- 
taining numerous plates. The second volume of this work m- 



myrmec 



letter from him, dated February 19th, 1888, conveys an acknow- 
ledgment of pecuniary help afforded him by the Bentham Trustees 
towards the cost of the illustrations in this work. A narrative 
of some portion of his travels appeared in 1902 under the title 
"Xelle Fore^^te di Borneo." An English translation of this 
volume bv Dr. E. H. Gigliolo, with some modifications, was 
published 'in London in 1904. For many years past Dr Beccari 
devoted his studies chiefly to the Palmae, and published numer- 



ous w 



orks laro-e and small on the family. Amongst 



D 



370 



he mentioned ''Palme del Madagascar" (1912), a large folio 
volume contaiuiiig 50 plates, and "Asiatic Palms-Lepidocaryeae *' 
(1908-14), published in the '^ Annals of the. Royal Botanic 
Garden, Calcutta,'' vol. xi. and vol. xii. pt. 1; so far he had 
dealt with the species of Calamus and DaemonorhopSy the former 
illustrated with 321 and the latter with 111 plates. He contri- 
buted several papers to the Italian botanical journals, the more 
important to ''Webbia/' Accompanied by Count Martelli, Dr. 
Beccari spent a few days at Kew in 1908, from July 27th to 
August 1st. He was elected a Foreign member of the Ldnnean 
Society on May 3rd, 1883, at the same time as the late Professor 
John Lange of Copenhagen. S. A. s. 



Reginald Farree. — Alpine plants and rock gardens have a 
wide circle of admirers. In this circle a prominent figure was 
Mr. Reginald John FaiTer, the announcement of whose death 
we have receiA"ed with profound regret. An enthusiast such as 
he really was cannot have failed to influence for good those who 
had come into personal relations with him or had read his books 
and other will tings. Few knew alpines as he did. He had 
studied them for many years in their native haunts. He had a 
large-hearted love for all that was beautiful in plant life, and a 
teeming vocabulary in which to describe the forms and colours 
and homes of his favourites. Born forty years ago and a native 
of Yorkshire, as early as 1894 he gave, some expression of that 
interest in alpine vegetation which in later years appeared so 
dominant by publishing a note in the *' Journal of Botany'* 
(p. 344) on the rare Arenaria gothica. This he had discovered 
in another station in the Ingleborough district, where alone it 
is known in Britain, other than that previously recorded. In 
1898 he entered Balliol College, Oxford, as a Commoner. Sub- 
sequently he made several tours in the European Alps and pub- 
lished numerous articles on them and the plants he met with in 
the '' Gardeners' Chronicle.'* These explorations also were the 



spiration of the volume *' Among the Hills/' issued from the 
press in 1911. In 1903 he, undertook a journey round the world, 
visiting among other places Canada, China *and Japan. One 
outcome of the experiences thus gained was. a lecture to the Royal 
Horticultural Society in May, 1905, on Japanese Plants and 
Gardens, published in the Society^s Journal, vol. xxxi. pp. 12~1T. 
He visited Ceylon in 190T, and spent the. years 1914 and 1915 in 
exploring, in company with Mr. William Purdom, formerly of 
Xew, the Ivansu region of Western China. His work *'0n*^ the 
Eaves of the World," published in 191T, is a narrative, in some- 
thing more than ordinary language, of his wanderings and expe- 
rieTi(;es of the year 1914. A series of articlee on his travels in 
China also appeared in the ''Gardeners' Chronicle." Last year 
another journey to Eastern Asia was undertaken — a journey from 
which unhappily he was not destined to return, for he fell a 
victim to diphtheria on October 16th, while travelling on the 
frontier range between Burma and China. These journeys to 
the East led to the appearance in cultivation of a considerable 



371 



number of choice plants including many novelties. Among them 



may 



genera, of 



which new species bear his name: — Callianthevium, Isoyynim^ 
Sedum, Loyiicera, Aster^ Primula, Buddleia, Gentiarm^ 
Isometruniy a new genus of Gesneraceae, Cyprij)edilu7n^ Iris and 
Lilium, He is also commemorated in Farreria^ Balf. f . & W. W. 
Smith, a new genus of Thymelaeaceae. Most of the above and 
other UQw plants discovered by him are described in the '' Notes 
from the Eoyal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh/' Mr. Farrer's own 
descriptions of many of his plants appear in his ''Eeport on work 
in 1914 in Kansu and Tibet" published in the ** Journal of the 
Boyal Horticultural Society/' vol. xlii. pp. 47-114. In addition 
to works on fiction and those already specified Farrer wrote " My 
Rock Garden '' (1907), '' Alpines and Bog Plants '' (1908), " In 



a Yorkshire Garden^' (1909), '' T^ie Eock Garden'' (Present- 



Day Gardening Series), and ^' The English Rock Garden," the 
last. corisistint> of o- 



er 



1919. Many of Mr. Farrer's introductions may be seen at Kew, 
and numerous others will no doubt yet appear in these and other 
gardens to procure which he made so many sacrifices, even the 
sacrifice of a life so largely abounding in those qualities and 



possessions that render it des-irable and beautiful. Apprecia- 



tions of Mr. Farrer, with a portrait, aj)pear in the '** Gardeners' 
Chronicle" of November 20th- s. A. s. 



M 



The collections 



of the Royal ]3otanic Gardens, Kew, have been enriched by a 
very valuable bequest by the late Miss Margaret Louisa Moxon, 
of the Hazels, New Milton, Hants, consisting of about 1000 
water colour drawings of Swiss wild flowers painted during her 
many visits to Switzerland. 

The collection is a remarkably representative series of studies 
of the flora of the Alps both of the high mountains and of tbe 



loAver meadows and pastures. The drawings 



iStudy 



great beauty. The collection is contained in seven large port- 
folios. In the case of the larger subjects only a single species 
is figured on a sheet but with the smaller plants from the high 
Alps three or more species may be represented on one sheet, 
but kept quite distinct and separate. 

Some of the plants have been carefully named but owing to 
Miss Moxon's untimely death the exact determinations bad not 
been completed, nor, unfortunately, had she fully achieved her 
object of painting the whole of the Swiss alpine flora. 

The drawings will be placed in the Herbarium and kept as a 
separate collection available for study by students as soon as a 
catalogue has been completed. 

Mr. A. E. Mox(»n, the only surviving brother of the artist, has 
very generously offered to help to defrav the cost of preparing a 
cataloo-ue; we are also indebted to him for the following particu- 
lars olliis family and of Miss Moxon's life work. 

" Marrraret Louisa Moxon, the only daughter of James Edward 



d2 



372 



and Louisa Sarali Moxon, was born in London on Sept. 30tli, 
1863. 

'^ Tliere can be no doubt tLat sbe inherited lier love of nature 

w 

and talent for drawing from ber Huguenot ancestors wbo after 
the ReTocation of tbe Edict of Nantes fled to Norwich and settled 
there for many generations. It was not until 1904 that she paid 
her first visit to Switzerland, also visiting Italy and Sicily. 
While at Axenfels she was struck by the wealth of flowers on 
the alpine pastures but had nevej received any instruction in 
flower painting. She started a series of flower studies of that 
district and findinsf her interest irrowiufT' beg-an to make the 
collection now sriven to Kew. 



^ 



In 1907, 1912 and 1913 other trips were made in search of 
fresh subjects for her brush but it was always the higher alpines 
that interested her most. But for the outbreak of the war it was 
her intention to settle out there and make a complete collection 
of the Swiss flora. She always said the most difficult flower 
(Swiss) to paint was Astrantia major. 

'^ She died on July 11th in her 5Tth year and was buried in 
Milton Churchyard/' 



Polypodiopsis, CWncre,— In his Traite General des Coniferes, 
ed. 2, p. 710 (1867), Carriere described as Polypodiopsis Muellerii 
what he took to be a new genus of Coniferae. This w^as duly 
recorded in the Index Kewensis, but otherwise appears to have 
been overlooked by systematic botanists, not being mentioned by 
either Bentham and Hooker or by Engler and Prantl. Even 
Pilger in his monograph of Taa-aceae for the Pflanzenreich has 
taken no heed of it. The name is mentioned, however, by 
Coulter and Chamberlain in their Morphology of Gymnosperms, 
p. 313 (1910). In speaking of the distribution of Tribe Taa^ineae 
they remark '* The New Caledonian representation is so small, 
and the affinities of Polypodiopsis are so uncertain, that the tribe 
may be regarded as northern in its distribution, in contrast with 
the southern distribution of the podocarps.^'- 

In reply to an enquiry from Kew, Professor H, Lecomte states 
that there is no trace of Carriere' s specimen amongst the New 
Caledonian Coniferae preserved in the Paris Museum, and at the 
same time ve.ry kindly suggested that the specimen described by 
Carriere might be one of the Proteaceae. Following up this, I 
find amongst the New Caledonian Proteaceae one genus and 
species, Bauprea Balansae, Brongn. & Gris, which agrees exactly 
with Carriere's description. Carriere mentioned the general 
similarity of his Polypodiopsi\s with the genus Phyllocladns, a 
genuine member of the Tasaceacj and Bauprea shows this resem- 
blance verj^ closely. J. H. 



Flora Capensis.— The issue of Parts II, .nnd III. of the 
second section of Vol. Y. of this work, edited by Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer, should be recorded. Part II. (pp. 193-384), 
which was issued in Oct. 1915, continues the analysis of 



373 



Santalaceae by Dr. A. AV. Hill, which is followed by the 
Bala/wijhoraceae by ^Ir. C. H. Wright. Evphorbiaceae^ for 
which Sir D. Prain, Mr, N. E. Brown and >[r. J. Hutchinson 
are resiJonsible, occupies the rest of this Part, and extends almost 
to the end of Part III. (pp. 385-528) ^fhicb was published in 
May, 1920. Part III. ako includes Ulmaceae and concludes 
with the 3rd species of Ficus in Moraceae. 



Flora of Tropical Africa. — Since the last notice of this work 

appeared (Kew BulL 19T3, p. 283) six more parts have been 
published as follows : — 

Vol. vi. Sect 2, pt. 1, pp. 1-192 (Mar. 1916). 

„ ix. pt. 1, pp. 1-192 (Mar. 1917). 

vi. Sect. 2, pt. 2, pp. 193-359 (Feb. 1918). 

ix. pt. 2, pp. 193-384 (Apr. 1918). 

ix. pt. 3, pp. 385-57G (Julv 1919). 

ix. pt. 4, pp. 577-760 (July 1920). 

Volume vi. Sect. 2, pts. 1 and 2, deals with the remainder of 
the Monochlamycleae and with the Gymnosperins, the following 
families being- described : — Uhnaceae, *Barbeyaccae, Canna- 



J J 



9J 



O 



M 



binaceae (by A, B. Pendle), Moraceae (by A. B. Rendle and J, 
Hutchinson), Urficaceae (by A. B. Eendle), Myricaceae (by J. 
Hutchinson), Casttarineae (by C. H. Wright), Salicvneae and 
Ceratoyhylleae (by S. A. Slvan), Gnetaceae (by H. H. W. Pear- 
son), Pinaceae and Taxaceae (bv 0. Stapf), and the Cycadaceae 

(by D. Prain). 

Vol. ix. pts. 1-4, deals with the Gramineae (by 0. Stapf), of 
which there are 178 genera arranged in 19 tribes, the 75th genus, 
Setaria, being reached at the end of part four. 



Botanical Magazine The following i^lants are figured in tlie 

mimbers for July, August and September : —N uphar poly- 
sepalum, Engelm. (t. 8852), from tlie mountain lakes of Colorado; 
Fleurothallis grandis, Eolfe (t. 8853), a native of Costa Eica; 
Cotoneaster serotina, Hutchinson (t. 8854), from "Western China; 
Daphne tangutica, Maxim, (t. 8855), from Eansu, Western 
China; Coelugyne integerHvia^ Ames (t. 8856), a native of the 
Philijjpines; Bcrhciis atrocarpa, C. K. Schneider (t. 8857), from 
Western Szechuan; Allium sikkimense. Baker (t. 8858), from 
Sikkim; Sahia lati folia, Eehd. & Wils. (t. 8859), from Cliiua; 
Acacia spectahilis, Cunn. & Benth. (t. 8860), a native of Eastern 
Australia; Arimema Fargesii, Buchet (t. 8861), from Szechuan 
and Stranvaesia salicifoliu, Hutchinson (t. 8862), from China. 



Botanical Magazine.— The numhens for October, November 

and December, 1920, completing Vol. XTI. of tJie Fourth Series 
of the magazine contain the following illustrations :—Ferfea^c«m 

# A new family establilhed by Dr. Rendle on a peculiar North-east African 
and IrabTaa ^ailt previously referred by Schweinfurth to the UrUcareae. 



374 



BJaftaria^ Linn, var. grandifiorum^ TuitIU (t. 8863), found in a 
cornfield in Lincolnshire; Rhododendron stri gillosuvi , ErancK. 



from 



Walilenb 



(t, 8865), a native of tlie Orient; Melaleuca EaJula, LindL (t. 
8866), a native of Western Australia; Kniphofia Snowdeniy C- H. 



/ 



■fl 



(t. SSG9), from Central Cliina ; Fhlomis spectahilis, Falc. ex 
Beutli. (t. 8870), a native of the Western Himalaya, Afghanistan 
and Ealuchistan; Rhododendron Sargentianuin, Kehder & E. H. 
Wils. (t. 8871), from Szechuan, South- Western China; Mesem- 
hryanthemum dichroiun^ Eolfe (t. 8872), from South Africa; and 
Odontoglpssum Iluineanum, Eeichb. f. (t, 8873), a native of 



Southern Mexico. 



ted to the Eev. William Wilks, M 



V.M.H., *'To whosQ labour and care as Secretaiy for over three 
decades of the Eojal Horticultural Society gardencraft every- 
where is greatly beholden." 

The publishers of the Botanical Magazine, who with great 
public spirit have continued to issue the work throughout the 
war, have at last felt it incumb-ent upon them to give very careful 
consideration to its position. With much reluctance they have 
come to realise that the continuance of the work is dependent on 
its paying its footing all round. This it is not able to do. They 
have therefore resolved to terminate the Fourth Series of the 
Botanical Magazine with the present volume, and before com- 
mitting themselves further, to ascertain in some way whether the 
Magazine is really worth continuing, and if so under what con- 
ditions it might be possible to do so. 



■ 

Flowering Plants of South Africa.— The publication of the 
first number of '*The Flowering Plants of South Africa " marks 
yet another phase of the work which comes under the scope of 
the Botanical Survey of the Union, the Director of which move- 
ment, Dr. I. B. Pole-Evans, lias edited tlie work in question. 
The magazine, wliich contains hand-coloured figures with des- 
criptions of the Flowering Plants indigenous to South Africa, 
and which is modelled on Curtis' s Botanical Magazine, has as its 
obj ect the fostering of interest of South Africans in the form and 
cultivation of their native plants. It is trusted that the work 
will appeal to a large public and that its circulation will be long- 



lived. ^ It might be suggested, especially in view of the mislead- 



occurs 



names on the plates themselves would be an improvement to the 



niaorazme. 



The Buhania Flora.— A copy of their recently publislied 



has 



Doctors ^N". L. Britton and C. H. Mill>paugh. The work extend's 
to nearly TOO pages, and includes not only the flowering plants 
and ferns but also the whole of the cellular Ci-vptogams, with a 



375 



are 



total of 1952 species, of whicli 185, or rather under a tenth, 
estimated as endemic. The flowering plants are naturally the 
best known, and of these 133 out of 995 are not yet known from 
elsewhere. Not one of 33 known ferns is peculiar to the islands, 
and only one out of 69 Bryophyta. In each case the distribution 
outside the Bahamas is briefly indicated. Cultivated species have 
been excluded except such as appear to have become spontaneous. 



orm 



total land area 



square males, the total length being about 600 miles. The sur- 
face is mostly low, hilly and rocky, the hill ranges usually run- 
ning lengthwise of the islands, and the highest hardly exceeding 
200 ft. Mangrove swamps are local along the coastal lines, 
and there are no fresh water streams, but fresh water marsh ep 
exist on some of the larger islands. There are extensive forests 
of the Caribbean Pine {Finus carihaca), on a few of tliejarger 
islands, also some hardwood forests (coppices), like the "ham- 
mocks " of southern Florida, and these are made up of a consider- 
able variety of tall tree species, with a number of shrubs and 
low trees on the " Scrub-lands." The relationships of the native 
flora are with those of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola, and it is 
assumed that the species which are in common have been trans- 
ported from one or another of the land masses by natural agencies 
of winds, migratory birds or oceanic currents. The work eon- 
tains a brief introduction, an account of the Explorations and 
Collections of the Bahaiuas^beginning with Thomas Walker, 
Chief Justice for the Bahama Plantation, who sent plants from 



M 



eia^hteenth centui-v 



papers 



to* the Flora of the Bahamas, and a comprehensive Index. ^ A 
<^reat amount of attention has been paid to the Bahamas during 
?ecent years, and the work forms an important contribution to 
the history of the islands. »• ^- *• 

The Hardwoods of Australia and their Economics.*— The 

terms " hardwoods " and " softwoods " as applied to timbers m 
general are out of date and misleading, for they are_ not given 
bv reason of the species included in each group possessing certain 
d^-rees of hardness, but are used to distinguish dicotyledonous 
and coniferous trees, and it would be advantageous if these terms 
could be so changed that the woods now known as soltwooiLs 
should in i^iture be called - conifers " and those known as 
^^h^rdwoUs - altered to '^ dicotyledons." The absurdi y o he 



very 



dron, are included amongst hardwoods, whilst CaU rtri^ 

coloHred ard 194 Wack-and,wute plates^ By R^^^^^^^ p'^^lished 

Boards 25s., paper 2-2s. 6d. net. 



376 



clinisy and other hard coniferous woods are graded with soft- 
woods. In the preparation of the work under review, Mr. Baker 
has been faced with this difficulty, and he has commenced break- 
ing' down the distinction hy including Callitris amongst 



Australian hardwoods. The work is in every way excellent, and 
it forms a valuable aid to the identification of the more important 
Australian timbers. It is divided into three parts. Part i. 
deals with tlie physical properties of timbers, and a good deal of 
attention is devoted to the colour of newly-worked wood as a 
means of identification, Mr. Baker has made a special study of 
this character, and upwards of 250 species are graded under the 
colours dark red, red, pink, grey, chocolate, yellow, pale^ and 
white, whilst there are numerous coloured photographs of the 
wood of the more important species. In this section he also gives 
an account of the anatomy of wood. An interesting table is that 
devoted to the comparative combustibility of timbers. Of IIT 
kinds enumerated the best fire resisters are Eucalyptus Fletcheri 
and Syncarpia laurifolia. Compared with British Oak the 
resistance is nearly eight and five times respectively. Part ii- 
is devoted to descriptions of woods, the genera being arranged in 
botanical sequence in their respective families. The notices of 
the important woods commence with a general description of the 
timber and its uses, followed by particulars of its hardness, grade 
and weight. Then come the results of strength tests, followed 
by the anatomical features, and concluded with a systematic 
description of the tree and its geographical mnge. These 
descriptions, with the necessary plates and micro-photographs, 
occupy some 354 pages ended with lists of the various trees in 
their different degrees of hardness under the headings extremely 
hard, verj^ hard, hard, and moderate. The species of the difficult 
genus Eucalyptus have been grouped under the headings Blood- 
woods, Mahoganies, Boxes, Tallowwoods, Stringybarks, Woolly- 
butts, Gums, Peppermints. Ashes, and Ironbarks. The different 
gi'oups are distinguishable by the bark, and coloured photographs 
are given of the bark of each group. The third port is devoted 
to technical articles upon such subjects as nomenclature, season- 
ing, wood preservation and uses. The uses of Australian timbers 
are demonstrated hj numerous photographs of constructive work, 
furniture, panelling, carving, etc. ^r. Baker is anxious that 
something should be done to limit the use of common names for 
timber, and suggests that greater use should be made of scientific 
names, particularly specific names in large genera. He informs 



us that this is already an accomplished fact in the essential oil 
industry of Australia and that it works well. The whole work 
is conclxided with a very good index. w. D. 



The NatureStudy of Plants*.— This book is divided into 

two parts, of which the first forms a general introduction 
to the study of plant-life and the second deals in detail with 
the life-history of the Herb Robert {Geranium Rohertianum)^ 

* The NaUire.Study of Plants. By T. A. Dymes, F.L.S. London : Societ^ 

for Promoting Christian Kno^vledge, 1920; pp. 173; 53 illnstrations; 
price bB. I i. y 



377 



The underlying idea througiiout the book is comparison of the 
phenomena of plant-life with those of human-life. While the 
text is certainly written in a way to stimulate the curiosity of the 
reader and induce him to find out things for himself, the stand- 
point taken is frankly teleological and vitalistie, and such phrases 
as " the Scheme of Creation " frequently recur. The work should 
be useful to teachers of Nature Study and suggestive to " Hobby- 
Botanists," for whom it is primarily written. It is a pity that 
some of the figures are not more worthy of the text. 



^y. B. T. 



Trees for the Falkland Islands. — Owing to representations 
made from time to time to the Colonial Office respecting the 
desirability of experimenting with the cultivation of forest and 
other trees in the Falkland Islands, and notably from the 
interest taken in the matter by Major F. R. St. Johnston, laiely 
Colonial Secretary in the Islands, the advice of the Director of the 
Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew, was sought on the subject in 1919. 
Under his direction an account of the various efforts made in the 
past to establish forest trees in the Islands was compiled, and 



this 



too-ether with the recommendations made to the Colonial 
"^ - 209-217. In the ex- 



Office, was published in K.B., 1919, pp. 

perimental scheme presented, a recommendation was made that 



a man skilled in forestry 



of carrying out ex- 



periments and instructing the islanders, should be sent out to 
control any attempt that might be made to establish plantations, 
and that a fairly wide selection of species should be tried. 



^^^^ ,_ ^„ J ^ .. _ ^ ideiice 

St. Johnston, the newly appointed 



M 



M 



took place between Jilajor 
Governor of the Falkland Islands, Mr. J 
the Colonial Office, and the Royal Botanic Gardens. Further, 
advantage was taken of the presence of the Governor m London 
to discuss the matter in all its bearings. These deliberations 
resulted in the appointment of Mr. James Eeid, a student 
Forester from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edmburgh, who had 
previously had several years experience in forests m Scotland, 
to the post of Forest Officer in the Falkland Inlands {K.B, 
1920, p 286). He sailed on November 24tli and took out with 
him a consignment of young trees procured from Messrs. Dick- 
sons of Chester, with various seeds and cuttings from Kew. 

As the experiment is likely to prove^ of more than .ordmaiy 
interest permission has been obtained from the Colonial Office 
to publish the list of plants and cuttings sent out. 

Plants supplied by Messrs. Dicksons: 



AlnuB ghdinosa, li-2 it. ... 

., incana, seedlings . . . 

Fraxintis excelsior, 2-year 

seedlings .. ^ -■■ ■•■ 

Pyrus Aucitparia, 1-2 ft. ... 

PinuJf Laricio, 6-12 in. 

Tar. nigricans. 6-12 m. 
Ptnns sylvestri^, 6-9 in. 



2.000 
1,000 

1,000 
500 

1,000 
500 



Ficea siichensk, 6-9 in, 

., eacceha, 6-9 in. 
Acer pseudoplatantis.l'jear 

aeedlinsjs ... 
Betula alha. 2-year seedlings 
Uhniis campestris, l|-2 ft. 

monfana. l^-^ ^*' 



000 PopuXius serotina, lf-2 ft. .. 



,000 
,000 

.000 
,000 
.000 
,000 
.000 



378 



Seeds of Scots Pine, Corsican Pine, Sitka Spruce, and Com- 
mon Spruce to be sent at a later date. 



Cuttings from Kew : 

Populus irichocarpa. 

Eugenii. 
serotina. 
, marylandica, 

canetcens. 
, generoBa, 
, nigra. 
Salix frayilis. 

Seeds from Kew: — 



Salix alba. 



99 
9* 

99 

99 



daphnoides. 

purpurea. 

rubra, 

triandra, 

caerulea. 
Smithiana, 



Acer Pseudoplatanus 
Almis glutinosa, 

„ iiicaria, 

„ firma. 

Betula alba. 

„ papyrifera, 
Carpinus Betulufi. 



Ootoneasier bacillaris, 
Fraxinus excelsior.. 
Laburnum alpinum. 
,. vulgare. 

Quercus Cerriis. 

„ pedunculata. 



The following seeds were sent from Kew in May, 1919, in 
response to the request of Major St. Johnston, when he was 
Colonial Secretary : — 



Alnus cordijolia, 

„ firma. 

,. incana. 
Berberis AquifGlium. 

„ Darwinii. 
Beiula lutea, 

Maximowiczii. 
occidentalit. 



99 



99 



„ papyrifera. 

Oaragana arbore8cen$, 

Gomus alba. 



j> 



j» 



jj 



Mas, 
officinalis. 



CytisuM scoparius. 

— Tar. Andreanus. 
Fraxinus aregona. 

„ pennsylvanica ? 

Genista virgata. 
Pyrus AvrCuparia. 

— van nioravica. 
Pyrus pinnatifida. 

„ prunifolia. 
„ rotundifolia. 
Rosa Mericea. 



1) 



Soulieana. 



sajiguinea, 
Cupressus Lo.wsoniana, 



SpartiuTyi junceuni. 
Thuya plicata. 



On learning from the Kew Bulletin article that an organised 
attempt was to he made to establish plantations of trees in the 
Islands, Mr. B. C. Aston, Secretary of the IS'ew Zealand Insti- 
tute, suggested that the present might be a favourable oppor- 
tunity to xmdertake an experiment with New Zealand Flax 
{Pliorrniam tenax), in the Palklands. In response to a request 
from Kew, Mr. J. A. A. Wallace, of Lochrj^an, Stranraer, very 
kindly sent twelve seedling plants four years old, and twelve 
seedling plants two years old, and a packet of seed, which have 

been sent out with the trees and cuttings in charge of the Forest 

Officer. 

_ Care was taken that all tlie plants and cuttinj^s were free from 



'©CL 



W. D. 



INDEX. 



A. 



Abraham^s Oak (with plate), 257. 



t 



age of, 258. 



Acacia spectabilis, 373. 
Acanthophyllum Burkilli, Drum- 

mond et Vunn^ 245. 
Acer Garrefttii, Craih, 301. 
Acmadenia teretifolia, Fhillips, 23. 

— var. glabrata, Phillips^ 23. 
Aeschynanthus Monetaria, Dunn, 

135. 

Agapetes marginata, Dii^m, 133. 



tropical, in 



nutans^ Dunn, 134. 
Agricultural College^ 

West Indies, 81. 
Allium sikkimense, 373. 
Aloe specimens from Pretoria, 138. 
Aloes, South African, 138. 

cultivated at Kew, 138. 
Akine or Stellaria, 308. 
Amoora spectabilis and A. Walli- 

chii, 238. 
AmphichiX)my in heather, 221. 
Andrachne emicans, Dunnj 210. 
Angraecum Bolusii, Bolfe, 131. 
Hislopii, Eolfe, 130. 

Appointments : — 

Auchinleck, G. G., 136. 
Besant, J., 286. 
Clegg, A. S., 367. 
Craib, Prof. W. G., 112. 
Downes, E., 368. 
Fothergill, G. H., 368. 
Hall, F. *W., 136. 
Harcourt, F. G., 219. 
Harris, W., 218. 
Hughes, E. A., 368. 
Jack, H. W., 219. 
Kerr, Dr. A. F. G., 367. ' 
McCall, J. S. J., 286. 
McCallan, E. A., 368. ■ 
McDonald, Capt. J., 219. 
Marshall, Capt. X., 136. 
Mason, T. G., 218. 
Matthews, C, 286. 
Milsum, J. N,, 219. 
Xowell. W., 218. 
Philpott, G. T., 136. 
. F.eid, J., 286. 

Rogers. F. M., 286. 

Ruck, E. A., 368. 

Small. W., 367. 

Vardy, M., 71. 

Wickham, :Major E. T., 219. 

Wortley, E. J., 285. 
Araucaria imbricata at Bicton, 272. 
Arceuthobium Oxycedri 

disti'ibution, 264. _ ^ - 

Argentina, botanical exploration in, 

57, 223. 

Ari?aema Fargesii, 373. 



and its 



Arundinaria Murielae, Gamhle^ 
344. 

Arundinella intricata, HugheSj 112. 

Aspidopterys Hutchinsonii, Raines, 
66. 

Asteropyrum, Drumviond ei Hut- 
chinson, gen. no\'. (with fig.), 155. 

— Cavaleriei, Drammond et HuU 
chinsoiXj 156. 

^ peltatum, Drummond et Hut- 
chinson (with fig.), 155. 

Asystasia amoena, Turrill, 26. 

Atrapliaxis Billanlieri, 255. 

Anchinleck^ G. G., 130. 

Australia, Hardwoods of, 375. 



B. 

Bahama Flora, 374. 
Baikiaea insignis, 255. 

Baker, J. G., 319. 
Balsams of Chitral and the Kachi 
Hills, notes on (with figs.), 345. 
Bamboos and boring beetles, 282. 
Beccari, O., 369. 
Begonia aborensis, Dxinft, 109, 

BurkiUi, Dunn, 110. 

iridescens, Duiuiy 110. 



scintillans, Dunn, 111. 
Berberis atrocarpa, 373. 

— OsmastoTiii, Dunn, 335. 
Berteroa incana, var. stricta, 

Turrill, 181. 
Bt'saiit, J. W., 286. 
Bicton^ arboretum and pinetum at, 

268. 
Biochemistry, practical plant, 288. 
Bobartia Keetii, Phillips, 335. 
Bocconia, revision of, 275. 

— arborea (with fig.), 277. 

— glaucifolia, Hutchinson, 28L 
gracilis, Hutchinson, 281. 
Pearcei, Hutchinson, 278. 
pubibracteata, Hutchinson,^ 279. 

Bolusia rhodesiana, Corbishley, 

329. 
Books : 

Bahama Flora, 374. 
Botanical Magazine, 

373. 

Compendium Florae Germaniae, 

72. 

Economic woods of 



2 



oo 



287 



the 



t^ 



States, 75. 
Flora arabica, 74. 



Capensis, 372. 
of Jamaica, 224. 
^ Madras, 76. 

Sweden, 74. 

Tropical Africa, 373. 

Uitenhage and Port Eliza- 
beth, 139. 



380 



Books — conf. 






Flowering Plants of Soutli 

Africa, 374. 
Forests, Woods and Trees, 142. 
French Forests and Forestry, 143. 
Hardwoods of Australia, 375. 
Journal of Pomology, 77. 
Joseph Dalton Hooker, 287. 
Kew Library Catalogue, 256, 
Mernoirs of the Botanical Survey 

of South Africa, 139. 
Nature-Study of Plants, 376. 
New Zealand 



plants 
story, 254. 

Practical Plant 

288. 



and their 



Biochemistry, 



Science and Fruit Growing, 77. 

Wheat in East Africa, 78. 
Botanical exploration in Chile and 

Argentina, 57, 223. 
— ^Magazine, 255, 287, 373. 
Brassaiopsis magnifica, Bxinn, 132. 
Brazil wood, 79. 
Braziletto, 79. 

Brownleea Fanniniae, Bolfe, 131. 
Buddleia Candida, Dunn, 134. 
Buettneria.siamensis, Craih, 300. 
Bulbophyllum macrobulbum, 287. 



C 



^ ' 



of, 



Campanula sulphurea, 255. 
Camphor seed, germination 
45. 

Caragana Hoplites, Dunn, 338. 
Cardamine pratensis ^ uniflora in 
Britain, 223. 

Carex riparia, var. gracilis in 
Britain, 141. 

Carnations, a wilt of (with fifr.), 
321. 

Centratherum Rangacharii, Garnhle, 
338. 

Chaetochloa or Setaria? 124. 

Chile, botanical exploration in 57, 
223. ' ' 

Chitral, notes on the Balsams of 
(with figs.), 345. 

C^adrastis Wilsonii, 119. 
Clegg, A. S., 367. 

Clematopsis (with figs.), 13. 
— - argentea, Rutchinson, 19. 

chrysocarpa, Hutchinson, 18. 

katangensis, Hutchinson, 19. 

Kirkii, Hutchinson, 17. 

oligophylla, Hutchinson 
%), 22.' 



(with 



Oliveri, Hutchinson, 20 
scabiosifolia, Hutchinson, 20 

speciosa, Hutchinson (with fig ) 
18. ^'^' 

Stanleyi, Hutchinson (with fig.), 
Stuhlmannii, Hutchinson, 20. 



Clematopsis Teuczii, Hutchinson^ 
17. 

— trifida, Hutchinson (with fig.)> 

20. 

villosa, Hutchinson, 22. 
Coconut, dwarf, 255. 
Coelogyne integerrima, 373. 
CofEea crassifolia, Gamble, 248. 
Columbia Winitii, Craih, 301. 
Compendium Florae Germaniae, 72. 
Cornus Kousa, 287. 
Cosmos, a wilt of, 321. 
Cotoneaster serotina, 373 
Cotton, West Indian leaf mildew 

of, 235. 
Cotyledon oppositifolia, 255. 
Craib, Prof. W. G., 112. 

Craterispermum caudatum, Hut- 
chinson, 23. 



Daphne tangutica, 373. 

De CandoUe, A., 219. 

Decades Kewenses, 66, 108, 132^ 

205,^ 245, 335. 
Delphinium, a wilt of (with figs.),. 

321. 

Diseases of plants : 



Bud rot of oil palm, 307. 

Carnations, a wilt of (with figs.)^ 
321. 

Cosmos, a wilt of, 321. 
Cotton, West Indian leaf mildew 
of, 235. 

Delphinium, a wilt of (with 
figs.), 321. 

Ganoderma sp. on Oil palm (with 
plate), 306. 

Nigel] a, a wilt of (with figs.), 
321. 

Oil palm, diseases of (with 
^ plate), 306. 

Sclerotium Rolfsii on Carnations. 
321. 

Diagnoses Africanae, 25, 329. 
Diospyros Collinsae, Craih, 302. 

— impressa, Dunn et B. Williams^ 

342. 

— similis, Craih, 303. 



-- vindis, Craih, 303 
Dioticarpus, Dunn, gen. nov., 337. 
— Barryi, Dunn, 337. 

Downes, E., 368. 



E. 

East Africa, wheat in, 78. 
Economic woods of the 

States, 75. 
Elaeis guineensis, 199, 306. 
Elatostema arcuana, Dunn 
— imbricans, Dunn, 209. 
Maclntyrei, Dunn, 210. 



United 



209. 



381 



Enemiori; revision of, 159, 

— biternatuni (with fig-)? 160. 

— Hallii, Drummond et Hutchin- 

son, 161. 
occidentale, Drummond at Rut- 

chinsoTij 160. 
— var. coloratum, Drummond 

et Hutchinson, 160. 

— Raddeanum (with fig.)> 160. 

— stipitatuni, Drummond et Hut- 

chinson, 100. 
Erica Haroldiana, 287. 

— sessiliflora^ 374 

Erysimum Melicentae, Dunn, 336. 
Eugenia aborensis, Dunn, 109. 
Eulophia Boltonii, Harv, et Bolfe, 
12-8 

— Huttonii, Bolfe, 128. 



Euonymus alatus^ 255. 

r. 

V 

Falkland Islands, trees for, 377. 
Farrer, R., 370. 
Flora arabica, 74. 

— Capensis^ 372. 

— of Bahamas, 374. 
Jamaica, 224. 

Macedonia, contributions to, 

177. 
Madras, 75. 
— notes on, 49. 
Siam, contributions to, 300. 

Sweden, 74. 

Tropical Africa, 373. 

— — Uitenhage and Port Eliza- 

beth, 139. 
Flowering Plants of South Africa, 

374. 
Forests and Forestry, French, 143. 

— , Woods and Trees, 142. 
Fothergill, G. H., 368. 
Fritillaria pontica, 374. 
Fruit-growing and Science, 77. 
Fungi exotici, 289. 

G. 

Gamble, J. S., flowering of 

PhyUostachys aurea, 217. 
* , Indian species of Mimosa 

(with figs.), 1. 
. , not-es on Flora of Madras, 

49. 
G